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Competitive Position Of Lard In The Market Of Animal And Vegetable Fats And Oils, Rainer Schickele, Theodore W. Schultz 2017 Iowa State College

Competitive Position Of Lard In The Market Of Animal And Vegetable Fats And Oils, Rainer Schickele, Theodore W. Schultz

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Lard ranks second among the domestically consumed fats and oils, exceeded only by butter. Lard constitutes about one-sixth of the total value of hog products. It is one of our most important export commodities; between 85 and 90 percent of the lard entering international commerce is of American origin. Yet in spite of its economic importance, especially to the hog producers of the Corn Belt, practically no work has been done to investigate the production and market characteristics of lard and its competitive position relative to other fats and oils. The literature dealing with the market situation of butter, margarine ...


Annual Fluctuations In The Price Of Corn, Geoffrey Shepherd 2017 Iowa State College

Annual Fluctuations In The Price Of Corn, Geoffrey Shepherd

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The United States average farm value of corn per bushel Dec. 1 before the World War was determined almost entirely by the size of the United States corn crop. The closeness of the relation is indicated by the simple correlation coefficient - .9738. The regression of corn value on corn production was - 1.62. Since the war, this regression has decreased to - 1.54.

Since the war, the farm value of corn has become sensitive to other influences besides the size of the corn crop. Three other factors now seem to influence the value of corn - the numbers of livestock on ...


Variations In Swine Prices Within Iowa Including A Study In Statistical Procedure, Theodore W. Schultz, A. G. Black 2017 Iowa State College

Variations In Swine Prices Within Iowa Including A Study In Statistical Procedure, Theodore W. Schultz, A. G. Black

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Iowa's agriculture is chiefly corn-hog farming. Corn, which is produced in abundance, provides the raw material upon which the gigantic livestock industry depends. The sale of swine is the most important source of income of the state.

Profound changes have taken place in the economics of hog marketing during the last decade. Three-fifths of Iowa hogs are today sold direct to packers; receipts at public stockyards have declined accordingly. Concentration points have been established throughout the hog producing area. Order buying has become well developed. Add to these the improvements in rural transportation, better market news facilities, standardization of ...


The Uses Of Efficiency Factors In Analysis Of Farm Records, John A. Hopkins Jr. 2017 Iowa State College

The Uses Of Efficiency Factors In Analysis Of Farm Records, John A. Hopkins Jr.

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

In interpreting data obtained from farm accounts, frequent use is made of financial ratios, and of rates of input per unit of labor, land, or capital employed in the farm business. These so-called farm efficiency factors are designed to give the farm operator an approximate measurement of his success in organizing and managing those elements of the farm business which are, to some degree, under his control.

Efficiency factors or operating ratios are also useful to the extension worker in farm management. This specialist, as he discusses applications of farm organization and management principles, often feels a need for some ...


An Economic Analysis Of Farm Mortgages In Story County, Iowa, 1854-1931, William G. Murray 2017 Iowa State College

An Economic Analysis Of Farm Mortgages In Story County, Iowa, 1854-1931, William G. Murray

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

1. A total of 25,993 farm mortgages were analyzed and tabulated in this study. This total represents all mortgages placed on Story County farm land from 1854 through 1931.

2. The farm mortgage debt in Story County increased in every year except 15 out of the total of 78 years of mortgage history.

3. A study of the debt changes revealed four well-defined periods characterized, from 1854 to 1879, by land settlement; from 1880 to 1910 by rising land values; from 1911 to 1920 by price inflation ; and from 1921 to 1931 by price deflation.

4. Cyclical fluctuations in ...


The Secular Movement Of Corn Prices, Geoffrey S. Shepherd 2017 Iowa State College

The Secular Movement Of Corn Prices, Geoffrey S. Shepherd

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

One of the problems of Corn Belt agriculture is the instability of its prices. This is especially true of its major products, corn, hogs and cattle.

Among these three, the price of corn deserves particular study. Its fluctuations are rapid and irregular, and at times become very great. On four different occasions since the world war, the price of No.3 yellow corn at Chicago has risen or fallen more than 25 cents in two months. The coefficient of variability of the series of monthly prices (the standard deviation of the prices divided by their mean) for the period November ...


Long Term Loans Of Iowa Banks, Fred L. Garlock 2017 Iowa State College

Long Term Loans Of Iowa Banks, Fred L. Garlock

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

1. In most Iowa banks, the deposits constitute from 70 to 85 percent of the total liabilities.

2. Of all their liabilities, the banks have the least control over their deposits. It has been chiefly withdrawals of deposits, consequently, that have put the banks in a position where ready cash was urgently needed.

3. The average extent of deposit withdrawals since 1914 has not been great. It has varied among the banking systems in close relation to the character of the deposits, being greatest where the deposits have consisted largely of demand and bank accounts and least where time and ...


International Trade In Pork And Pork Products, Knute Bjorka 2017 Iowa State College

International Trade In Pork And Pork Products, Knute Bjorka

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The facts presented, both statistically and graphically, in the following pages are of significance, showing international trade in hog products as they do, and giving special emphasis to the American export outlet. Inasmuch as they have been presented without a great deal of refined analysis, no attempt to prove anything as to the future of this trade and the significance of it to the Iowa hog producer is justified. Nevertheless, it is possible safely to draw the following conclusions:

1. It is quite evident that the foreign outlet for hog products, and particularly for lard, supports the domestic prices of ...


Transfer Of Residence With Continued Occupancy, Neil Harl 2017 Selected Works

Transfer Of Residence With Continued Occupancy, Neil Harl

Neil E. Harl

The rule has been well established that a transfer of a residence to a spouse with occupancy by the transferring spouse until death, would not result in inclusion of the value of the residence in the transferor's gross estate under a theory of a retained life estate. The courts have consistently required proof of at least an implied agreement between the husband and wife (assuming the transferring spouse continued occupancy) before that spouse is held to have retained possession or enjoyment so as to require inclusion of the residence in the gross estate. If the transferor is to prevail ...


When Discharge Of Indebtedness Occurs If The Debtor Is Not In Bankruptcy, Neil Harl 2017 Selected Works

When Discharge Of Indebtedness Occurs If The Debtor Is Not In Bankruptcy, Neil Harl

Neil E. Harl

As was noted in the March 30, 1990 issue of Agricultural Law Digest, whether discharge of indebtedness occurs for debtors in bankruptcy depends upon the chapter of the Bankruptcy Code. For Chapter 12 debtors, discharge of indebtedness takes place upon completion of payments under the plan. For debtors not in bankruptcy, the rules for when discharge of indebtedness take place are different and the consequences are also quite different.


Single Class Of Stock In S Corporations, Neil Harl 2017 Selected Works

Single Class Of Stock In S Corporations, Neil Harl

Neil E. Harl

Almost from the day of enactment of Subchapter S of the Internal Revenue Code in 1958, the single class of stock requirement has generated questions that have led to extensive litigation, repeated attempts to address the issues by regulation and numerous rulings in an effort to resolve the issues involved. The major area of concern has been the line between debt securities and equity interests, particularly where the debt securities represented shareholder loans.


Gifts Of Grain And Other Farm Commodities, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Gifts Of Grain And Other Farm Commodities, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

The sale of assets held by the taxpayer primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business (such as grain or market livestock) usually produces ordinary income. That rule has encouraged gifts of grain and other farm commodities to spouses, children, grandchildren or other family members who are not considered to be holding the gift property for sale to customers. The outcome is capital asset treatment for gains and avoidance of liability for self-employment tax.


Earnings After Retirement, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Earnings After Retirement, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

Many farmers, approaching retirement, must make important decisions on — (1) the nature of their relationship to the farm business in retirement, (2) the extent of their personal involvement in business operations, and (3) the timing and manner of disposition of their inventory of crops and livestock during the retirement years.


Leasing Personal Property, Neil Harl 2017 Selected Works

Leasing Personal Property, Neil Harl

Neil E. Harl

Appearance of the note on Part I of the 1992 edition of Schedule E, Form 1040, that taxpayers are to "report income and expense from the rental of personal property on Schedule C or C-EZ" has raised concerns about the proper reporting of rentals from personal property such as farm machinery rented after retirement to children or others. Several high profile audits in which examining agents have taken a relatively aggressive stance on the issue have added to the concerns.


Resale Of Land Purchased Under Installment Obligation, Neil Harl 2017 Selected Works

Resale Of Land Purchased Under Installment Obligation, Neil Harl

Neil E. Harl

For decades, taxpayers have tried various strategies for selling land, qualifying the transaction for installment reporting of the gain with the land then resold to a third party for cash. Often, the initial transaction involved related parties with the resale typically made to a developer who paid cash and received title to the property. The result of the two stage transaction, if successful, was to have the initial buyer in possession of the full purchase price with the initial buyer making payments to the initial seller who reports the gain over the period of the installment obligation.


Deferred Payment Sales: Amt Liability, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Deferred Payment Sales: Amt Liability, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

Since enactment of the Installment Sales Revision Act of 1980, which permitted the installment sale of grain and livestock, questions have been raised regarding the continuing availability of the deferred payment procedure established by cases and rulings. In recent years, the importance of the question of whether both procedures can be used has been magnified by the 1986 enactment subjecting installment sales of inventory property to potential liability for alternative minimum tax.6 A recent IRS technical advice memorandum (TAM) has provided some insight to the IRS national office position on the two issues — (1) are installment sales of inventory ...


Preferred Stock And Special Use Valuation, Neil Harl 2017 Selected Works

Preferred Stock And Special Use Valuation, Neil Harl

Neil E. Harl

The special use valuation statute clearly contemplates that land held by an entity should be eligible for special use valuation. However, regulations have not been issued providing guidance on the procedure for valuing land held by a corporation, partnership or trust even though the issuance of regulations was mandated in the statute, enacted in 1976. Other than for a Tax Court case holding that a corporation could not utilize special use valuation and at the same time claim a minority discount, until the issuance of a 1992 private letter ruling, estates have been forced to rely on the general guidance ...


Some Statistical Characterizations Of The Hog Market, Knute Bjorka 2017 Iowa State College

Some Statistical Characterizations Of The Hog Market, Knute Bjorka

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Helpful statistical information on the hog market has increased greatly in recent years. Numerical data are becoming both more voluminous and more reliable. The purpose of this publication is to bring together some of the more important statistical data that have a bearing upon the hog market. It contains market information on prices, receipts, pork products, storage and exports.


Cost Benefit Analysis Of Genetic Markers In Cattle, Josh Crystal 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Cost Benefit Analysis Of Genetic Markers In Cattle, Josh Crystal

Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Undergraduate Honors Theses

Genetic sequencing in beef cattle (L. Bos Taurus) is expected to aid producers select cattle with traits that enhance profitability. Using data from experimental trials conducted with Angus, Brahman, and their reciprocal cross, this project analyzes the profitability of grazing endophyte infected tall Fescue (L. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) vs. Bermuda grass (L. Cynodon dactylon) pasture. The study is unique in the sense that actual cow-calf breeding failure rates (open cows were not culled) were tracked from 1991 to 1997 on herds that were bred to calf in spring and either exposed to fungal endophyte (L.Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams ...


Decision Support Software For Palmer Amaranth Weed Control, Karen Renee Lindsay 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Decision Support Software For Palmer Amaranth Weed Control, Karen Renee Lindsay

Theses and Dissertations

Herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth [Amaranthus palmeri (S.) Wats.] has been identified as one of the most troublesome weeds, specifically for corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] producers in the southern United States. The use of herbicide technology remains the most widely used method of weed control, despite the evolution of herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth. Therefore, a need currently exists for research and extension education to encourage the adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to address the problem of herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth in the southern United States. By equipping crop producers, educators, and weed management ...


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