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Full-Text Articles in Multicultural Psychology

Clinician Perspectives On Fistula Mental Health, Victoria K. Leonard May 2026

Clinician Perspectives On Fistula Mental Health, Victoria K. Leonard

Doctoral Dissertations

Background – Obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury caused by prolonged labor that leads to stillbirth and incontinence, spurring social exclusion and isolation. These layers of trauma put women with fistula at great risk for psychological suffering, which has profound negative socioeconomic impacts on them, their families, and communities. This study captured treatment as usual at Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania (CCBRT), the country’s largest provider of fistula care.

Method – Improving holistic fistula treatment requires engaging the clinicians who care for women with fistula. This study aimed to investigate the training, beliefs, and treatment approaches of nurses and …


Association Between Decisional Conflict And Quality Of Life Among Parents With A Child Undergoing Hospital-Based Treatment For A Recent Cancer Diagnosis, Augustine Provencio Sep 2025

Association Between Decisional Conflict And Quality Of Life Among Parents With A Child Undergoing Hospital-Based Treatment For A Recent Cancer Diagnosis, Augustine Provencio

Doctoral Dissertations

Having a child with a chronic illness, such as cancer, can cause families significant distress. Parents of these children must make frequent decisions relating to their child’s care. Depending on factors such as health literacy and support from medical staff, parents may have varying levels of decisional conflict (DC) throughout the decision-making process. Compounding stress throughout their child’s illness can often contribute to lower levels of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) while their child is receiving hospital-based treatment. Parents with a non-English language preference (NELP) often have greater challenges navigating healthcare systems due to a lack of resources and limited …


How Art Therapy And Emdr Help Asylum Seekers And Refugees Move Towards Healing Trauma: A Literature Review, Anna Mogilevsky May 2025

How Art Therapy And Emdr Help Asylum Seekers And Refugees Move Towards Healing Trauma: A Literature Review, Anna Mogilevsky

Expressive Therapiehttps://digitalcommons.lesley.edu/cgi/myaccount.cgis Capstone Theses

In the past ten years, there has been a significant rise in the number of asylum seekers and refugee populations worldwide (UNHCR, 2022). Displaced individuals are extremely vulnerable to mental illness because of the compounded trauma experienced in their countries of origin with the stress of immigration, asylum seeking, culture shock, and language barriers. PTSD is affecting 500 million individuals globally, and refugees are especially susceptible to having these symptoms (Farrell, 2020). Art therapy and EMDR are identified as the most promising modalities for treating such trauma.

This literature review examines the various ways EMDR and art therapy have been …


South Asian American Experiences Of Microaggressions And Wellbeing: The Moderating Role Of Social Support, Archita Birla Jan 2025

South Asian American Experiences Of Microaggressions And Wellbeing: The Moderating Role Of Social Support, Archita Birla

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Although the South Asian American community is rapidly expanding in the United States (South Asian Americans Leading Together [SAALT], 2015), there remains a dearth of psychological research regarding the impacts on mental health and wellbeing affecting this diverse community. Racial microaggressions, or verbal or behavioral actions indicating hostile or negative attitudes toward marginalized individuals (Sue et al., 2007), negatively impact People of Color (POC) mental health and wellbeing (Forrest-Bank & Jenson, 2015a; Nadal, Wong, et al., 2015). Some research exists on South Asian American communities and microaggressions (Houshmand et al., 2014; Poolokasingham et al., 2014) but there is limited research …


Reclaiming Healing Spaces: A Phenomenological Study On The Transformative Power Of Outdoor Therapy From The Lived Experiences Of Black Clinicians Working With Black Clients, Lynn Murphy Sep 2024

Reclaiming Healing Spaces: A Phenomenological Study On The Transformative Power Of Outdoor Therapy From The Lived Experiences Of Black Clinicians Working With Black Clients, Lynn Murphy

Dissertations

This phenomenological study involved assessing the experiences of Black therapists who engaged Black clients in outdoor therapeutic contexts. The study was founded on the existing literature that shows the quality of the therapeutic relationship is pivotal for client retention and the Western standards that have historically favored treatment within indoor environments. To contextualize this research, a comprehensive literature review was commenced, covering topics such as the decolonization of therapy, the historical and present-day relationship between Blacks and the outdoors in the United States, sedentary lifestyles, the psychological benefits of time spent in nature, various types of outdoor therapy, and the …


