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2000

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Articles 1 - 30 of 610

Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Sanctimony On Sanctions: What The United States And Russia Have In Common, Ibpp Editor Dec 2000

Sanctimony On Sanctions: What The United States And Russia Have In Common, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes political psychological issues related to consequences stemming from political sanctions.


Trends. Psychology And Sin In Brazil: What Will The Future Bring?, Ibpp Editor Dec 2000

Trends. Psychology And Sin In Brazil: What Will The Future Bring?, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article announces the upcoming confirmation of Marisa Almeida del'Isola e Diniz as the head of the Brazilian Intelligence Agency and questions how her background in psychology may affect the country.


Effects Of Dopamine D3 Receptor Antagonism On The Development Of Behavioral Sensitization To Cocaine, Hong Dong Dec 2000

Effects Of Dopamine D3 Receptor Antagonism On The Development Of Behavioral Sensitization To Cocaine, Hong Dong

Morehead State Theses and Dissertations

A thesis presented to the faculty of the College of Education and Behavioral Sciences at Morehead State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts by Hong Dong on December 13, 2000.


The Political Psychology Of Photographic Images: Facts, Fiction, And Superstition, Ibpp Editor Dec 2000

The Political Psychology Of Photographic Images: Facts, Fiction, And Superstition, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes psychological research that might make it less likely that bans against photographic images in Third World countries are viewed by Western observers as products of backwardness and ignorance.


Trends. Red Blues: The Psychology Of National Anthems, Ibpp Editor Dec 2000

Trends. Red Blues: The Psychology Of National Anthems, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article discusses the political and psychological aspects of music using the Russian national anthem as an example.


Ideologies That Kill: One Way In, No Way Out, Ibpp Editor Dec 2000

Ideologies That Kill: One Way In, No Way Out, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes the phenomenon of ideology as an ineluctable trap from which there is no detour and no escape.


Tips, Volume 20, No. 4, 5 & 6, And Volume 21, No. 1, 2000/2001, Wolf P. Wolfensberger Dec 2000

Tips, Volume 20, No. 4, 5 & 6, And Volume 21, No. 1, 2000/2001, Wolf P. Wolfensberger

Training Institute Publication Series (TIPS)

• Reading the Signs of the Times

• The Culture of Modernism as a "Great Disruption"

• The Materialism of Mammon

• Individualism

• Sensualism/Hedonism

• The Youth Cult as a Form of Hedonism

• Here-and-Now-ism & Time Illiteracy

• Externalism

• Externalism: General

• Externalism: The "Please, Please, Please Look at Me" Phenomenon

• Externalism: Celebrititis

• Segmentation & Divisioning

• Mundality

• Combinations of Elements of Modernism

• Miscellaneous Other Peculiar Events & Developments of Our Time

• Computerization

• Miscellaneous Noteworthy, Strange or Bizarre Computer or Net Phenomena

• Computer Ubiquitization

• Replacement of "Real Reality" With …


Psychometric Analysis Of The Self-Test; A Newly Developed Brief Screening Test For Detection Of Mild Cognitive Impairments In Early Alzheimer's Disease, Mateja De Leonni Stanonik Dec 2000

Psychometric Analysis Of The Self-Test; A Newly Developed Brief Screening Test For Detection Of Mild Cognitive Impairments In Early Alzheimer's Disease, Mateja De Leonni Stanonik

Doctoral Dissertations

Dementia is a major public health challenge, which is becoming more common as the aged population grows. Adequate care of dementia patients requires that they be recognized as having memory impairment, identified as having dementia syndrome, and evaluated for the specific cause of the dementia. Dementia is one of the first symptoms in the beginning stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Currently, the most common psychological instrument used in early evaluation of dementia and other cognitive problems in Alzheimer’s disease is the Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE, Folstein & Folstein, 1974). The MMSE evaluates different aspects of a patient’s memory, visuospatial functions, …


Secretory Immunoglobulin A And Heart Rate Reactions To Mental Arithmetic And Hypnotic Suggestions, Grant Benham Dec 2000

