Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biosecurity Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

117 Full-Text Articles 194 Authors 13,597 Downloads 30 Institutions

All Articles in Biosecurity

Faceted Search

117 full-text articles. Page 1 of 3.

The Value Of Inspection Stations For Detecting Nonindigenous Species Lacking Agricultural Significance: The Mexican Treefrog, Smilisca Baudinii Complex (Duméril And Bibron 1841) (Hylidae), Interdicted In Florida, Usa, From A Shipment Of Peppers, Louis A. Somma 2019 Florida State Collection of Arthropods

The Value Of Inspection Stations For Detecting Nonindigenous Species Lacking Agricultural Significance: The Mexican Treefrog, Smilisca Baudinii Complex (Duméril And Bibron 1841) (Hylidae), Interdicted In Florida, Usa, From A Shipment Of Peppers, Louis A. Somma

Papers in Herpetology

A Mexican Treefrog, Smilisca baudinii, a nonindigenous species, was interdicted for the first time from an imported shipment of peppers. The value of agriculture inspection stations used to make these interdictions is discussed. This is a single cargo interception (Stage 1: Colautti and MacIsaac 2004) and the first record for S. baudinii intercepted in Florida. Currently no evidence suggests that S. baudinii has been successfully introduced into and established in Florida, although this species could survive climatic conditions in the southern part of the state and at the scheduled destination of this shipment.

Cargo transport of alien species is a ...


Addressing The Challenges Facing Wheat Production: Nebraska And International Breeding Efforts, Sarah Blecha 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Addressing The Challenges Facing Wheat Production: Nebraska And International Breeding Efforts, Sarah Blecha

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

Bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L., provides 20 percent of the global daily calorie intake. It is the third most important food crop, after rice and corn. Biotic challenges significantly reduce wheat yield; chemical control can be a solution but can be cost prohibitive for subsistence farmers. For many farmers, genetic resistance to biotic stresses can be the most cost effective solution.

The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) and the Nebraska Small Grains Breeding Program have been addressing these wheat production challenges. ICARDA is part of an international research consortium to increase wheat yield and tolerance ...


Reporting Charcoal Rot In Chia And Developing A Susceptibility Assay, Reis M. Misaka, Hagop S. Atamian Dr., Julien Besnard Dr. 2019 Chapman University

Reporting Charcoal Rot In Chia And Developing A Susceptibility Assay, Reis M. Misaka, Hagop S. Atamian Dr., Julien Besnard Dr.

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Chia (Salvia Hispanica) cross breeds were planted in the summer of 2018 with the intent of selective breeding for agricultural benefit. Preexisting pathogens in the soil caused 40-50% fatality of adult plants. This was surprising due to the precursory knowledge that chia has antibiotic and antifungal oils (Elshafie et. al. 2018); chia was only recently documented to be susceptible to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum). The primary pathogen responsible was identified as Macrophomina phaseolina (aka charcoal rot); a widespread soilborne pathogen which has multiple commercial hosts (Su et. al. 2001).

M. phaesolina on wheat seed vector where used as inoculums (Brandari ...


Evaluating Opinions Of Kentucky’S Agri-Science Educators On Climate Change, Emily Cook 2019 Murray State University

Evaluating Opinions Of Kentucky’S Agri-Science Educators On Climate Change, Emily Cook

Scholars Week

Climate Change is the significant long term changes in the weather and temperatures on a large scale and is seen globally. Scientists have been studying the effects of Climate Change on the planet for decades; foreseeing problems of the future. Global Warming has been escalating over the past hundred years with the amount of Carbon Dioxide gases rising into to atmosphere at an alarming rate. Agri-Science Educators across Kentucky are teaching the topics of Climate Change and Global Warming and this research intends to find the truth and variances in their knowledge. Twenty educators from across the state of Kentucky ...


Effectiveness Of Windrow Composting Methodology In Killing A Thermo-Tolerant Species Of Salmonella During Mortality Composting, Spencer Gabriel Myers 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Effectiveness Of Windrow Composting Methodology In Killing A Thermo-Tolerant Species Of Salmonella During Mortality Composting, Spencer Gabriel Myers

Master's Theses and Project Reports

In a large agricultural operation, such as the one at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, disposal of deceased animals is an immense issue. The cost of transporting and rendering every dead animal is inhibitory to the general function of the agricultural operations and their thin budget. Therefore, we propose that composting mortalities could be an economical alternative. Composting is a recognized method for taking animal waste products along with carbon waste and turning it into a pathogen-free, nutrient-rich topsoil. Carcass composting is in fact performed in other countries and states to varying degrees of success. However, the California EPA limits ...


Control Efforts And Serologic Survey Of Pseudorabies And Brucellosis In Wild Pigs Of Tennessee, Lisa I. Muller, Neelam C. Poudyal, Roger Applegate, Chuck Yoest 2019 University of Tennessee

Control Efforts And Serologic Survey Of Pseudorabies And Brucellosis In Wild Pigs Of Tennessee, Lisa I. Muller, Neelam C. Poudyal, Roger Applegate, Chuck Yoest

Human–Wildlife Interactions

European wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are an introduced invasive species that now constitute a major threat to agriculture and the natural ecology of the environments they now inhabit. Wild pigs also carry many diseases known to infect wildlife, humans, and livestock. Two of these diseases, pseudorabies (PRV) and brucellosis, constitute major diseases in the United States. Better data are needed regarding the prevalence of these diseases in wild pigs to understand and manage the potential risks to wildlife, humans, and livestock. From July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2017, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency personnel trapped and euthanized 4,727 wild ...


Micronutrient Availability In Alternative Foods During Agricultural Catastrophes, David C. Denkenberger, Joshua M. Pearce 2018 Alliance to Feed the Earth in Disasters

Micronutrient Availability In Alternative Foods During Agricultural Catastrophes, David C. Denkenberger, Joshua M. Pearce

Department of Materials Science and Engineering Publications

Several catastrophes could block the sun, including asteroid/comet impact, super volcanic eruption, and nuclear war with the burning of cities (nuclear winter). Previous work has analyzed alternate food supplies (e.g., mushrooms growing on dead trees, bacteria growing on natural gas). This was shown to be technically capable of feeding everyone with macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates, and lipids) and minerals, although economics and politics remain uncertain. The present work analyzes vitamin availability in such alternative food scenarios. The vitamin content of various alternate foods is compared to the US recommended daily allowance (RDA) as well as the average requirement defined ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Effect Of Increasing Levels Of Monosilicic Acid On Arsenic And Phosphorus Sorption In Soil, Flávia Bastos Agostinho 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Effect Of Increasing Levels Of Monosilicic Acid On Arsenic And Phosphorus Sorption In Soil, Flávia Bastos Agostinho

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa) grains has increased human’s daily intake. Studies have shown that arsenite is taken up through known silicon (Si) transporters in rice. Moreover, the availability of As in soil is affected by chemically similar ligands that have high affinity to oxides surfaces, such as Si and phosphorus (P). Studies were conducted to: (I) investigate the role of elevated levels of Si on the concentration of different As fractions in soil and on As uptake by rice; (II) evaluate the effect of increasing monosilicic acidconcentrations on As sorption and kinetics in soil; and (III ...


Sequence Analysis Of The Potato Aphid Macrosiphum Euphorbiae Transcriptome Identified Two New Viruses, Marcella A. Texeira, Noa Sela, Hagop S. Atamian, Ergude Bao, Rita Chaudhury, Jacob MacWilliams, Jiangman He, Sophie Mantelin, Thomas Girke, Isgouhi Kaloshian 2018 University of California, Riverside

Sequence Analysis Of The Potato Aphid Macrosiphum Euphorbiae Transcriptome Identified Two New Viruses, Marcella A. Texeira, Noa Sela, Hagop S. Atamian, Ergude Bao, Rita Chaudhury, Jacob Macwilliams, Jiangman He, Sophie Mantelin, Thomas Girke, Isgouhi Kaloshian

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, is an important agricultural pest that causes economic losses to potato and tomato production. To establish the transcriptome for this aphid, RNA-Seq libraries constructed from aphids maintained on tomato plants were used in Illumina sequencing generating 52.6 million 75±105 bp paired-end reads. The reads were assembled using Velvet/Oases software with SEED preprocessing resulting in 22,137 contigs with an N50 value of 2,003bp. After removal of contigs from tomato host origin, 20,254 contigs were annotated using BLASTx searches against the non-redundant protein database from the National Center for Biotechnology Information ...