An Exploration Of Adult Children’S Attachment To Their Parents Across Two Cultural Groups: Indians In India And Indians Who Immigrated To The United States, Vilasini Meenakshi Arun Aug 2024

An Exploration Of Adult Children’S Attachment To Their Parents Across Two Cultural Groups: Indians In India And Indians Who Immigrated To The United States, Vilasini Meenakshi Arun

Doctoral Dissertations

Typically, attachment theory has been studied and explored with western populations. Individuals seeking mental health treatment within the United States include western and nonwestern cultural groups and research, theories and interventions that apply to diverse populations are necessary. Attachment relationships are often a part of, or reasons for clients to seek therapy either overtly or covertly, thus allowing research on attachment to better inform treatment plans and practice. An attachment relationship between a parent and child can be influenced by several factors and may change over the course of development, but little is known about this process among Indians …


Help Seeking Experiences Of Asian American Parents Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Mellanie Kristelle Roxas De Guzman Aug 2024

Help Seeking Experiences Of Asian American Parents Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Mellanie Kristelle Roxas De Guzman

Doctoral Dissertations

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has become more widely understood and accepted by the general and professional populations. However, self and social stigma related to ASD persist and continue to negatively impact help-seeking behaviors. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews guided by an ecological systems model, to explore the lived experiences of 11 Asian American (AsAm) parents residing in the greater San Francisco Bay Area with a child with ASD. A thematic analysis framework was utilized. A total of six themes and six subthemes emerged from this study and included: (1) comparisons, (2) stigma, (3) resilience, (4) support for services, (5) …


The Relationship Between Mental Health, Self And Other Stigma, And Help-Seeking Behaviors In Ethnic Minority Undergraduate Students, Briane Souki Jul 2024

The Relationship Between Mental Health, Self And Other Stigma, And Help-Seeking Behaviors In Ethnic Minority Undergraduate Students, Briane Souki

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

Racial and ethnic minority undergraduate students are disproportionately affected by mental health challenges and are less likely to seek support due to self-stigma and stigma from others, cultural perceptions of mental health, and help-seeking behaviors (Tucker et al., 2013). It is critical to understand mental health in cultural contexts because they influence help seeking behaviors for ethnic minority college students. These stigmas are thoughts that influence the help-seeking behaviors of students. Many ethnic minority students have internalized self-stigma toward help seeking. Part of overcoming minority student hesitancy toward help-seeking is to promote culturally aware mental health practices. In predominantly white …


“Understand What The Feelings Of The Student Must Be:” Newcomer Youths’ High School Integration Experiences, Anusha Kassan Dr., Alissa Priolo Dr., Natalie C. Sweeney, Susanne Goopy Dr., Rahat Zaidi Dr. Jun 2024

“Understand What The Feelings Of The Student Must Be:” Newcomer Youths’ High School Integration Experiences, Anusha Kassan Dr., Alissa Priolo Dr., Natalie C. Sweeney, Susanne Goopy Dr., Rahat Zaidi Dr.

The Qualitative Report

The present study was grounded in a social constructionist epistemology with an integrative social justice lens. It highlights the perspectives of one group – that of newcomer youth – from a collective case study exploring the phenomenon of school integration across multiple collaborators in one designated high school. As school integration is a central component in the lives and experiences of newcomer youth, this study aimed to provide insights and lessons learned directly from this group as they were integrating into a high school in Western Canada. In line with the epistemology and research design, the research prioritized participant voices …


Impact Of Physical Intimate Partner Violence On Postpartum Depression And Breastfeeding Duration In American Indian And Alaska Native Women, Zoe Resnick Milavetz Green, Marcia Bennett, Abby Hughes-Scalise, James Theisen, Julie Beans Jun 2024

Impact Of Physical Intimate Partner Violence On Postpartum Depression And Breastfeeding Duration In American Indian And Alaska Native Women, Zoe Resnick Milavetz Green, Marcia Bennett, Abby Hughes-Scalise, James Theisen, Julie Beans