Secretory Immunoglobulin A And Heart Rate Reactions To Mental Arithmetic And Hypnotic Suggestions, Grant Benham

Doctoral Dissertations

The current study replicates and extends previous research on the effects of both specific hypnotic suggestions and a mental arithmetic task on secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Participants (14 males, 16 females) were shown a short video on immune functioning and then sat quietly for 8 minutes in order to obtain an initial baseline measure of sIgA. Participants were then administered an 8-min mental arithmetic (stress) task and a 16-min hypnosis task in a counterbalanced order and separated by a second 8-min baseline period. During the hypnosis condition, participants received a taped hypnotic induction followed by specific suggestions for increasing immune …


Trends. The Unconditional As Conditional: We Are All Tamils, Ibpp Editor Dec 2000

Trends. The Unconditional As Conditional: We Are All Tamils, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article discusses the problematic nature of the term "unconditional" when applied to peace talks, in this case in Sri Lanka between the Tamil Tigers and the Sri Lankan government.


An Update On The Political Psychology Of Sex And Personnel Security, Ibpp Editor Dec 2000

An Update On The Political Psychology Of Sex And Personnel Security, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes the positive and negative contributions of scientific psychology to the interface of sexual orientation and personnel security.


Sanctions And Nonproliferation Behavior: Missing On Missiles, Ibpp Editor Dec 2000

Sanctions And Nonproliferation Behavior: Missing On Missiles, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes political psychologies supporting United States (US) sanctions-related behavior towards the People's Republic of China's (PRC) exporting of missiles, missile components, and missile technology.


Trends. Social Violence: The Jigsaw Classroom As A Piece Of The Puzzle, Ibpp Editor Dec 2000

Trends. Social Violence: The Jigsaw Classroom As A Piece Of The Puzzle, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article discusses the "jigsaw technique" developed by social psychologist Elliot Aronson as a partial way of addressing school-related violence.


Animal Minds And Animal Emotions, Marian Stamp Dawkins Dec 2000

Animal Minds And Animal Emotions, Marian Stamp Dawkins

Emotion Collection

The possibility of conscious experiences of emotions in non-human animals has been much less explored than that of conscious experiences associated with carrying out complex cognitive tasks. However, no great cognitive powers are needed to feel hunger or pain and it may be that the capacity to feel emotions is widespread in the animal kingdom. Since plants can show surprisingly sophisticated ‘‘choice’’ and ‘‘decision-making’’ mechanisms and yet we would not wish to imply that they are conscious, attribution of emotions to animals has to be done with care. Whether or not an animal possesses anticipatory mechanisms associated with positive and …


Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blockade By Propranolol Enhances Retention In A Multitrial Passive-Avoidance Procedure, Allen M. Schneider, Nancy Koven , '98, Kimberly A. Lombardo , '98, Dimitriy A. Levin , '01, Peter E. Simson , '78 Dec 2000

Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blockade By Propranolol Enhances Retention In A Multitrial Passive-Avoidance Procedure, Allen M. Schneider, Nancy Koven , '98, Kimberly A. Lombardo , '98, Dimitriy A. Levin , '01, Peter E. Simson , '78

Psychology Faculty Works

The effect of beta -adrenergic receptor blockade on retention in a mildly aversive passive-avoidance procedure was investigated. Rats were given passive-avoidance training-1 trial per day for 4 days-and were administered saline, the centrally and peripherally acting beta -adrenergic blocker propranolol (4 or 10 mg/kg ip), or the peripherally acting P-adrenergic blocker sotalol (4 or 10 mg/kg ip) immediately or 2 hr after the Ist trial. Enhanced retention occurred only with the higher dose (10 mg/kg) of propranolol and only when it was administered immediately after training. The enhanced retention produced by propranolol is discussed in terms of opposing, regionally specific …


The Relationships Among The Stimulus Functions And The Clinical Effects Of Methylphenidate In Children Diagnosed With Adhd, Emily K. Macdonald Dec 2000