Sustainability At Sit: A Look At The Past, A Plan For The Future, Taliesin Haugh 2018 SIT Graduate Institute

Sustainability At Sit: A Look At The Past, A Plan For The Future, Taliesin Haugh

Capstone Collection

Climate change threatens our world and way of life. Intelligent development and investment could mitigate the worst threats of climate change, while simultaneously providing continuous growth for the global economy. The New Climate Economy proposes efforts to combat this ecological collapse that would result in $30 trillion in new annual economic growth by 2030. Stockholm Resilience Center agrees, giving a framework based on global ecological systems that calls for five critical tasks that can bring growth and stability: Renewable energy

Sustainable local food production

New development models, based on what has worked globally

Reduction of wealth inequity

Education, health, and ...


Surveillance Of Ticks Parasitizing Tennessee Beef Cattle And Investigations Into The Microbial Communities Of Cattle Associated And Questing Amblyomma Maculatum, David Paul Theuret 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Surveillance Of Ticks Parasitizing Tennessee Beef Cattle And Investigations Into The Microbial Communities Of Cattle Associated And Questing Amblyomma Maculatum, David Paul Theuret

Masters Theses

Despite the risks that ticks and tick-borne disease pose to the beef cattle industry, many Tennessee producers are unaware of the dangers they represent. This mindset could facilitate the invasion and establishment of exotic ticks and pathogens that would devastate the cattle industry. Current control practices rely on chemical methods, which are not effective long-term; therefore, investigations into creating an integrated approach to control would create more sustainable methods. This study aims to address this through two objectives: The first is to determine the species composition, seasonal prevalence, geographic distribution and diversity of ticks on Tennessee cattle. The second is ...


Impacts Of The Food Safety Modernization Act On On-Farm Food Safety Practices For Small And Sustainable Produce Growers, Aaron Adalja, Erik Lichtenberg 2017 Cornell University School of Hotel Administration

Impacts Of The Food Safety Modernization Act On On-Farm Food Safety Practices For Small And Sustainable Produce Growers, Aaron Adalja, Erik Lichtenberg

Aaron Adalja

We use data from a national survey of fruit and vegetable growers to examine the current prevalence and cost burden of food safety practices required in the proposed Produce Rule implementing the Food Safety Modernization Act. In particular, we analyze the influence of farm size and farming practices on the probability of adopting food safety measures that would be required by the Produce Rule; and we analyze how the costs of using those food safety practices vary by farm size and farm practices. Majorities of our respondents currently employ most of the food safety practices that would be required under ...


Adoption And Coexistence Of Ge, Conventional Non-Ge, And Organic Crops, Aaron Adalja, Catherine Greene, James Hanson, Robert Ebel, Michael Barron 2017 Cornell University School of Hotel Administration

Adoption And Coexistence Of Ge, Conventional Non-Ge, And Organic Crops, Aaron Adalja, Catherine Greene, James Hanson, Robert Ebel, Michael Barron

Aaron Adalja

The adoption of genetically engineered (GE) crop varieties by U.S. farmers is widespread for major crops—94 percent of planted acres for soybeans, and 88 percent for corn in 2012 (USDA-NASS 2012). The potential exists for GE crop production to impose costs on organic and conventional non-GE production via unintended presence of GE material along the supply chain through: • Contamination of seed stock • Accidental cross-pollination • Accidental co-mingling during planting, harvesting, handling, and storing of crops (Bullock and Desquilbet 2002). Maintaining the integrity of GE-differentiated product markets relies on segregation protocols such as: • Hybrid selection and seed purity testing • Physical ...


Shrimp Aquaculture In Aguadulce: Impacts On Mangrove Forest Health And Shrimp Larvae Populations In Two Sites On The Salado Coastline, Nick Jickling 2017 SIT Study Abroad

Shrimp Aquaculture In Aguadulce: Impacts On Mangrove Forest Health And Shrimp Larvae Populations In Two Sites On The Salado Coastline, Nick Jickling

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Shrimp aquaculture is an important industry in Republic of Panama, providing jobs and infrastructure, while supplying the country with seafood and export income. Aquaculture is accompanied by many negative impacts on mangrove ecosystems, and subsequently offshore marine stocks. The abundance and diversity of gastropods and shrimp were sampled in the Salado coastline of Aguadulce, Panama to evaluate the impacts of aquaculture disturbance on mangrove forests. Gastropods were sampled at 3 sites on 9, 100m transects in a “pristine” and disturbed forest. Shrimp were sampled using a push net in 24 sites in tide pools and abandoned shrimp ponds of the ...