Theses and Graduate Projects

In Alaska, 46 to 91 percent of American Indian and Alaska Native women have experienced physical intimate partner violence (IPV), compared to all women in other states, where the prevalence ranges from seven to 51 percent (Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000). Experiencing physical IPV has negative consequences on the mother’s physical and mental well-being, and has been associated with increased vulnerability to postpartum depression (PPD). Compared to other populations, American Indian and Alaska Native women are at greater risk for PPD due to less access to resources and less research on treatments (MacDorman, 2011). Additionally, American Indian and Alaska Native women …


Effects Of Intimate Partner Violence And Machismo On Pregnant Women In Mexico: A Systematic Review, Amber Casarrubias-Enriquez Jun 2024

Effects Of Intimate Partner Violence And Machismo On Pregnant Women In Mexico: A Systematic Review, Amber Casarrubias-Enriquez

University Honors Theses

This thesis aims to understand the effects of machismo and its link to intimate partner violence against pregnant women in Mexico. Machismo is a common underlying social norm in Latin America with Mexico being my target of interest. The term is defined as extreme masculinity that often contributes to gender inequalities and can have violent characteristics. Intimate partner violence is categorized as violent threats or acts against a partner and affects nearly 44% of women in Mexico (Carney et al., 2022). Barriers to help stem from shame, family expectations, and the overall violence against women in Mexico. Sadly, abuse persists …


Understanding The Relationship Between Perceived Childhood Experiences And Relationship With God, Remaz Bahaa Jun 2024

Understanding The Relationship Between Perceived Childhood Experiences And Relationship With God, Remaz Bahaa

Theses and Dissertations

The present study explores the relationship between perceived childhood experiences and one’s current relationship with God in an Egyptian Muslim sample. While such relationship has been researched in Western contexts, there is a notable gap in understanding these dynamics within Muslim Middle Eastern cultures. In this study, 180 participants, brought up in Muslim households, were given the following questionnaires: both versions of the Parental Acceptance Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) referring to the father and mother, Attachment to God Inventory (AGI), and Images of God (LAMBI Scale). The results presented the internal consistency of both the AGI and LAMBI scales with the …


The Psychological Significance Of Cultural And Religious Values Among The Arab Population, Michel Sherif Mikhail Jun 2024

The Psychological Significance Of Cultural And Religious Values Among The Arab Population, Michel Sherif Mikhail

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Values, which are the guiding principles and beliefs of our lives, have an influence over one’s psychological health. This study aims to investigate how Schwartz’s four higher-order values (conservation, openness to change, self-transcendence, and self-enhancement) and religious values influence psychological health among the Arab population. Methods: A total of 1,023 respondent from nine Arab countries aged 18 to 71 filled an online survey with measures of the following constructs: Schwartz’s four higher-order values (Portrait Value Questionnaire-21), religious values (Sahin’s Index of Islamic Moral Values), and general psychological health (General Health Questionnaire-28). Results: Two models of multiple regression were …


Growing Together: Cultivating The Social-Emotional Effects Of Art Education Through Trauma-Informed Pedagogy, Kaitlyn Lawrence Jun 2024

Growing Together: Cultivating The Social-Emotional Effects Of Art Education Through Trauma-Informed Pedagogy, Kaitlyn Lawrence

Masters Theses

In many societies, the process of art is recognized as a healing and transformative practice. In recent years, it has been emerging in tandem with social emotional practices and procedures in American education. However, it is also a fact that social emotional learning (SEL) does not account for all students due to its inability to account for the needs of all students in the classroom. SEL alone aims to teach healthy development and emotional management skills, but fails to account for students with varying experiences. While there are those who can and do integrate the skills from the Social Emotional …


The Cultural Complexity Of Immigrants And The Implications For Personality Assessment: Exploring The Role Of Frame Switching, Patrick Jay Lee Jun 2024

The Cultural Complexity Of Immigrants And The Implications For Personality Assessment: Exploring The Role Of Frame Switching, Patrick Jay Lee

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A significant body of personality research has focused on cross-national comparison, but less attention has been devoted to within-country subcultural complexity – especially with regards to the growing population of bicultural immigrants who subscribe to multiple cultural-value systems. Bicultural individuals have been found to view situations under distinct frames of reference corresponding to their heritage and host cultures, and their attitudes and behavior can vary depending on which frame is activated at a given moment. This dissertation investigates whether such frame switching effects can be caused by elements within a formal personality assessment setting, and in turn affect bicultural respondents’ …


Drug Use And Harm Reduction: Community Readiness As Pathway To Well-Being And Reintegration, Lauretta Ekanem Omale Jun 2024

Drug Use And Harm Reduction: Community Readiness As Pathway To Well-Being And Reintegration, Lauretta Ekanem Omale

Dissertations

Drug abuse negatively impacts the life and well-being of those who use drugs; this harm often extends to their loved ones, communities, and society. One presumptive set of psychological explanations for drug abuse is an addictive personality, a psychological susceptibility resulting from challenging family relationships, inadequate reinforcement, the absence of healthy role models, conflicting parental expectations, and a lack of love and respect. Harm reduction is a public health approach that focuses on minimizing the harmful effects of drugs and reducing judgment. It aims to meet people where they are in life and provide judgment-free, empathetic, supportive, and needed medical …


Elementary School Teacher’S Experiences Of Open Studio Process In Examining Diversity, Equity, And Inclusion Topics, Tiffany Thompson May 2024

Elementary School Teacher’S Experiences Of Open Studio Process In Examining Diversity, Equity, And Inclusion Topics, Tiffany Thompson

Expressive Therapies Dissertations

ABSTRACT

This qualitative research study examined the experiences of two Black female teachers and six White female teachers who participated in five Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) workshops that incorporated Open Studio Process (OSP) using Expressive Therapy Continuum (ETC). It is informed by research on defensiveness and resistance that often accompanies and presents barriers to effective DEI training.

All eight study participants were elementary school teachers, ages 22-56. Participants engaged in five workshops that used artistic mediums to explore DEI topics. Participants visually and metaphorically represented their experiences. Results were analyzed using qualitative techniques.

Findings are that OSP using ETC …


Grief Like Mine: A Literature Review Exploring Culturally Informed Grief Work For Black Youth Using Dance/Movement Therapy, Darrell Hyche May 2024

Grief Like Mine: A Literature Review Exploring Culturally Informed Grief Work For Black Youth Using Dance/Movement Therapy, Darrell Hyche

Expressive Therapiehttps://digitalcommons.lesley.edu/cgi/myaccount.cgis Capstone Theses

Black American youth are exposed to more death related circumstances than their peers yet are severely underrepresented in literature focused on the broader scope of children’s bereavement. More research and analysis are required to develop and implement culturally relevant interventions as they embark on their grief journey. Dance/movement therapy has the capacity for providing support that is culturally specific and able to meet the developmental levels of children, yet its grief focus work is limited. This literature review aims to bridge the gap between Black grief and dance/movement therapy as a culturally informed practice. An analysis of various forms of …


The Preservation Of Ancient Wisdom In Dmt: A Literature Review, Miranda Cox May 2024

The Preservation Of Ancient Wisdom In Dmt: A Literature Review, Miranda Cox

Expressive Therapiehttps://digitalcommons.lesley.edu/cgi/myaccount.cgis Capstone Theses

Abstract

Dance has a long and evocative history within humanity. This literature review explores the integration and impact dance has within religious and spiritual practices and how dance movement therapy can support these practices within a therapeutic model. Dance profoundly affects individuals during their healing journey and has impacted them through transcendental experiences. The review covers important topics regarding the therapeutic alliance and cultural humility, dance and the history of religion and spiritual practices, and the complications and benefits of religion and spirituality within a clinical therapeutic process. The intention is to explore how dance, religion, and spirituality can work …


Playing With International Students From Asia: An Exploration Of Cultural Commonalities And Differences In Developmental Transformations (Dvt), Hazuki Okamoto May 2024

Playing With International Students From Asia: An Exploration Of Cultural Commonalities And Differences In Developmental Transformations (Dvt), Hazuki Okamoto

Expressive Therapiehttps://digitalcommons.lesley.edu/cgi/myaccount.cgis Capstone Theses

