Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biosecurity Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

185 Full-Text Articles 418 Authors 13,597 Downloads 33 Institutions

All Articles in Biosecurity

Faceted Search

185 full-text articles. Page 1 of 4.

The Growing Threat Of Agroterrorism And Strategies For Agricultural Defense, Alyssa Forrest 2020 Liberty University

The Growing Threat Of Agroterrorism And Strategies For Agricultural Defense, Alyssa Forrest

Senior Honors Theses

Due to the dynamic nature of human conflict, non-traditional terror tactics have evolved to undermine the socioeconomic stability of targeted societies. Considering the landscape in which terrorists operate, emphasis on more subversive methods of biological terror have become prominent in recent decades. Agroterrorism, or the use of plant pathogens to infect a nation’s cultivated crops, is an emerging topic due to its threat to global food security and economic stability. Although emergency preparedness objectives have been enacted at national, state, and even local levels, preemptive measures can no longer remain the sole responsibility of intelligence and law enforcement agencies ...


The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga 2019 University of Maine

The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dickeya dianthicola (Samson) causing blackleg and soft rot was first detected in potatoes grown in Maine in 2014. Previous work has suggested that insects, particularly aphids, may be able to vector bacteria in this genus between plants, but no conclusive work has been done to confirm this theory. In order to determine whether insect-mediated transmission is likely to occur in potato fields, two model potato pests common in Maine were used: the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decimlineata Say) and the green peach aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Olfactometry and recruitment experiments evaluated if either insect discriminates between infected and uninfected foliage ...


Kc 4.2: “Principles Text” In Action In Outstanding And Ordinary Landscapes, Nora Mitchell Dr, Steve Brown Dr., Lionella Scazzosi Dr., Jane Lennon Dr., Brenda Barrett 2019 University of Vermont

Kc 4.2: “Principles Text” In Action In Outstanding And Ordinary Landscapes, Nora Mitchell Dr, Steve Brown Dr., Lionella Scazzosi Dr., Jane Lennon Dr., Brenda Barrett

Rural Heritage - Landscapes and Beyond / PATRIMOINE RURAL: Paysages et au-delà

In 2011, the ICOMOS-IFLA International Scientific Committee on Cultural Landscapes (ISCCL)began a cultural project, the World Rural LandscapesInitiative, with the goal of a wide and systematic approach to cultural heritage for rural areas both outstanding and ordinary) that has not been sufficiently developed in the past. A first goal has been achieved: “Principles Concerning Rural Landscape as Heritage” was adopted as a doctrinal text by ICOMOS (Delhi 2017) and translated in English, French, Chinese, Spanish and Arabian (worldrurallandscapes.org).

This Knowledge Café will focus on methods and case studies to implement the main premises and contents of the ...


The Value Of Inspection Stations For Detecting Nonindigenous Species Lacking Agricultural Significance: The Mexican Treefrog, Smilisca Baudinii Complex (Duméril And Bibron 1841) (Hylidae), Interdicted In Florida, Usa, From A Shipment Of Peppers, Louis A. Somma 2019 Florida State Collection of Arthropods

The Value Of Inspection Stations For Detecting Nonindigenous Species Lacking Agricultural Significance: The Mexican Treefrog, Smilisca Baudinii Complex (Duméril And Bibron 1841) (Hylidae), Interdicted In Florida, Usa, From A Shipment Of Peppers, Louis A. Somma

Papers in Herpetology

A Mexican Treefrog, Smilisca baudinii, a nonindigenous species, was interdicted for the first time from an imported shipment of peppers. The value of agriculture inspection stations used to make these interdictions is discussed. This is a single cargo interception (Stage 1: Colautti and MacIsaac 2004) and the first record for S. baudinii intercepted in Florida. Currently no evidence suggests that S. baudinii has been successfully introduced into and established in Florida, although this species could survive climatic conditions in the southern part of the state and at the scheduled destination of this shipment.

Cargo transport of alien species is a ...


Addressing The Challenges Facing Wheat Production: Nebraska And International Breeding Efforts, Sarah Blecha 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Addressing The Challenges Facing Wheat Production: Nebraska And International Breeding Efforts, Sarah Blecha

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

Bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L., provides 20 percent of the global daily calorie intake. It is the third most important food crop, after rice and corn. Biotic challenges significantly reduce wheat yield; chemical control can be a solution but can be cost prohibitive for subsistence farmers. For many farmers, genetic resistance to biotic stresses can be the most cost effective solution.

The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) and the Nebraska Small Grains Breeding Program have been addressing these wheat production challenges. ICARDA is part of an international research consortium to increase wheat yield and tolerance ...


Reporting Charcoal Rot In Chia And Developing A Susceptibility Assay, Reis M. Misaka, Hagop S. Atamian Dr., Julien Besnard Dr. 2019 Chapman University

Reporting Charcoal Rot In Chia And Developing A Susceptibility Assay, Reis M. Misaka, Hagop S. Atamian Dr., Julien Besnard Dr.

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Chia (Salvia Hispanica) cross breeds were planted in the summer of 2018 with the intent of selective breeding for agricultural benefit. Preexisting pathogens in the soil caused 40-50% fatality of adult plants. This was surprising due to the precursory knowledge that chia has antibiotic and antifungal oils (Elshafie et. al. 2018); chia was only recently documented to be susceptible to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum). The primary pathogen responsible was identified as Macrophomina phaseolina (aka charcoal rot); a widespread soilborne pathogen which has multiple commercial hosts (Su et. al. 2001).

M. phaesolina on wheat seed vector where used as inoculums (Brandari ...


Evaluating Opinions Of Kentucky’S Agri-Science Educators On Climate Change, Emily Cook 2019 Murray State University

Evaluating Opinions Of Kentucky’S Agri-Science Educators On Climate Change, Emily Cook

Scholars Week

Climate Change is the significant long term changes in the weather and temperatures on a large scale and is seen globally. Scientists have been studying the effects of Climate Change on the planet for decades; foreseeing problems of the future. Global Warming has been escalating over the past hundred years with the amount of Carbon Dioxide gases rising into to atmosphere at an alarming rate. Agri-Science Educators across Kentucky are teaching the topics of Climate Change and Global Warming and this research intends to find the truth and variances in their knowledge. Twenty educators from across the state of Kentucky ...


Eating Some Invasive Species Could Help To Mitigate The Impacts Of Climate Change-Related Invasions, And May Increase Future Food Security, Jesse Bull Saffeir 2019 SIT Study Abroad

Eating Some Invasive Species Could Help To Mitigate The Impacts Of Climate Change-Related Invasions, And May Increase Future Food Security, Jesse Bull Saffeir

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Climate change is predicted to increase the spread and abundance of invasive species and to erode global food security. I hypothesized that by incorporating edible invasive species into local food sheds, these two problems could help to mitigate each other. I set out to answer two questions: could eating invasive species reduce their spread and abundance? And could eating invasive species minimize the impacts of climate-change related food shocks? To answer these questions, I surveyed the existing literature on human consumption of invasive species, created a list of criteria that make an invasive species suitable for management through human consumption ...


Effectiveness Of Windrow Composting Methodology In Killing A Thermo-Tolerant Species Of Salmonella During Mortality Composting, Spencer Gabriel Myers 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Effectiveness Of Windrow Composting Methodology In Killing A Thermo-Tolerant Species Of Salmonella During Mortality Composting, Spencer Gabriel Myers

Master's Theses and Project Reports

In a large agricultural operation, such as the one at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, disposal of deceased animals is an immense issue. The cost of transporting and rendering every dead animal is inhibitory to the general function of the agricultural operations and their thin budget. Therefore, we propose that composting mortalities could be an economical alternative. Composting is a recognized method for taking animal waste products along with carbon waste and turning it into a pathogen-free, nutrient-rich topsoil. Carcass composting is in fact performed in other countries and states to varying degrees of success. However, the California EPA limits ...


Control Efforts And Serologic Survey Of Pseudorabies And Brucellosis In Wild Pigs Of Tennessee, Lisa I. Muller, Neelam C. Poudyal, Roger Applegate, Chuck Yoest 2019 University of Tennessee

Control Efforts And Serologic Survey Of Pseudorabies And Brucellosis In Wild Pigs Of Tennessee, Lisa I. Muller, Neelam C. Poudyal, Roger Applegate, Chuck Yoest

Human–Wildlife Interactions

European wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are an introduced invasive species that now constitute a major threat to agriculture and the natural ecology of the environments they now inhabit. Wild pigs also carry many diseases known to infect wildlife, humans, and livestock. Two of these diseases, pseudorabies (PRV) and brucellosis, constitute major diseases in the United States. Better data are needed regarding the prevalence of these diseases in wild pigs to understand and manage the potential risks to wildlife, humans, and livestock. From July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2017, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency personnel trapped and euthanized 4,727 wild ...


European Starlings Fly Before They Fledge, Jeremiah L. Psiropoulos, Lisa A. Selner 2019 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

European Starlings Fly Before They Fledge, Jeremiah L. Psiropoulos, Lisa A. Selner

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Aircraft bird strikes are increasing globally. Bird strikes constitute a major human health and safety risk and result in millions of dollars in economic impacts. Invasive avian species, such as the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris; starlings), have been implicated in bird strikes in North America. Because this species is highly adaptive and has been successful at establishing in new areas, such as airports, it is essential that managers better understand the potential risks and how to mitigate them. Herein we present a case study regarding a novel observation of unique starling nesting behavior that may pose a risk to airport ...


Just Preservation, Adrian Treves, Francisco J. Santiago-Ávila, William S. Lynn 2019 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Just Preservation, Adrian Treves, Francisco J. Santiago-Ávila, William S. Lynn

Animal Sentience

We are failing to protect the biosphere. Novel views of conservation, preservation, and sustainability are surfacing in the wake of consensus about our failures to prevent extinction or slow climate change. We argue that the interests and well-being of non-humans, youth, and future generations of both human and non-human beings (futurity) have too long been ignored in consensus-based, anthropocentric conservation. Consensus-based stakeholder-driven processes disadvantage those absent or without a voice and allow current adult humans and narrow, exploitative interests to dominate decisions about the use of nature over its preservation for futurity of all life. We propose that authentically non-anthropocentric ...


Micronutrient Availability In Alternative Foods During Agricultural Catastrophes, David C. Denkenberger, Joshua M. Pearce 2018 Alliance to Feed the Earth in Disasters

Micronutrient Availability In Alternative Foods During Agricultural Catastrophes, David C. Denkenberger, Joshua M. Pearce

Department of Materials Science and Engineering Publications

Several catastrophes could block the sun, including asteroid/comet impact, super volcanic eruption, and nuclear war with the burning of cities (nuclear winter). Previous work has analyzed alternate food supplies (e.g., mushrooms growing on dead trees, bacteria growing on natural gas). This was shown to be technically capable of feeding everyone with macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates, and lipids) and minerals, although economics and politics remain uncertain. The present work analyzes vitamin availability in such alternative food scenarios. The vitamin content of various alternate foods is compared to the US recommended daily allowance (RDA) as well as the average requirement defined ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Effect Of Increasing Levels Of Monosilicic Acid On Arsenic And Phosphorus Sorption In Soil, Flávia Bastos Agostinho 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Effect Of Increasing Levels Of Monosilicic Acid On Arsenic And Phosphorus Sorption In Soil, Flávia Bastos Agostinho

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa) grains has increased human’s daily intake. Studies have shown that arsenite is taken up through known silicon (Si) transporters in rice. Moreover, the availability of As in soil is affected by chemically similar ligands that have high affinity to oxides surfaces, such as Si and phosphorus (P). Studies were conducted to: (I) investigate the role of elevated levels of Si on the concentration of different As fractions in soil and on As uptake by rice; (II) evaluate the effect of increasing monosilicic acidconcentrations on As sorption and kinetics in soil; and (III ...


Sequence Analysis Of The Potato Aphid Macrosiphum Euphorbiae Transcriptome Identified Two New Viruses, Marcella A. Texeira, Noa Sela, Hagop S. Atamian, Ergude Bao, Rita Chaudhury, Jacob MacWilliams, Jiangman He, Sophie Mantelin, Thomas Girke, Isgouhi Kaloshian 2018 University of California, Riverside

Sequence Analysis Of The Potato Aphid Macrosiphum Euphorbiae Transcriptome Identified Two New Viruses, Marcella A. Texeira, Noa Sela, Hagop S. Atamian, Ergude Bao, Rita Chaudhury, Jacob Macwilliams, Jiangman He, Sophie Mantelin, Thomas Girke, Isgouhi Kaloshian

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, is an important agricultural pest that causes economic losses to potato and tomato production. To establish the transcriptome for this aphid, RNA-Seq libraries constructed from aphids maintained on tomato plants were used in Illumina sequencing generating 52.6 million 75±105 bp paired-end reads. The reads were assembled using Velvet/Oases software with SEED preprocessing resulting in 22,137 contigs with an N50 value of 2,003bp. After removal of contigs from tomato host origin, 20,254 contigs were annotated using BLASTx searches against the non-redundant protein database from the National Center for Biotechnology Information ...


Sustainability At Sit: A Look At The Past, A Plan For The Future, Taliesin Haugh 2018 SIT Graduate Institute

Sustainability At Sit: A Look At The Past, A Plan For The Future, Taliesin Haugh

Capstone Collection

Climate change threatens our world and way of life. Intelligent development and investment could mitigate the worst threats of climate change, while simultaneously providing continuous growth for the global economy. The New Climate Economy proposes efforts to combat this ecological collapse that would result in $30 trillion in new annual economic growth by 2030. Stockholm Resilience Center agrees, giving a framework based on global ecological systems that calls for five critical tasks that can bring growth and stability: Renewable energy

Sustainable local food production

New development models, based on what has worked globally

Reduction of wealth inequity

Education, health, and ...


"Squeezed Between The Gunshots And The Gentrifiers”: Urban Agriculture In Philadelphia's Kensington Neighborhood, Arianna Hall-Reinhard 2018 West Virginia University

"Squeezed Between The Gunshots And The Gentrifiers”: Urban Agriculture In Philadelphia's Kensington Neighborhood, Arianna Hall-Reinhard

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Urban agriculture (UA) is part of the broader alternative food movement and a potential avenue through which to “do” food justice work. UA projects in the urban Global North are frequently motivated by social and food justice goals. Despite these guiding ideals, UA projects in America are rife with internal contradictions, including those related to racial inequalities, complex gentrification dynamics, and funding realities. In this paper, I employ the conceptual frameworks of food justice and urban political ecology to consider how gentrification and UA project funding structures affect five specific UA projects in Philadelphia’s Kensington neighborhood. While the loss ...


Surveillance Of Ticks Parasitizing Tennessee Beef Cattle And Investigations Into The Microbial Communities Of Cattle Associated And Questing Amblyomma Maculatum, David Paul Theuret 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Surveillance Of Ticks Parasitizing Tennessee Beef Cattle And Investigations Into The Microbial Communities Of Cattle Associated And Questing Amblyomma Maculatum, David Paul Theuret

Masters Theses

Despite the risks that ticks and tick-borne disease pose to the beef cattle industry, many Tennessee producers are unaware of the dangers they represent. This mindset could facilitate the invasion and establishment of exotic ticks and pathogens that would devastate the cattle industry. Current control practices rely on chemical methods, which are not effective long-term; therefore, investigations into creating an integrated approach to control would create more sustainable methods. This study aims to address this through two objectives: The first is to determine the species composition, seasonal prevalence, geographic distribution and diversity of ticks on Tennessee cattle. The second is ...


Impacts Of The Food Safety Modernization Act On On-Farm Food Safety Practices For Small And Sustainable Produce Growers, Aaron Adalja, Erik Lichtenberg 2017 Cornell University School of Hotel Administration

Impacts Of The Food Safety Modernization Act On On-Farm Food Safety Practices For Small And Sustainable Produce Growers, Aaron Adalja, Erik Lichtenberg

Aaron Adalja

We use data from a national survey of fruit and vegetable growers to examine the current prevalence and cost burden of food safety practices required in the proposed Produce Rule implementing the Food Safety Modernization Act. In particular, we analyze the influence of farm size and farming practices on the probability of adopting food safety measures that would be required by the Produce Rule; and we analyze how the costs of using those food safety practices vary by farm size and farm practices. Majorities of our respondents currently employ most of the food safety practices that would be required under ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress