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Experiment Station Expenditures: State Share And Population Effects, John A. Miranowski, Wallace E. Huffman 2016 Iowa State University

Experiment Station Expenditures: State Share And Population Effects, John A. Miranowski, Wallace E. Huffman

John Miranowski

There are a growing number of studies that estimate the economic returns to public sector agricultural research. The estimated rates of return from these studies should be an important input into public sector decisionmaking on the allocation of federal and state funds to agricultural research. However, there have been few attempts to develop and fit empirical models that explain resources allocated to agricultural experiment station research. Some work has been done by Peterson (1969), Guttman (1978), and by us in an earlier paper (Huffman and Miranowski).


Research, Extension, And Education Policy, Wallace E. Huffman, Marc A. Johnson 2016 Iowa State University

Research, Extension, And Education Policy, Wallace E. Huffman, Marc A. Johnson

Wallace Huffman

The present-day set of research-teachingextension institutions serving U.S. agriculture and households have enjoyed relatively long lives. The leading institution is the land-grant university system with a legislatively mandated mission involving federal-state-local partnerships for research, education, and extension. The secondary institution is the USDA with the Agricultural Research Service and Economic Research Service engaged in agricultural research. The early political recognition that local climates, soils, and environments play an important role in determining the local research and extension needs of farmers and rural people enabled passage of the Land-Grant College Act of 1862, the Hatch Act for state agricultural experiment ...


Photovoltaic Cooking In The Developing World, Tyler Watkins, Christopher O'Day, Omar Arriaga 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Photovoltaic Cooking In The Developing World, Tyler Watkins, Christopher O'Day, Omar Arriaga

Mechanical Engineering

The challenge of clean cooking is faced by hundreds of millions of people worldwide. We present a cooking technology consisting of a solar panel directly connected to an electric heater in a well-insulated chamber. Assuming continued decrease in solar panel prices, we anticipate that in a few decades Solar Electric Cooking technologies will be the most common cooking technology for the poor. Appropriate use of insulation reduces the power demand making low-power Insulated Solar Electric Cooking systems already cost competitive.


Reasons Youth Choose Or Do Not Choose To Be Involved In 4-H Livestock Projects In Tennessee, Leigh Erin Fuson 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Reasons Youth Choose Or Do Not Choose To Be Involved In 4-H Livestock Projects In Tennessee, Leigh Erin Fuson

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to find reasons youth choose or do not choose to be involved in 4-H livestock projects. Livestock projects are an important part of 4-H youth development because they teach life skills like responsibility and hard work. However, many youth are unable to participate or do not have the interest. This study sought to discover what motivates some youth to become involved in a livestock project and why others do not.

Focus groups were used as the data collection tool. Two groups of youth livestock participants and two groups of non-livestock participants were utilized. Themes ...


Assessing Tennessee Livestock Producers' Awareness, Attitudes And Perceptions Of Right-Of-Way Hay Harvesting, Sarah Joy Maccaro 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Assessing Tennessee Livestock Producers' Awareness, Attitudes And Perceptions Of Right-Of-Way Hay Harvesting, Sarah Joy Maccaro

Masters Theses

In the state of Tennessee, statute 54-5-134, cutting hay along controlled access highway right-of-way, gives Tennessee agriculturalists the right to harvest hay along interstate medians and shoulders. Current maintenance is contracted out to private mowing companies and paid for by Tennessee taxpayers. Relatively few studies have been published on the topic of right-of-way hay harvesting, so this study was preliminary in nature. Through a questionnaire, this study sought to assess Hickman, Dickson, Williamson, Wilson and Rutherford county livestock producers’ current awareness, attitudes, and barriers concerning right-of-way hay harvesting as well as to conduct economic impact analyses to determine producers’ willingness ...


The Role Of Interdisciplinary Scholarship And Research To Meet The Challenges Facing Agriculture In The 21st Century, Joshua Jay Miller 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Role Of Interdisciplinary Scholarship And Research To Meet The Challenges Facing Agriculture In The 21st Century, Joshua Jay Miller

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

Throughout human history, scientific advancements have increased our understanding of the physical world. However, as our breadth of knowledge has increased, scholarship and research have become increasingly more specialized in order to add to the body of knowledge. University structures encourage this specialization through disciplinary learning and discovery. Although this model is necessary to continue growing the body of knowledge, the complex issues facing humanity, especially in regards to agriculture, require solutions that no single discipline can provide. These issues require an interdisciplinary approach to integrate the insights across multiple disciplines. Interdisciplinarity can be achieved through collaborative processes, but these ...