Asian international students in the United States face a multitude of challenges such as language barriers, differences in cultural norms and behaviors, and identity confusion while navigating a foreign landscape. Developmental Transformations (DvT), a form of drama therapy, may apply to these challenges by enabling participants to explore different identities and express themselves creatively beyond the language barrier. This community engagement project was designed for Asian international students to be seen and heard by utilizing DvT. Within an in-person workshop, five participants played with their shared stories, and explored international and cultural roles in group DvT. Key takeaways from the …


Creative Resilience Against Racism Among Asian Americans: Development Of A Method, Janice Chen May 2024

Creative Resilience Against Racism Among Asian Americans: Development Of A Method, Janice Chen

Expressive Therapiehttps://digitalcommons.lesley.edu/cgi/myaccount.cgis Capstone Theses

The experience of racism is inevitable and can become internalized when racism is persistent. As an Asian American woman, I am interested in exploring how art can be used as a form of resilience against internalized racism among Asian Americans. Racism against Asian Americans and recent immigrants from Asia has always existed throughout the history of the United States. Systematic laws, institutional policies, and cultural norms have set rules and narratives to put Asian Americans at a disadvantage. In addition, Asian Americans may have difficulty opening the conversation about racism. Internalized racism can cause physical and mental harm. I used …


Aligning With Adolescents: A Literature Review Of Art Therapy In Residential Treatment Programs, Olivia Moore May 2024

Aligning With Adolescents: A Literature Review Of Art Therapy In Residential Treatment Programs, Olivia Moore

Expressive Therapiehttps://digitalcommons.lesley.edu/cgi/myaccount.cgis Capstone Theses

Adolescents in residential treatment programs throughout the United States are a specialized population that demonstrate resiliency and hope every day. Many adolescents in these programs have experienced prominent levels of trauma that impact their ability to function in lower-level programs, foster homes, and in their communities. Residential treatment approaches may look like locked facilities with trauma-informed staff who provide programming options, mental health care, and safe living conditions for adolescents. Without strength-based approaches to treatment, this population may struggle to overcome their trauma, mental health challenges, and developmental needs. In this literature review, art therapy was offered to provide developmentally …


Creating Whole Inclusive Worlds: The Impact Of Social Media Usage On Black Gender Expansive Millennials’ Experiences Of Social Support And Identity Development Processes, Meredith J. Holmes May 2024

Creating Whole Inclusive Worlds: The Impact Of Social Media Usage On Black Gender Expansive Millennials’ Experiences Of Social Support And Identity Development Processes, Meredith J. Holmes

Doctoral Dissertations

This qualitative study explored the processes of finding community and developing one’s own intersectional racial and gender identity through the social media (SM) experiences of 8 Black gender expansive (GE) adults located around the United States. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) methodology and an intersectional theoretical framework, the research questions guiding the study were: “What is the relationship between Black gender expansive people, social media, and community?” and “What is the relationship between Black gender expansive people, social media, and identity development?” The researcher’s findings from in-depth interviews with participants included three major themes: A) Positive Resilience-Supporting Experiences on SM, …


Comparing Executive Control: Bilingualism's Cognitive Advantage, Malcolm Jasmin, Tonya Buchanan Ph.D. May 2024

Comparing Executive Control: Bilingualism's Cognitive Advantage, Malcolm Jasmin, Tonya Buchanan Ph.D.

Symposium Of University Research and Creative Expression (SOURCE)

The Stroop Task is a widely used method for studying executive control. It helps to understand cognitive processes like inhibition and attentional regulation to examine how reading text and naming colors can interfere with each other. The study intends to use the Stroop Task to explore the executive control abilities of both bilingual and monolingual individuals. Previous research has shown that bilingual individuals perform better in the Stroop test compared to those who only speak one language (Bialystok et al., 2010). The impact of this advantage is believed to be due to the need to switch between languages and prevent …


Culture Matching And Its Impact On The Therapeutic Relationship: A Literature Review, Taylor Marsyla May 2024

Culture Matching And Its Impact On The Therapeutic Relationship: A Literature Review, Taylor Marsyla

Expressive Therapiehttps://digitalcommons.lesley.edu/cgi/myaccount.cgis Capstone Theses

As cultural competency and cultural humility move to the forefront of therapeutic treatment so does a need for understanding the effects of culture on the therapeutic relationship. Often individuals who belong to minority groups are less likely to seek mental health care and more commonly receive subpar treatment. This project attempts to examine the effects of matching patients and therapists based on a shared identity and/or culture as a form of culturally responsive treatment – also known as culture matching. In this literature review, the selected peer reviewed articles considered the perspectives of both therapists and patients. Research was divided …


Cultural And Structural Barriers Of Utilizing Mental Health Services In A School-Based Setting For Latinx Populations, Silvia Lozano, Bridgette Guadalupe Calderon May 2024

Cultural And Structural Barriers Of Utilizing Mental Health Services In A School-Based Setting For Latinx Populations, Silvia Lozano, Bridgette Guadalupe Calderon

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This qualitative research study aimed to reduce mental health service disparities in Latinx communities and helps fill in the gap by addressing cultural and structural barriers to utilizing MHS in a school-based setting for Latinx youth. There is limited research regarding Latinx parents’ perspectives and the reservations they have on utilizing school-based mental health services (MHS) for their children. This study identified six important themes: cultural factors, trust and rapport, reservations, access and awareness, parental involvement and challenges, and school-based resources. Implications for school districts are that they can use these findings to increase early intervention mental behavioral health programs …


Does Diversity Ideology Moderate Participants’ Perceptions Of Therapists Who Do And Do Not Broach?, Emily Allen May 2024

Does Diversity Ideology Moderate Participants’ Perceptions Of Therapists Who Do And Do Not Broach?, Emily Allen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Introduction. The literature has grown considerably regarding the act of broaching racial, ethnic, and cultural factors in therapy. Many have highlighted its positive impact on the therapeutic alliance, but little empirical work explores how individual differences influence a client’s response to broaching. This study assessed the effects of participant diversity ideology and therapist broaching behavior on perceptions of a therapist’s effectiveness. I hypothesized that participants in the therapists broaching condition would perceive the therapist to be more effective than participants in the no broaching condition. I also hypothesized that participants’ colorblind diversity ideology and therapist broaching condition would interact, such …


Emotional Experiences Of Black U.S. Computer Science And Engineering Students Amid Faculty-Student Interactions, Kyle Shanachilubwa May 2024

Emotional Experiences Of Black U.S. Computer Science And Engineering Students Amid Faculty-Student Interactions, Kyle Shanachilubwa

Honors Theses

Black students encounter unique challenges in computer science and engineering education. Chief among these is a disconnect with faculty due to a lack of mentorship and difficulties in interactions with faculty. Despite these challenges, Black students bring many engineering and computer science assets. This study aims to understand the emotional experiences of Black students in computer science and engineering education. We present an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to answer the questions: (1) How do Black students experience faculty-student interactions in computer science and engineering education? (2) How do Black students experience professional shame in these interactions? To answer these research …


Unveiling Existentialism And Self-Expression: Utilizing The Arts, Raquel Eduardo Nunez May 2024

Unveiling Existentialism And Self-Expression: Utilizing The Arts, Raquel Eduardo Nunez

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This analysis is an exploration of identity through the examination of art as a means of self-expression and societal critique. It delves into existentialism to explain the impacts of art on both positive societal experiences and negative interactions unique to the immigrant and Mexican American community. The artist, Raquel Eduardo Nuñez, examines their own art to dissect their position in life as a Mexican-born individual living in a foreign country. This method was chosen to allow a space of self-reflection and awareness to explore the components that shape identity and reveal art as a medium for interpretation of links between …


Impact Of Emotional Intelligence On Client Satisfaction In Project Management, Mousami Berawala Apr 2024

Impact Of Emotional Intelligence On Client Satisfaction In Project Management, Mousami Berawala

Harrisburg University Dissertations and Theses

This study investigates the correlation between emotional intelligence (EI) and client satisfaction in project management. It is guided by the central research question: Is emotional intelligence linked to client satisfaction? To explore this, the research is structured around Practice of EI on Leadership and Junior level and impact on client satisfaction, the impact of varying work environments, including remote, hybrid, office-based, and site-based settings, on project outcomes post-pandemic; differences in EI practices across countries and the effect of diverse work cultures; the comparison of EI application across different fields, with a focus on work-life balance and industry-specific practices in banking, …