The Relationships Among The Stimulus Functions And The Clinical Effects Of Methylphenidate In Children Diagnosed With Adhd, Emily K. Macdonald

Masters Theses

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorder in the United States. Approximately 90% of children receiving pharmacological treatment for ADHD receive the stimulant methylphenidate (MPH). MPH is associated with positive effects across many behavioral domains, yet the mechanisms through which it exerts clinical effects have not been conclusively determined. MPH produces reinforcing and subjective effects, however it is not understood how these functions relate to clinical effects. The present study examined the relationship among several stimulus functions and the clinical effects of MPH. Participants were 5 children (aged 10-14) diagnosed with ADHD who were …


Do Safety Observers Perform More Safely As A Result Of Conducting Observations?, Alicia M. Alvero Dec 2000

Do Safety Observers Perform More Safely As A Result Of Conducting Observations?, Alicia M. Alvero

Masters Theses

Behavior-based safety (BBS) is an effective approach to improving safety within organizations, and has been implemented across a wide variety of settings. The two major components of BBS are the observation process and the delivery of feedback. Literature on feedback is abundant, but experimentation and scientific evidence on effects of the observation process are nonexistent. Typically, supervisors or employees involved in BBS implementations conduct observations of other employees' behavior, but the effects of conducting observations on an observer's safety performance is not known. The present study was a first attempt at assessing these effects. A multiple baseline counterbalanced across two …


Effects Of Neonatal Clomipramine Treatment On Photic And Non-Photic Circadian Phase Shifting In Rats, Suzanne M. Dwyer Dec 2000

Effects Of Neonatal Clomipramine Treatment On Photic And Non-Photic Circadian Phase Shifting In Rats, Suzanne M. Dwyer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Neonatal exposure to monoaminergic antidepressant drugs produces a wide variety of effects on the behavior and physiology of adult rats which parallel those observed in human depression. Monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems are involved in the regulation of both affective and circadian behaviors, and alterations in circadian rhythmicity have been observed in depressed patients and in several other animal depression models. The purpose of the present study was to explore circadian phase shifting following neonatal antidepressant treatment. Neonatal rats were divided into three treatment groups; a clomipramine-treated group, a saline-treated group, and an unhandled group. Daily injections of clomipramine (25 mg/kg SC), …


Emotional Expressiveness And Problematic Behaviors Among Male Juvenile Sexual Offenders, General Offenders, And Nonoffenders, Carin M. Ness Dec 2000

Emotional Expressiveness And Problematic Behaviors Among Male Juvenile Sexual Offenders, General Offenders, And Nonoffenders, Carin M. Ness

Dissertations

This analytic variable study examined the potential differences that exist among male juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs), general offenders (GOs), and nonoffenders (NOs) on the emotional expressiveness variables of alexithymia and affective orientation, and three problematic behavior variables including self-defeating behavior, risk taking, and reckless behavior. It was hypothesized that JSOs and GOs would be statistically significantly different than NOs on all variables but not different from each other.

Hypotheses were tested by a MANOVA. When statistical significance was indicated, ANOVAs were computed to identify the specific groups and measures, which were statistically significant The significance level for all analyses was …


Membership At Risk: Representation Of Disability In Popular Counselor Education Textbooks, Nancy A. Rosenau Dec 2000

Membership At Risk: Representation Of Disability In Popular Counselor Education Textbooks, Nancy A. Rosenau

Dissertations

Representations of disability in American culture are saturated with negative images and meanings. Pervasive negativity threatens full societal membership and its related benefits of a sense of belonging, connectedness, and inclusion, and a source of identity, social networks and empowerment for people with disabilities.

Disability pride is a resistant movement that seeks to denaturalize assumptions about the negative experience of disability. The multicultural turn in counseling recognizes that competent practice requires awareness of diverse groups in society. Disability as the largest minority group in the U.S. requires counselor awareness. This study examined the representation of disability in a sample of …


Possible Levels Of Animal Consciousness With Reference To Grey Parrots (Psittacus Erithacus), Irene M. Pepperberg, Spencer K. Lynn Dec 2000

Possible Levels Of Animal Consciousness With Reference To Grey Parrots (Psittacus Erithacus), Irene M. Pepperberg, Spencer K. Lynn

Sentience Collection

Researchers often study nonhuman abilities by assuming their subjects form representations about perceived stimuli and then process such information; why then would consciousness be required, and, if required, at what level? Arguments about nonhuman consciousness range from claims of levels comparable to humans to refutation of any need to study such phenomena. We suggest that (a) species exhibit different levels attuned to their ecological niches, and (b) animals, within their maximum possible level, exhibit different extents of awareness appropriate to particular situations, much like humans (presumably conscious) who often act without conscious awareness of factors controlling their behavior. We propose …


Spontaneous Discrimination Of Natural Stimuli By Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), David A. Brown, Sarah T. Boysen Dec 2000

Spontaneous Discrimination Of Natural Stimuli By Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), David A. Brown, Sarah T. Boysen

Sentience Collection

Six chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were presented with pairs of color photographic images of 5 different categories of animals (cat, chimp, gorilla, tiger, fish). The subjects responded to each pair using symbols for "same" and "different." Both within- and between-category discriminations were tested, and all chimpanzees classified the image pairs in accordance with the 5 experimenter-defined categories under conditions of nondifferential reinforcement. Although previous studies have demonstrated identification or discrimination of natural categories by nonhuman animals, subjects were typically differentially reinforced for their responses. The present findings demonstrate that chimpanzees can classify natural objects spontaneously and that such classifications may be …


Syllable Structure Development Of Toddlers With Expressive Specific Language Impairment, Aimée Baird Pharr, Nan Bernstein Ratner, Leslie Rescorla Dec 2000

Syllable Structure Development Of Toddlers With Expressive Specific Language Impairment, Aimée Baird Pharr, Nan Bernstein Ratner, Leslie Rescorla

Psychology Faculty Research and Scholarship

A total of 35 children - 20 with expressive specific language impairment (SLI-E) and 15 typically developing (TD) peers - were compared longitudinally from 24 to 36 months with respect to their production of syllable shapes in 10-minute spontaneous speech samples. SLI-E 24-month-olds predominantly produced earlier developing syllable shapes containing vowels, liquids, and glides. TD 24-month-olds and SLI-E 36-month-olds produced approximately the same proportion of syllable types, with the exception of consonant clusters, where TD 24 month-olds produced more than SLI-E 36-month-olds. TD children at 36 months showed the greatest use of syllable shapes containing two different consonants and consonant …


Venture Behavioral Health Southwestern Michigan Treatment Of Depression Collaborative Study: The Effectiveness Of Behavioral Activation Group Therapy: An Initial Investigation, Jeffrey F. Porter Dec 2000

Venture Behavioral Health Southwestern Michigan Treatment Of Depression Collaborative Study: The Effectiveness Of Behavioral Activation Group Therapy: An Initial Investigation, Jeffrey F. Porter

Dissertations

A recent empirical study (Jacobson et al., 1996) suggested that the Behavioral Activation (BA) component of Beck’s Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CT) for depression (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979) may be as effective a treatment for clinical depression as the full CT treatment. BA involves intervention choices that are fewer in number and more straightforward than those contained in CT, making BA a more efficient treatment than CT. The purpose of this study was to extend the research on BA by administering it as a group therapy and to evaluate this treatment in a natural setting. This was achieved by classifying …


Journey To Self: The Experience Of Inner Life Of Helping Professionals, Candace W. Ross Dec 2000

Journey To Self: The Experience Of Inner Life Of Helping Professionals, Candace W. Ross

Dissertations

Based on the assumptions that self-awareness is an important factor in healthy and effective functioning of helping professionals (Corey, Corey, & Callanan, 1998) and that the self of the therapist is an important tool in effective therapy (Baldwin, 2000), this phenomenological study was conducted to explore the experience of inner life of helping professionals. Three women and two men, either licensed counselors or psychologists who were working in therapeutic settings, agreed to participate in a two-part interview. In the first interview, the participants described their experience of inner life, including what facilitated or hindered their experience, how inner life informed …


Vicarious Traumatization: An Examination Of The Effects Of Exposure To Traumatic Material In Child Abuse Counselors, Stacey A. Waller Dec 2000

Vicarious Traumatization: An Examination Of The Effects Of Exposure To Traumatic Material In Child Abuse Counselors, Stacey A. Waller

Masters Theses

Counselors who deliver services to children who have suffered maltreatment confront on a daily basis horrific examples of human suffering inflicted on society's most vulnerable members. Such repeated exposure may put these professionals at risk for adverse psychological consequences, including vicarious traumatization (VT), which can include symptoms similar to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study examined the unique effects of providing trauma services to children on 34 counselors who work primarily with child survivors of maltreatment. While the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in this sample was low, respondents reported higher levels of depression and emotional exhaustion than found in …


The Role Of Eeoc Factors In Determining Perceptions Of Hostile Work Environment Sexual Harassment, Libby Miller Dec 2000

The Role Of Eeoc Factors In Determining Perceptions Of Hostile Work Environment Sexual Harassment, Libby Miller

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The Equal Employment Opportunity Guidelines on Sexual Harassment identify six factors that are relevant in determinations of sexual harassment. This study attempted to determine if three of these factors (i.e., frequency of harassment, number of victims and number of perpetrators) drive perceptions of what constitutes sexual harassment. Participants role-playing jurors on an hostile environment sexual harassment case demonstrated no differences in perceptions as a function of number of victims or number of perpetrators. The significant effect for frequency of harassment was not in the hypothesized direction, with less frequent harassment being perceived as more likely to constitute sexual harassment. The …


A Descriptive Study Of The Selection Procedures Used By Kentucky Manufacturers, Amy Dumanois Dec 2000

A Descriptive Study Of The Selection Procedures Used By Kentucky Manufacturers, Amy Dumanois

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the selection practices used by manufacturing companies in Kentucky and whether the size of the organization and the number of employees hired in 1999 affected the use of valid selection procedures and compliance with EEO Guidelines. Surveys (300) were mailed to Human Resources professionals with a response rate of 35.7%. The majority of participants reported using three selection procedures: interviews, application blanks, and reference checks. The size of the organization and the number of employee hired in 1999 were not found to be related to the tendency to use a …


Getting Out: A Feminist Psychoanalytical Analysis Of Intimate Violence, Aili Marie Smith Dec 2000

Getting Out: A Feminist Psychoanalytical Analysis Of Intimate Violence, Aili Marie Smith

Theses and Dissertations

In my thesis I examined various forms of physical and psychological violence within the text Getting Out by Marsha Norman. Getting Out is filled with disturbing visual images of intimate violence. Utilizing various feminist psychoanalytical theorists and critics, I explored the realm of intimate violence. This included paying particular attention to the feminists Rhoda Unger & Mary Crawford in Women in Gender: A Feminist Psychology and Tony Martens in The Spirit Weeps: Characteristics and Dynamics of Incest and Child Sexual Abuse. My exploration focused specifically on the act of violence found in the drama. Not only did I relate these …


Eating Disorders: Prevention, Identification And Treatment In Elementary And Secondary Schools, Marcella I. Stickney Dec 2000

Eating Disorders: Prevention, Identification And Treatment In Elementary And Secondary Schools, Marcella I. Stickney

Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to examine the responses of elementary and secondary school counselors to students with symptoms of eating disorders. A survey was sent to 1000 school counselors in the upper Midwest (Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin) during the spring of 2000. The survey contained 1 of 4 vignettes which describe either a male or female student presenting with/without symptoms suggestive of disordered eating patterns. The gender of the student in the vignette was randomly assigned. School counselors were asked to report the classification they would designate, assessment procedures they would utilize, and interventions that they …