Cross-Species Transmission Potential Between Wild Pigs, Livestock, Poultry, Wildlife, And Humans: Implications For Disease Risk Management In North America, Ryan S. Miller, Steven Sweeney, Chris Slootmaker, Daniel A. Grear, Paul A. Di Salvo, Deborah Kiser, Stephanie A. Shwiff 2017 USDA APHIS

Cross-Species Transmission Potential Between Wild Pigs, Livestock, Poultry, Wildlife, And Humans: Implications For Disease Risk Management In North America, Ryan S. Miller, Steven Sweeney, Chris Slootmaker, Daniel A. Grear, Paul A. Di Salvo, Deborah Kiser, Stephanie A. Shwiff

Other Publications in Zoonotics and Wildlife Disease

Cross-species disease transmission between wildlife, domestic animals and humans is an increasing threat to public and veterinary health. Wild pigs are increasingly a potential veterinary and public health threat. Here we investigate 84 pathogens and the host species most at risk for transmission with wild pigs using a network approach. We assess the risk to agricultural and human health by evaluating the status of these pathogens and the co-occurrence of wild pigs, agriculture and humans. We identified 34 (87%) OIE listed swine pathogens that cause clinical disease in livestock, poultry, wildlife, and humans. On average 73% of bacterial, 39% of ...


Ecological And Organic Life Safety Concerns Of Hfo-1234yf, Alberni V. Ruiz 2017 California State University, San Marcos

Ecological And Organic Life Safety Concerns Of Hfo-1234yf, Alberni V. Ruiz

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

While at NOAA my research was directed by the inquiry of whether or not HFO-1234yf, a new compound being introduced into coolant system and replacing greenhouse gases HFC, is harmful to organic life. Using the computer program Matlab I was able to develop figures that represented the concentration of HFO-1234yf (HFO) in 12 different tower locations throughout the country. Comparing and contrasting concentrations of this HFO compound at each site led me to the question the possible harmful side effects this compound could bring to organic life due to the fact that concentration levels are increasing, with one factor being ...


Estimation Of The Virtual Water Content Of Main Crops On The Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Regional Climate Models And Evapotranspiration Methods, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Yuyoung Choi, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee 2017 Chapman University

Estimation Of The Virtual Water Content Of Main Crops On The Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Regional Climate Models And Evapotranspiration Methods, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Yuyoung Choi, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Sustainable agriculture in the era of climate change needs to find solutions for the retention and proper utilization of water. This study proposes an ensemble approach for identifying the virtual water content (VWC) of main crops on the Korean Peninsula in past and future climates. Ensemble results with low uncertainty were obtained using three regional climate models, five potential evapotranspiration methods, and the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop model. The productivity results of major crops (rice and maize) under climate change are likely to increase more than in the past based on the ensemble results. The ensemble VWC is ...


Evaluation Of Different Probiotic Strains Supplemented In Commercial Broiler Rations And Their Influences On Performance, Yield, And Intestinal Microbiota., Justin M. Glasscock 2017 Stephen F Austin State University

Evaluation Of Different Probiotic Strains Supplemented In Commercial Broiler Rations And Their Influences On Performance, Yield, And Intestinal Microbiota., Justin M. Glasscock

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to evaluate Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus subtilis, as probiotic strains compared to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate (BMD) 50 as the antibiotic growth promotor, supplemented in commercial broiler rations and their influences on performance, yield, and intestinal microbiota. This trial was completed as a randomized-block design with 4,800 birds split into 96, 5’x10’ pens, and randomly assigned to one of eight treatment groups. The birds were placed at a stocking density of 1.00 ft2/bird, (50 birds/pen), and reared on used pine shaving for 55 days. Throughout the study ...


Adaptive Strategies In A Slow-Motion Apocalypse, Allana Ross 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Adaptive Strategies In A Slow-Motion Apocalypse, Allana Ross

Graduate School of Art Theses

Nature is a construct inherited from Enlightenment thought. Our culture of nature—the way we construct, teach, communicate and perpetuate our concept of nature—has furthered the false dichotomy of an untamed nature versus a resource-consuming culture. This dualistic thinking has facilitated the current environmental crisis. We thus need a new culture of nature and a system of re-education that enables a symbiotic relationship between ourselves and our environment. A re-negotiation of this relationship is imperative to our continued survival on this planet; thus a reformation of the culture of nature can be viewed as an adaptive strategy. Systems-focused ecological ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress