The Roles Of Primary Cilia In Cardiovascular Diseases, 2018 Chapman University
The Roles Of Primary Cilia In Cardiovascular Diseases, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Maha Jamal, Qamar Alshammari, Surya M. Nauli
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles found in most mammalian cell types. Cilia act as sensory organelles that transmit extracellular clues into intracellular signals for molecular and cellular responses. Biochemical and molecular defects in primary cilia are associated with a wide range of diseases, termed ciliopathies, with phenotypes ranging from polycystic kidney disease, liver disorders, mental retardation, and obesity to cardiovascular diseases. Primary cilia in vascular endothelia protrude into the lumen of blood vessels and function as molecular switches for calcium (Ca2+) and nitric oxide (NO) signaling. As mechanosensory organelles, endothelial cilia are involved in blood flow sensing. Dysfunction in endothelial ...
Modified Cantilever Arrays Improve Sensitivity And Reproducibility Of Nanomechanical Sensing In Living Cells, 2018 University College London
Modified Cantilever Arrays Improve Sensitivity And Reproducibility Of Nanomechanical Sensing In Living Cells, Samadhan B. Patil, Rajai M. Al-Jehani, Hashem Etayash, Valerian Turbe, Keren Jiang, Joe Bailey, Walid Al-Akkad, Rania Soudy, Kamaljit Kaur, Rachel A. Mckendry, Thomas Thundat, Joseph W. Ndieyira
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Mechanical signaling involved in molecular interactions lies at the heart of materials science and biological systems, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here we use nanomechanical sensors and intact human cells to provide unique insights into the signaling pathways of connectivity networks, which deliver the ability to probe cells to produce biologically relevant, quantifiable and reproducible signals. We quantify the mechanical signals from malignant cancer cells, with 10 cells per ml in 1000-fold excess of non-neoplastic human epithelial cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that a direct link between cells and molecules creates a continuous connectivity which acts like a percolating ...
Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, 2018 The University of Western Ontario
Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The objective of this study is to determine the potential differential effects of THC in the DH or VH sub-regions, as well as the upstream effects on PFC neuronal activity and oscillations. Rodents used for electrophysiology were infused with THC or vehicle in the DH or VH regions, combined with PFC recordings. Additionally, a battery of behavioural paradigms was performed. Deficits in short-term memory when THC was infused into both regions was observed, however working memory was impaired with VH infusions only. This could be due to THC-induced dysregulation in the PFC, as beta oscillations were significantly decreased selectively in ...
“Do We Know Jack” About Jak? A Closer Look At Jak/Stat Signaling Pathway, 2018 Chapman University
“Do We Know Jack” About Jak? A Closer Look At Jak/Stat Signaling Pathway, Emira Bousoik, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) family of proteins have been identified as crucial proteins in signal transduction initiated by a wide range of membrane receptors. Among the proteins in this family JAK2 has been associated with important downstream proteins, including signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), which in turn regulate the expression of a variety of proteins involved in induction or prevention of apoptosis. Therefore, the JAK/STAT signaling axis plays a major role in the proliferation and survival of different cancer cells, and may even be involved in resistance mechanisms against molecularly targeted drugs. Despite extensive research focused on ...
Reconstitution Of Gabaergic Postsynapses In Host Cells, 2018 University of Connecticut
Reconstitution Of Gabaergic Postsynapses In Host Cells, Karthik Kanamalla
Honors Scholar Theses
Type A GABA receptors (GABAARs) can be found embedded in postsynaptic membranes or in a variety of extrasynaptic locations. Receptors with synaptic function are recruited to the postsynapse by submembranous scaffolds composed of gephyrin and collybistin (CB). This study was aimed at assessing whether the ability to interact with the scaffold differentiates synaptic from non-synaptic receptors. Using HEK293 cells as an expression system, and indirect immunofluorescence (IF), co-localization of extrasynaptic receptors α1β3δ and α4β3δ with the CB-gephyrin scaffold was assessed and compared with that of the synaptic receptor α1β3γ2. Results indicated that both extrasynaptic receptors were able to colocalize with ...
Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter Nbce2 Gene Variants Increase Sodium And Bicarbonate Transport In Human Renal Proximal Tubule Cells., 2018 George Washington University
Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter Nbce2 Gene Variants Increase Sodium And Bicarbonate Transport In Human Renal Proximal Tubule Cells., John J Gildea, Peng Xu, Brandon A Kemp, Julia M Carlson, Hanh T Tran, Dora Bigler Wang, Christophe J Langouët-Astrié, Helen E Mcgrath, Robert M Carey, Pedro A Jose, Robin A Felder
Medicine Faculty Publications
RATIONALE: Salt sensitivity of blood pressure affects >30% of the hypertensive and >15% of the normotensive population. Variants of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 gene, SLC4A5, are associated with increased blood pressure in several ethnic groups. SLC4A5 variants are also highly associated with salt sensitivity, independent of hypertension. However, little is known about how NBCe2 contributes to salt sensitivity, although NBCe2 regulates renal tubular sodium bicarbonate transport. We hypothesized that SLC4A5 rs10177833 and rs7571842 increase NBCe2 expression and human renal proximal tubule cell (hRPTC) sodium transport and may be a cause of salt sensitivity of blood pressure.
OBJECTIVE: To ...
A Pitx2-Irx1 Regulatory Network Controls Dental Epithelial Stem Cell Differentiation During Tooth Development, Wenjie Yu
Theses and Dissertations
Tooth development is precisely controlled by epithelium-mesenchyme interactions, coordinated signaling pathways and associated transcription factors. Although the processes involved in tooth development are well established, details of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control tooth development are not fully understood. One of the primary unknown mechanisms is the regulation of dental epithelial stem cells (DESCs), including DESC specification, proliferation and differentiation. In this dissertation, I have addressed this gap in knowledge by studying the role of Pituitary homeobox 2 (Pitx2) and Iroquois 1 (Irx1) in teeth at the cellular and molecular level in mice. PITX2 contains mutations of which are ...
Validation Of Minimally-Invasive Sample Collection Methods For Measurement Of Telomere Length, 2017 University of Denver
Validation Of Minimally-Invasive Sample Collection Methods For Measurement Of Telomere Length, Stephanie A. Stout, Jue Lin, Natalie Hernandez, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Judith E. Carroll, Laura M. Glynn
Psychology Faculty Articles and Research
Objective: The discovery of telomere length (TL) as a biomarker of cellular aging and correlate of age-related disease has generated a new field of research in the biology of healthy aging. Although the most common method of sample collection for TL is venous blood draw, less-invasive DNA collection methods are becoming more widely used. However, how TL relates across tissues derived from these sample collection methods is poorly understood. The current study is the first to characterize the associations in TL across three sample collection methods: venous whole blood, finger prick dried blood spot and saliva.
Methods: TL was measured ...
Gynecological Tissue Homeostasis And Tumorigenesis Studies Using Mouse Models, 2017 University of Iowa
Gynecological Tissue Homeostasis And Tumorigenesis Studies Using Mouse Models, Amy Guimaraes-Young
Theses and Dissertations
Gynecological cancers present a tremendous disease burden worldwide. Endometrial cancer, the most common gynecological malignancy, is predominantly a disease of deranged glandular function. The mechanisms by which known environmental risk factors influence the mutational profile of endometrial cancer are poorly understood. Non-HPV vulvar cancer, on the other hand, is a very rare gynecological malignancy of vulvar squamous cells with little known about its pathogenesis. Surgical resection of vulvar cancer is associated with high post-surgical morbidity. Pivotal to improving treatment and outcomes for patients with gynecological cancers is an understanding of the molecular drivers unique to each tumor type.
To inform ...
3d Maldi Mass Spectrometry Imaging Of A Single Cell: Spatial Mapping Of Lipids In The Embryonic Development Of Zebrafish, Maria Emilia Dueñas, Jeffrey J. Essner, Young Jin Lee
Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts
The zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) has been widely used as a model vertebrate system to study lipid metabolism, the roles of lipids in diseases, and lipid dynamics in embryonic development. Here, we applied high-spatial resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) to map and visualize the three-dimensional spatial distribution of phospholipid classes, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE), and phosphatidylinositol (PI), in newly fertilized individual zebrafish embryos. This is the first time MALDI-MSI has been applied for three dimensional chemical imaging of a single cell. PC molecular species are present inside the yolk in addition to the blastodisc, while PE ...
Heads And Tails, 2017 The California Maritime Academy
Heads And Tails, Julie Simons
Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research
No abstract provided.
Microstructure Of Attachment Mechanisms Of Newly Hatched Larvae Of Four Cyprinid Species With Comments On Terminology, 2017 College of Science, Virginia Tech
Microstructure Of Attachment Mechanisms Of Newly Hatched Larvae Of Four Cyprinid Species With Comments On Terminology, George E. Maurakis, Eugene G. Maurakis
Virginia Journal of Science
An adhesive organ is a prominent, protruding mucus secreting gland that is used by newly hatched tadpoles and larvae of some fishes to attach to aquatic vegetation. The objective of this research is to test the hypothesis that newly hatched cyprinid larvae of Hybognathus hankinsoni, Notemigonus crysoleucas, Cyprinus carpio and Gila atraria contain cephalic adhesive organs. Newly hatched larvae of Semotilus atromaculatus, which do not attach to submerged aquatic vegetation, were used as the control. SEM examination of newly hatched larvae indicate there were no adhesive organs on the control species (S. atromaculatus) or test species (H. hankinsoni, N. crysoleucas ...
Impact Of The C-Mybe308g Mutation On Mouse Myelopoiesis And Dendritic Cell Development, 2017 Australian National University
Impact Of The C-Mybe308g Mutation On Mouse Myelopoiesis And Dendritic Cell Development, Peter Papathanasiou, Sawang Petvises, Ying-Ying Hey, Andrew C Perkins, Helen C O'Neill
Booreana mice carrying the c-Myb308G point mutation were analyzed to determine changes in early hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and among mature cells in the periphery. This point mutation led to increased numbers of early hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), with a subsequent reduction in the development of B cells, erythroid cells, and neutrophils, and increased numbers of myeloid cells and granulocytes. Myelopoiesis was further investigated by way of particular subsets affected. A specific question addressed whether booreana mice contained increased numbers of dendritic-like cells (L-DC subset) recently identified in the spleen, since L-DCs arise in vitro by direct ...
Compartmentalized Camp Responses To Prostaglandin Ep2 Receptor Activation In Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells, 2017 University of Nevada, Reno
Compartmentalized Camp Responses To Prostaglandin Ep2 Receptor Activation In Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells, Shailesh R. Agarwal, Kathryn Miyashiro, Htun Latt, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Robert D. Harvey
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Background and Purpose
Previous studies indicate that prostaglandin EP2 receptors (EP2Rs) selectively couple to adenylyl cyclase type 2 (AC2) in non-lipid raft domains of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, where they regulate specific cAMP-dependent responses. The goal of the present study was to identify the cellular microdomains where EP2Rs stimulate cAMP production.
FRET-based cAMP biosensors were targeted to different subcellular locations of primary human ASM cells. The Epac2-camps biosensor, which expresses throughout the cell, was used to measure bulk cytoplasmic responses. Epac2-MyrPalm and Epac2-CAAX were used to measure responses associated with lipid raft and non-raft regions of the ...
Thoughts On Similarities Between Artists And Scientists And The Benefits Of Studying Visual Art In The Healthcare Field, 2017 Murray State University
Thoughts On Similarities Between Artists And Scientists And The Benefits Of Studying Visual Art In The Healthcare Field, Logan Weihe
Honors College Theses
This study assesses the many ways that artists and scientists have similar methods of abstract thinking, intuitive and experimental processes and societal impacts. The exploration of intersections between art and science led to research on how their combination may provide a more fulfilling educational experience for medical students. Furthermore, the use of visuals in healthcare, often created by medical illustrators, ties into the inspiration for my senior art exhibition, “Beloved Microcosm” demonstrating my synthesis of visual art and biological study.
Inquiry Into Perilipin-5a Expression In Triacylglycerol Rich Vs Normal Fed Mouse Tissue, 2017 Otterbein University
Inquiry Into Perilipin-5a Expression In Triacylglycerol Rich Vs Normal Fed Mouse Tissue, Kobi Agyepong
Honors Thesis Projects
The steep rise in both childhood and adult obesity over the past three decades has moved to the forefront of public consciousness in recent years. This development has generated a marked increase in general health awareness and lifestyle changes for a vast number of individuals, most notably in the form of increased physical activity and diet alterations. The latter point is especially salient in a biochemical context, because of the myriad factors that can result in “fat accumulation”. Chief among these factors is the Perilipin 5A gene, (known as PLIN5A) which encodes the protein Perilipin 5A of the Perilipin family ...
Calibrated Brightfield-Based Imaging For Measuring Intracellular Protein Concentration, 2017 Kent State University - Kent Campus
Calibrated Brightfield-Based Imaging For Measuring Intracellular Protein Concentration, Nathan Mudrak, Priyanka S. Rana, Michael A. Model
Undergraduate Research Symposium
Intracellular protein concentration is an essential cell characteristic which manifests itself through the refractive index. The latter can be measured from two or more mutually defocused brightfield images analyzed using the TIE (transport-of-intensity equation). In practice, however, TIE does not always achieve quantitatively accurate results on biological cells. Therefore, we have developed a calibration procedure that involves successive imaging of cells in solutions containing different amounts of added protein. This allows one to directly relate the output of TIE (T) to intracellular protein concentration C (g/l). The resultant relationship has a simple form: C ≈ 1.0(T/V), where ...
Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, 2017 Brigham Young University - Provo
Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, Caden Duffy, Alonzo Cook Ph.D.
Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference
Currently, the only permanent cure for Type 1 Diabetes is a pancreatic or islet transplant. With the shortage of donors, we are progressing research towards alternative therapies by differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells into derived pancreatic β-cells that can be transplanted and used as treatment for Type 1 Diabetes. We are investigating methods to increase the yield of fully derived, insulin producing pancreatic β-cells and are additionally researching the use of hydrophilized expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for use in cell containment devices. These devices could offer a future alternative for islet transplantation in human patients.
The Localization And Function Of Novel Tetrahymena Thermophila Cytoskeletal Genes Bbc29 And Bbc39, 2017 Washington University in St. Louis
The Localization And Function Of Novel Tetrahymena Thermophila Cytoskeletal Genes Bbc29 And Bbc39, Emily K. Moore, Nicole C. Zanolli
Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters
Ciliary function is known to play an important role in many human conditions, including chronic sinus and pulmonary diseases and problems with infertility. Cilia are cytoskeletal structures that protrude from the cell body to facilitate movement. Ciliary structure is conserved throughout eukaryotes, from unicellular to multicellular organisms, including humans. A clear understanding the proteins that compose cilia and how they interact with one another will increase our knowledge about important cytoskeletal elements. Because cilia are difficult to study in multicellular organisms, the unicellular eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila serves as a useful model for the study of cytoskeletal genes, due to their ...
Rapamycin Increases Length And Mechanosensory Function Of Primary Cilia In Renal Eptihelial And Vascular Endothelial Cells, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Kimberly F. Atkinson, Viviana P. Ferreira, Surya M. Nauli
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Primary cilia arebiophysically-sensitive organelles responsible for sensing fluid-flow and transducing this stimulus into intracellular responses. Previous studies have shown that the primary cilia mediate flow-induced calcium influx, and sensitivity of cilia function to flow is correlated to cilia length. Cells with abnormal cilia length or function can lead to a host of diseases that are collectively termed as ciliopathies. Rapamycin, a potent inhibitor of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), has been demonstrated to be a potential pharmacological agent against the aberrant mTOR signaling seen in ciliopathies such as polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Here we look ...