Diving Into Food Justice: Food Waste In The Anthropocene, Kathleen P. Hunt, Abby Dubisar 2016 Iowa State University

Diving Into Food Justice: Food Waste In The Anthropocene, Kathleen P. Hunt, Abby Dubisar

Abby Dubisar

The Anthropocene calls for greater attention to the various and complicated ways by which humans interact with the environment and compels critical dialogue to identify and implement alternative solutions. With few exceptions, organisms (including human and more-than-human) require food as a biological need for survival. The global agrifood system has broad environmental consequences. For example, “getting food from the farm to our fork eats up 10 percent of the total U.S. energy budget, uses 50 percent of U.S. land, and swallows 80 percent of all freshwater consumed in the United States” (Gunders, 2012). Food ranks among the top ...


Diving Into Food Justice: Food Waste In The Anthropocene, Kathleen P. Hunt, Abby Dubisar 2016 Iowa State University

Diving Into Food Justice: Food Waste In The Anthropocene, Kathleen P. Hunt, Abby Dubisar

Kathleen Hunt

The Anthropocene calls for greater attention to the various and complicated ways by which humans interact with the environment and compels critical dialogue to identify and implement alternative solutions. With few exceptions, organisms (including human and more-than-human) require food as a biological need for survival. The global agrifood system has broad environmental consequences. For example, “getting food from the farm to our fork eats up 10 percent of the total U.S. energy budget, uses 50 percent of U.S. land, and swallows 80 percent of all freshwater consumed in the United States” (Gunders, 2012). Food ranks among the top ...


Development Of An Online Food Safety Training For Employees Of University Farms And School Gardens, Angela M. Shaw, Catherine Strohbehn, Linda L. Naeve 2016 Iowa State University

Development Of An Online Food Safety Training For Employees Of University Farms And School Gardens, Angela M. Shaw, Catherine Strohbehn, Linda L. Naeve

Angela M. Shaw

With a rise in the number of publicly accessed fruit and vegetable growing venues, there is a need for food safety training for staff of these schools and research facilities. This project created a variety of media options to educate workers about proper ways to handle fruit and vegetables to ensure food safety.


Experiencing The Culture Of Cap-Haïtien: A Trip To Haiti, Alacyn Cox, Kamille Brawner, Kylie Echard 2016 Purdue University

Experiencing The Culture Of Cap-Haïtien: A Trip To Haiti, Alacyn Cox, Kamille Brawner, Kylie Echard

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Alacyn Cox and Kamile Brawner, third-year students, and Kylie Echard, a second-year student, are in the College of Agriculture. In this article, they provide readers with a glimpse of their first impressions on the economy, traditions, and culture they experienced during a study abroad, service-learning experience in Haiti.


Testing Predictions Used To Build An Agrivoltaics Installation On A Small-Scale Educational Model, Katie Kinney, Rebecca Minor, Greg Barron-Gafford 2016 University of Montana, Missoula

Testing Predictions Used To Build An Agrivoltaics Installation On A Small-Scale Educational Model, Katie Kinney, Rebecca Minor, Greg Barron-Gafford

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Models are valuable tools for explaining and testing systems. Small-scale models can be especially useful for educational purposes. For models to be useful, they have to accurately depict the larger system that they are describing. A novel man-made system, known as an agrivoltaic structure, is being constructed at Biosphere 2 near Oracle, Arizona. The word agrivoltaic is a combination of agriculture and photovoltaics, or solar farming. My research involved creating a small-scale version of this system for educational purposes. The model of this system tested two predictions: that plants will grow better in the shade of a panel and that ...


Practical Considerations And Implementation Of Anaerobic Digester Systems, Jenny Pronto, Curt Gooch, Nellie J. Brown 2016 Cornell University

Practical Considerations And Implementation Of Anaerobic Digester Systems, Jenny Pronto, Curt Gooch, Nellie J. Brown

Nellie J. Brown, MS., C.I.H.

This course prepares learners to implement and run an AD system from the planning and design phase to operation and maintenance. It focuses on the design of AD systems; how to successfully interact with a designer so that the farm’s needs are met; and basic operation and maintenance.


Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna 2016 Iowa State University

Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna

william edwards

Includes advantages and disadvantages of custom hiring and information on estimating costs; includes worksheets.


New Curriculum: Soil & Water Science And Weather & Climate Science, Natalie Carroll 2016 Purdue University

New Curriculum: Soil & Water Science And Weather & Climate Science, Natalie Carroll

Purdue P-12 Networking Summit & Poster Session

Natalie will present an overview the content of two new (2015) curricula designed for youth in grades 3 through 12. Soil and Water Science; Weather and Climate Science. Three booklets are included in each curriculum. Level 1, for youth in grades 3-5, introduces basic terms and concepts. Level 2 activities, for youth in grades 6-8, help youth put the basic concepts into action to understand more advanced concepts and interactions. Level 3 manuals delve more deeply into important concepts and helps prepare youth to be well informed and for advanced studies at college or university.

  • Level 3 Soil & Water Science ...


The Demand For Agricultural Research By State Governments, Jyoti Khanna, Wallace E. Huffman, Todd Sandler 2016 Iowa State University

The Demand For Agricultural Research By State Governments, Jyoti Khanna, Wallace E. Huffman, Todd Sandler

Wallace Huffman

Public agricultural research in 'the United States is conducted- by state agricultural experiment stations (SAES) and'by the' research agencies of the USDA.. Both have research.'activities 'in ;every state." A. vast^ amount "of research and experiments has shown that the'-performance of plants and to-a lesser extent animals', ' in which! new technologies are frequently-embodied,' is altered by ,local geoclimatic conditions-that; differ within' and between states. Basic research and livestock .research"^ to- some extent lead to new knowledge or technologies that spill widely across^ state boundaries^; '-Thus, public-^ agricultural-.research produces-knowledge .that/is both^ state specific' and general.


Setting Efficient Incentives For Agricultural Research: Lesson From Principal-Agent Theory Ii, Wallace E. Huffman, Richard E. Just 2016 Iowa State University

Setting Efficient Incentives For Agricultural Research: Lesson From Principal-Agent Theory Ii, Wallace E. Huffman, Richard E. Just

Wallace Huffman

At least since the 1950s, studies have shown unusually high productivity of public agricultural research (e.g., Griliches; Huffman and Evenson; Ruttan; Schultz). In response, many have asked why more funds are not allocated to public agricultural research. More recently, following the large budget deficits of the 1980s, funding conditions have tightened and forced both the research agencies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and many of the state agricultural experiment stations (SAES) into a contracting mode. Under unprecedented budget pressures, administrators and public decision makers have struggled to set priorities to reduce budgets without significant loss of productivity ...


Measuring Public Agricultural Research And Extension And Estimating Their Impacts On Agricultural Productivity: New Insights From Us Evidence, Yu Jin, Wallace E. Huffman 2016 Iowa State University

Measuring Public Agricultural Research And Extension And Estimating Their Impacts On Agricultural Productivity: New Insights From Us Evidence, Yu Jin, Wallace E. Huffman

Wallace Huffman

In order to feed the growing population of the world, expected to reach 9.6 billion people—a 29 percent increase over 2013—by 2050 without causing immense environmental damage and hunger, society must increase agricultural productivity. Investing further in public agricultural research and extension will help alleviate this problem. Developed countries, like the United States, have been a leader in this area for most of the twentieth century. For example, US public agricultural research grew rapidly from 1960–1980, but slowed considerably from 1980–1995, showed negative growth from 1995–1998, then flattened by 2010.


Human Capital: Education And Agriculture, Wallace E. Huffman 2016 Iowa State University

Human Capital: Education And Agriculture, Wallace E. Huffman

Wallace Huffman

This chapter presents a review and synthesis of effects of education in agriculture, summarizes major contributions, and suggests major research gaps in the literature. Although growth in knowledge enables skill acquisition and specialization of labor, which generally raises labor productivity, and technical change, the dominant effect on agriculture has been technical change. A puzzle remains why schooling does not have broader direct impacts in agriculture. Furthermore, as we proxy education or general intellectual achievement by schooling in our empirical research, this has led to biased interpretations of impacts when general intellectual achievement of school graduate changes over time and perhaps ...


Convergence In U.S. Tfp Growth For Agriculture: Implications Of Interstate Research Spillovers For Funding Agricultural Research, Alan McCunn, Wallace E. Huffman 2016 Iowa State University

Convergence In U.S. Tfp Growth For Agriculture: Implications Of Interstate Research Spillovers For Funding Agricultural Research, Alan Mccunn, Wallace E. Huffman

Wallace Huffman

This paper examines state agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) data, 1950- 1982, for evidence of convergence, i.e., TFP growth rates of the future are inversely related to the TFP level at the starting data. After finding evidence of convergence, the paper examines the contributions of public and private R&D to convergence and presents implications for a more efficient organization of public agricultural research. For example, we &id that increasing a states own investment in public agricultural research reduces the rate of TFP convergence but larger public investments in surrounding areas that potentially spilling increase the rate of convergence ...


A Brief History Of Corn: Looking Back To Move Forward, Jon Derek Pruitt 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Brief History Of Corn: Looking Back To Move Forward, Jon Derek Pruitt

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

Maize was domesticated from teosinte in Mexico some 7,000 to 10,000 years ago and quickly spread through the Americas. It has become one of the most important crops at a local and global level. Two types, Northern Flint corn and Southern Dent corns provided the basis of the genetic background of modern maize hybrids. The development of hybrids, first double-cross and later single-cross hybrids, along with a transition to high input farming provided huge yield increases, which have continued to improve with improving technology.

Increase in maize production also caused a rise in Western corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera ...


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