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Articles 1 - 30 of 96

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

The Comparison Of Endothelial Permeability At 48 Hours Post Skeletal Muscle Injury In Male And Female Mice At Various Ages, Sabrina Tusavitz May 2020

The Comparison Of Endothelial Permeability At 48 Hours Post Skeletal Muscle Injury In Male And Female Mice At Various Ages, Sabrina Tusavitz

Health and Exercise Physiology Honors Papers

We compared endothelial permeability at 48 hours post skeletal muscle injury in male and female mice at 1 month, 2 months, 3, 6 and 12 months of age. We hypothesized that the female mice would show more permeability at 48 hours post injury than the male mice at all ages. Our findings were more complicated as permeability following injury trends down with age in females, and up with age in males. These findings could be beneficial for medical professionals to tailor an injured athlete’s treatment to their age and sex since there are permeability and therefore possibly inflammation differences.


Examining Permeability And Contractility Of Skeletal Muscle In Castrated Male Mice, Evan Scott Apr 2020

Examining Permeability And Contractility Of Skeletal Muscle In Castrated Male Mice, Evan Scott

Health and Exercise Physiology Honors Papers

A common method of treating skeletal muscle injury is temperature therapy. Temperature affects one of the initial aspects of skeletal muscle healing, the increasing of vascular permeability. Previous data accumulated from the Ursinus College Skeletal Muscle Lab suggests that vascular permeability following temperature therapy is different between the anatomically intact male and female mice. However, there have not been any studies to date that are able determine the cause of these permeability differences following temperature treatment. In addition, it is currently unclear how increased vascular permeability affects skeletal muscle healing. A possible cause for these differences is the increased presence ...


The Effect Of Acute And Chronic Thermotherapy On Type 2 Diabetic Skeletal Muscle Cell Viability And Gene Expression: Pilot Study, Louay Bachnak, Jean Sparks, Xavier F. Gonzales, Daniel Newmire, Felix Omoruyi Feb 2020

The Effect Of Acute And Chronic Thermotherapy On Type 2 Diabetic Skeletal Muscle Cell Viability And Gene Expression: Pilot Study, Louay Bachnak, Jean Sparks, Xavier F. Gonzales, Daniel Newmire, Felix Omoruyi

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease affecting millions of people globally. Type 2 diabetes is associated with insulin resistance or a defective secretion of insulin from the pancreas. The skeletal muscle system accounts for 80% of glucose uptake and is a vital player in healthy aging and muscle mass maintenance. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thermotherapy on gene expression and cell viability in Type 2 Diabetic skeletal muscle. METHODS: Human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) and Diabetic Type 2 human skeletal muscle myoblast (D-HSMM) (Lonza Inc, Walkersville, MD) were cultured until 90% confluency was ...


Disuse Atrophy Occurs Without A Change In Mitochondrial Respiratory Control Ratio During Hindlimb Unloading In Mice, Indu Reddy Enukonda, Megan E. Rosa-Caldwell, David E. Lee, Jacob L. Brown, Richard A. Perry, Tyrone A. Washington, Nicholas P. Greene, Michael P. Wiggs Feb 2020

Disuse Atrophy Occurs Without A Change In Mitochondrial Respiratory Control Ratio During Hindlimb Unloading In Mice, Indu Reddy Enukonda, Megan E. Rosa-Caldwell, David E. Lee, Jacob L. Brown, Richard A. Perry, Tyrone A. Washington, Nicholas P. Greene, Michael P. Wiggs

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Skeletal muscle atrophy commonly occurs during prolonged periods of inactivity, however, the precise mechanisms that cause muscle atrophy have yet to be determined. Specifically, a controversy exists on whether mitochondrial dysfunction is a cause or consequence of disuse muscle atrophy. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if a change in the respiratory control ratio, which is a ratio of maximal O2 respiration to leak respiration, could be detected prior to muscle atrophy in a time-course study in mice. METHODS: Disuse atrophy was induced using hindlimb unloading (HU) in adult, C57BL/6J male mice for 0 (control ...


Exploring The Role Of Bmp7 Gene Expression In An In Vitro Model Of Aging Human Skeletal Muscle., Dreanna M. Mcadams, Emily L. Zumbro, Chase M. White, Ryan A. Gordon, Anthony A. Duplanty Feb 2020

Exploring The Role Of Bmp7 Gene Expression In An In Vitro Model Of Aging Human Skeletal Muscle., Dreanna M. Mcadams, Emily L. Zumbro, Chase M. White, Ryan A. Gordon, Anthony A. Duplanty

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Sarcopenia is an age-related condition associated with rapid loss of skeletal muscle (SKM) tissue that affects mobility and quality of life of geriatric individuals. Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) and Protein Kinase B (AKT) have significant roles in SKM hypertrophy with responses to DNA damage and repair within SKM. However, mTOR and AKT expression is significantly decreased with age. Upstream of AKT, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP7) is a member of the TGF-β signaling family that has been reported as a positive regulator of muscle hypertrophy through the Bmp–Smad1/5/8 signaling axis. PURPOSE: To use an in vitro model ...


Ubiquitin Proteasome System Activity Is Suppressed By Curcumin Following Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage In Human Skeletal Muscle, Thomas D. Cardaci, Steven B. Machek, Dylan T. Wilburn, Paul S. Hwang, Darryn Willoughby Phd Feb 2020

Ubiquitin Proteasome System Activity Is Suppressed By Curcumin Following Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage In Human Skeletal Muscle, Thomas D. Cardaci, Steven B. Machek, Dylan T. Wilburn, Paul S. Hwang, Darryn Willoughby Phd

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

PURPOSE: Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In vitro and in vivo animal studies have demonstrated that exposure to curcumin leads to dysregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). However, to date, no study has investigated curcumin’s ability to influence UPS activity in a human model. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of curcumin supplementation on markers of UPS activity in the presence of elevations in UPS activity due to exercise-induced muscle damage. METHODS: Twenty-three recreationally active male and female participants between the ages of 18-30 were randomized into a ...


Role Of Atp1a1 In Skeletal Muscle Growth And Metabolism, Laura C. Kutz Jan 2020

Role Of Atp1a1 In Skeletal Muscle Growth And Metabolism, Laura C. Kutz

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 30% of total body mass, and loss of muscle mass and dysfunctional muscle metabolism are implicated in multiple disease states, including type 2 diabetes, heart failure, and septic shock. As such, understanding the mechanisms of skeletal muscle growth and atrophy, including pharmaceutical targets that may prove safe and effective, is therefore an important goal of current research on skeletal muscle physiology. One potential target in skeletal muscle development and function that has not been fully explored is the Na/KATPase (NKA), especially the α1 isoform. This isoform has a unique signaling function that has previously been ...


Whey Protein Supplementation Post Resistance Exercise In Elderly Men Induces Changes In Muscle Mirna's Compared To Resistance Exercise Alone, Randall F. D'Souza, Nina Zeng, James F. Markworth, Vandre C. Figueiredo, Christopher P. Hedges, Aaron C Petersen, Paul A Della Gatta, David Cameron-Smith, Cameron J. Mitchell Jun 2019

Whey Protein Supplementation Post Resistance Exercise In Elderly Men Induces Changes In Muscle Mirna's Compared To Resistance Exercise Alone, Randall F. D'Souza, Nina Zeng, James F. Markworth, Vandre C. Figueiredo, Christopher P. Hedges, Aaron C Petersen, Paul A Della Gatta, David Cameron-Smith, Cameron J. Mitchell

Center for Muscle Biology Faculty Publications

Progressive muscle loss with aging results in decreased physical function, frailty, and impaired metabolic health. Deficits in anabolic signaling contribute to an impaired ability for aged skeletal muscle to adapt in response to exercise and protein feeding. One potential contributing mechanism could be exerted by dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs). Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if graded protein doses consumed after resistance exercise altered muscle miRNA expression in elderly men. Twenty-three senior men (67.9 ± 0.9 years) performed a bout of resistance exercise and were randomized to consume either a placebo, 20 or 40 g of ...


Local In Vivo Measures Of Muscle Lipid And Oxygen Consumption Change In Response To Combined Vitamin D Repletion And Aerobic Training In Older Adults, D. Travis Thomas, David M. Schnell, Maja Redzic, Mingjun Zhao, Hideat Abraha, Danielle Jones, Howard Brim, Guoqiang Yu Apr 2019

Local In Vivo Measures Of Muscle Lipid And Oxygen Consumption Change In Response To Combined Vitamin D Repletion And Aerobic Training In Older Adults, D. Travis Thomas, David M. Schnell, Maja Redzic, Mingjun Zhao, Hideat Abraha, Danielle Jones, Howard Brim, Guoqiang Yu

Health and Clinical Sciences Faculty Publications

Intramyocellular (IMCL), extramyocellular lipid (EMCL), and vitamin D deficiency are associated with muscle metabolic dysfunction. This study compared the change in [IMCL]:[EMCL] following the combined treatment of vitamin D and aerobic training (DAT) compared with vitamin D (D), aerobic training (AT), and control (CTL). Male and female subjects aged 60–80 years with a BMI ranging from 18.5–34.9 and vitamin D status of ≤ 32 ng/mL (25(OH)D) were recruited to randomized, prospective clinical trial double-blinded for supplement with a 2 × 2 factorial design. Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) (10,000 IU × 5 days/week) or ...


Pkd1 Inhibits Ampk2 Through Phosphorylation Of Serine 491 And Impairs Insulin Signaling In Skeletal Muscle Cells, Kimberly A. Coughlan, Rudy J. Valentine, Bella S. Sudit, Katherine Allen, Yossi Dagon, Barbara B. Kahn, Neil B. Ruderman, Asish K. Saha Apr 2019

Pkd1 Inhibits Ampk2 Through Phosphorylation Of Serine 491 And Impairs Insulin Signaling In Skeletal Muscle Cells, Kimberly A. Coughlan, Rudy J. Valentine, Bella S. Sudit, Katherine Allen, Yossi Dagon, Barbara B. Kahn, Neil B. Ruderman, Asish K. Saha

Rudy Valentine

Background: Diminished activity of the enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is associated with impaired insulin signaling.

Results: Protein Kinase (PK)C/D1 activation inhibits AMPK2 via Ser491 phosphorylation; PKD1 inhibition prevents this in skeletal muscle cells.

Conclusion: PKD1 is a novel upstream AMPK-kinase that phosphorylates AMPK on Ser491 and regulates insulin signaling.

Significance: PKD1 inhibition may be a novel strategy for improving insulin sensitivity.


Imoxin Attenuates Lps‐Induced Inflammation And Murf1 Expression In Mouse Skeletal Muscle, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew A. Jefferson, Marian L. Kohut, Hyeyoon Eo Mar 2019

Imoxin Attenuates Lps‐Induced Inflammation And Murf1 Expression In Mouse Skeletal Muscle, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew A. Jefferson, Marian L. Kohut, Hyeyoon Eo

Rudy Valentine

The double‐stranded RNA‐dependent protein kinase (PKR) contributes to inflammatory cytokine expression and disease pathogenesis in many conditions. Limited data are available on the efficacy of the PKR inhibitor imoxin to prevent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced inflammation in skeletal muscle in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of imoxin, a PKR inhibitor, on inflammatory and atrophy signaling in skeletal muscle in response to an acute inflammatory insult with LPS. Six‐week old C57BL/6J mice received vehicle (saline) or 0.5 mg/kg imoxin 24 and 2 h prior to induction of inflammation via 1 ...


Multi-Dimensional Transcriptional Remodeling By Physiological Insulin In Vivo, Thiago M. Batista, Ruben Garcia-Martin, Weikang Cai, Masahiro Konishi, Brian T. O'Neill, Masaji Sakaguchi, Jong Hun Kim, Dae Young Jung, Jason K. Kim, C. Ronald Kahn Mar 2019

Multi-Dimensional Transcriptional Remodeling By Physiological Insulin In Vivo, Thiago M. Batista, Ruben Garcia-Martin, Weikang Cai, Masahiro Konishi, Brian T. O'Neill, Masaji Sakaguchi, Jong Hun Kim, Dae Young Jung, Jason K. Kim, C. Ronald Kahn

Open Access Articles

Regulation of gene expression is an important aspect of insulin action but in vivo is intertwined with changing levels of glucose and counter-regulatory hormones. Here we demonstrate that under euglycemic clamp conditions, physiological levels of insulin regulate interrelated networks of more than 1,000 transcripts in muscle and liver. These include expected pathways related to glucose and lipid utilization, mitochondrial function, and autophagy, as well as unexpected pathways, such as chromatin remodeling, mRNA splicing, and Notch signaling. These acutely regulated pathways extend beyond those dysregulated in mice with chronic insulin deficiency or insulin resistance and involve a broad network of ...


The Role Of Sirt1 In Skeletal Muscle Function And Repair Of Older Mice, Mathew J. Myers, Danielle L. Sheperd, Andrya J. Durr, David S. Stanton, Junaith S. Mohamed, John M. Hollander, Stephen E. Alway Jan 2019

The Role Of Sirt1 In Skeletal Muscle Function And Repair Of Older Mice, Mathew J. Myers, Danielle L. Sheperd, Andrya J. Durr, David S. Stanton, Junaith S. Mohamed, John M. Hollander, Stephen E. Alway

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Background Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a NAD+ sensitive deacetylase that has been linked to longevity and has been suggested to confer beneficial effects that counter aging-associated deterioration. Muscle repair is dependent upon satellite cell function, which is reported to be reduced with aging; however, it is not known if this is linked to an aging-suppression of SIRT1. This study tested the hypothesis that Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) overexpression would increase the extent of muscle repair and muscle function in older mice. Methods We examined satellite cell dependent repair in tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles of 13 young wild-type mice (20 ...


Association Of Skeletal Muscle And Psychological Responses To Immobility After Major Injury, Jacob T. Higgins Jan 2019

Association Of Skeletal Muscle And Psychological Responses To Immobility After Major Injury, Jacob T. Higgins

Theses and Dissertations--Nursing

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the physical and psychological responses to the combination of major trauma (Injury Severity Score [ISS] > 15) and variable periods of immobility. Specific aims were to: 1) develop a conceptual model that illustrates physiological and psychological alterations that occur after injury and subsequent immobility, and their association with skeletal muscle responses and recovery; 2) evaluate daily measures of skeletal muscle strength (bicep and quadricep) using dynamometry and skeletal muscle (rectus femoris and biceps brachii) muscle thickness measured with ultrasound in patients after major trauma; and 3) assess the predictive ability of anxiety and ...


Imoxin Attenuates Lps‐Induced Inflammation And Murf1 Expression In Mouse Skeletal Muscle, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew A. Jefferson, Marian L. Kohut, Hyeyoon Eo Dec 2018

Imoxin Attenuates Lps‐Induced Inflammation And Murf1 Expression In Mouse Skeletal Muscle, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew A. Jefferson, Marian L. Kohut, Hyeyoon Eo

Kinesiology Publications

The double‐stranded RNA‐dependent protein kinase (PKR) contributes to inflammatory cytokine expression and disease pathogenesis in many conditions. Limited data are available on the efficacy of the PKR inhibitor imoxin to prevent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced inflammation in skeletal muscle in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of imoxin, a PKR inhibitor, on inflammatory and atrophy signaling in skeletal muscle in response to an acute inflammatory insult with LPS. Six‐week old C57BL/6J mice received vehicle (saline) or 0.5 mg/kg imoxin 24 and 2 h prior to induction of inflammation via 1 ...


Hif Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibition Protects Skeletal Muscle From Eccentric Contraction-Induced Injury, Andrew N Billin, Samuel E Honeycutt, Alan V Mcdougal, Jaclyn P Kerr, Zhe Chen, Johannes M Freudenberg, Deepak K Rajpal, Guizhen Luo, Henning Fritz Kramer, Robert S Geske, Frank Fang, Bert Yao, Richard V Clark, John Lepore, Alex Cobitz, Ram Miller, Kazunori Nosaka, Aaron C Hinken, Alan J Russell Nov 2018

Hif Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibition Protects Skeletal Muscle From Eccentric Contraction-Induced Injury, Andrew N Billin, Samuel E Honeycutt, Alan V Mcdougal, Jaclyn P Kerr, Zhe Chen, Johannes M Freudenberg, Deepak K Rajpal, Guizhen Luo, Henning Fritz Kramer, Robert S Geske, Frank Fang, Bert Yao, Richard V Clark, John Lepore, Alex Cobitz, Ram Miller, Kazunori Nosaka, Aaron C Hinken, Alan J Russell

ECU Publications Post 2013

BACKGROUND: In muscular dystrophy and old age, skeletal muscle repair is compromised leading to fibrosis and fatty tissue accumulation. Therefore, therapies that protect skeletal muscle or enhance repair would be valuable medical treatments. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) regulate gene transcription under conditions of low oxygen, and HIF target genes EPO and VEGF have been associated with muscle protection and repair. We tested the importance of HIF activation following skeletal muscle injury, in both a murine model and human volunteers, using prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors that stabilize and activate HIF.

METHODS: Using a mouse eccentric limb injury model, we characterized the protective effects ...


An Integrated Approach To Analyzing Arteriolar Network Hemodynamics., Zahra Farid Oct 2018

An Integrated Approach To Analyzing Arteriolar Network Hemodynamics., Zahra Farid

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this thesis was to optimize our technique for studying blood flow in arteriolar networks by including capillary resistance and venular network geometry. We aimed to validate our technique using experimental flow measurements and Murray’s law. First, arteriolar and venular networks were reconstructed from intravital videomicroscopy (IVVM) images of the gluteus maximus muscle, and capillary resistance was estimated and distributed to each terminal arteriole (TA) segment according to its diameter. Resistance for small arterioles and venules that were likely missed in our IVVM experiments were also added to each TA segment in our reconstructed networks based on ...


Autotaxin-Lpa Signaling Contributes To Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance In Muscle And Impairs Mitochondrial Metabolism, Kenneth D'Souza, Carine Nzirorera, Andrew M. Cowie, Geena P. Varghese, Purvi Trivedi, Thomas O. Eichmann, Dipsikha Biswas, Mohamed Touaibia, Andrew J. Morris, Vassilis Aidinis, Daniel A. Kane, Thomas Pulinilkunnil, Petra C. Kienesberger Aug 2018

Autotaxin-Lpa Signaling Contributes To Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance In Muscle And Impairs Mitochondrial Metabolism, Kenneth D'Souza, Carine Nzirorera, Andrew M. Cowie, Geena P. Varghese, Purvi Trivedi, Thomas O. Eichmann, Dipsikha Biswas, Mohamed Touaibia, Andrew J. Morris, Vassilis Aidinis, Daniel A. Kane, Thomas Pulinilkunnil, Petra C. Kienesberger

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Autotaxin (ATX) is an adipokine that generates the bioactive lipid, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX-LPA signaling has been implicated in diet-induced obesity and systemic insulin resistance. However, it remains unclear whether the ATX-LPA pathway influences insulin function and energy metabolism in target tissues, particularly skeletal muscle, the major site of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. The objective of this study was to test whether the ATX-LPA pathway impacts tissue insulin signaling and mitochondrial metabolism in skeletal muscle during obesity. Male mice with heterozygous ATX deficiency (ATX+/−) were protected from obesity, systemic insulin resistance, and cardiomyocyte dysfunction following high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) feeding. HFHS-fed ATX ...


Comparison Of Muscle Physiology And Performance Outcomes From Either Relative Intensity Or Repetition Maximum Training, Kevin Carroll Aug 2018

Comparison Of Muscle Physiology And Performance Outcomes From Either Relative Intensity Or Repetition Maximum Training, Kevin Carroll

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The main purpose of this dissertation was to compare performance and physiological outcomes of between a repetition maximum (RM) and a relative intensity using sets-and-repetitions (RISR) resistance training (RT) program in well-trained lifters. Fifteen subjects underwent RT 3 d·wk-1 for 10-weeks in either a RM group (n=8) or RISR group (n=7). The RM group achieved a relative maximum each day while the RISR group trained based on percentages. Testing included percutaneous needle biopsies of the vastus lateralis, ultrasonography, unweighted (g to assess within and between-group alterations. RISR from pre-to-post yielded statistically significant ...


Unfolded Protein Response Pathways In Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis., Kyle R. Bohnert Aug 2018

Unfolded Protein Response Pathways In Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis., Kyle R. Bohnert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Skeletal muscle mass, contractile properties, and metabolic function are regulated through the coordinated activation of multiple intracellular signaling pathways and genetic reprogramming. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a pivotal role in protein folding and calcium homeostasis in many cell types, including skeletal muscle. Disruption of calcium levels or accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen leads to stress, which results in the activation of a signaling network called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Further, recent studies have suggested that in certain conditions, UPR pathways can be activated independent of ER stress. However, the role of ER stress and the ...


Physiological Differences Between Low Versus High Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophic Responders To Resistance Exercise Training: Current Perspectives And Future Research Directions, Michael D. Roberts, Cody T. Haun, Christopher B. Mobley, Petey W. Mumford, Matthew A. Romero, Paul A. Roberson, Christopher G. Vann, John J. Mccarthy Jul 2018

Physiological Differences Between Low Versus High Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophic Responders To Resistance Exercise Training: Current Perspectives And Future Research Directions, Michael D. Roberts, Cody T. Haun, Christopher B. Mobley, Petey W. Mumford, Matthew A. Romero, Paul A. Roberson, Christopher G. Vann, John J. Mccarthy

Physiology Faculty Publications

Numerous reports suggest there are low and high skeletal muscle hypertrophic responders following weeks to months of structured resistance exercise training (referred to as low and high responders herein). Specifically, divergent alterations in muscle fiber cross sectional area (fCSA), vastus lateralis thickness, and whole body lean tissue mass have been shown to occur in high versus low responders. Differential responses in ribosome biogenesis and subsequent protein synthetic rates during training seemingly explain some of this individual variation in humans, and mechanistic in vitro and rodent studies provide further evidence that ribosome biogenesis is critical for muscle hypertrophy. High responders may ...


Immunohistochemical Identification Of Human Skeletal Muscle Macrophages, Kate Kosmac, Bailey D. Peck, R. Grace Walton, Jyothi Mula, Philip A. Kern, Marcas M. Bamman, Richard A. Dennis, Cale A. Jacobs, Christian Lattermann, Darren L. Johnson, Charlotte A. Peterson Jun 2018

Immunohistochemical Identification Of Human Skeletal Muscle Macrophages, Kate Kosmac, Bailey D. Peck, R. Grace Walton, Jyothi Mula, Philip A. Kern, Marcas M. Bamman, Richard A. Dennis, Cale A. Jacobs, Christian Lattermann, Darren L. Johnson, Charlotte A. Peterson

Physical Therapy Faculty Publications

Macrophages have well-characterized roles in skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. Relatively little is known regarding the role of resident macrophages in skeletal muscle homeostasis, extracellular matrix remodeling, growth, metabolism and adaptation to various stimuli including exercise and training. Despite speculation into macrophage contributions during these processes, studies characterizing macrophages in non-injured muscle are limited and methods used to identify macrophages vary. A standardized method for the identification of human resident skeletal muscle macrophages will aide in the characterization of these immune cells and allow for the comparison of results across studies. Here, we present an immunohistochemistry (IHC) protocol, validated by ...


Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Among Skeletal Muscle Tissues, Erin E. Terry, Xiping Zhang, Christy Hoffmann, Laura D. Hughes, Scott A. Lewis, Jiajia Li, Matthew J. Wallace, Lance A. Riley, Collin M. Douglas, Miguel A. Gutierrez-Monreal, Nicholas F. Lahens, Ming C. Gong, Francisco H. Andrade, Karyn A. Esser, Michael E. Hughes May 2018

Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Among Skeletal Muscle Tissues, Erin E. Terry, Xiping Zhang, Christy Hoffmann, Laura D. Hughes, Scott A. Lewis, Jiajia Li, Matthew J. Wallace, Lance A. Riley, Collin M. Douglas, Miguel A. Gutierrez-Monreal, Nicholas F. Lahens, Ming C. Gong, Francisco H. Andrade, Karyn A. Esser, Michael E. Hughes

Physiology Faculty Publications

Skeletal muscle comprises a family of diverse tissues with highly specialized functions. Many acquired diseases, including HIV and COPD, affect specific muscles while sparing others. Even monogenic muscular dystrophies selectively affect certain muscle groups. These observations suggest that factors intrinsic to muscle tissues influence their resistance to disease. Nevertheless, most studies have not addressed transcriptional diversity among skeletal muscles. Here we use RNAseq to profile mRNA expression in skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle tissues from mice and rats. Our data set, MuscleDB, reveals extensive transcriptional diversity, with greater than 50% of transcripts differentially expressed among skeletal muscle tissues. We detect ...


Characterization Of The Roles Of Muscle-Synthesized Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor And Presynaptic Tyrosine Receptor Kinase B In Motor Neuron Axonal Transport, Luke A. Vanosdol Mar 2018

Characterization Of The Roles Of Muscle-Synthesized Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor And Presynaptic Tyrosine Receptor Kinase B In Motor Neuron Axonal Transport, Luke A. Vanosdol

All NMU Master's Theses

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small, diffusible protein essential for the development and function of neurons. It is synthesized by many types of tissue, including muscle. BDNF actions are mediated via binding to its receptor, tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB). The BDNF-TrkB complex is endocytosed into a specialized vesicle, which induces downstream signaling cascades locally in the dendrites, or, more often, is delivered to the cell soma via retrograde axonal transport, where it modulates gene expression. BDNF activation of TrkB is critical for the initiation of axonal transport, and this cellular process relies on the interaction of numerous adaptor ...


Psychological And Physical Response To Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation, Jennifer A. Jasso M.S., Joni A. Mettler Ph.D, Lindsay E. Kipp Ph.D Feb 2018

Psychological And Physical Response To Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation, Jennifer A. Jasso M.S., Joni A. Mettler Ph.D, Lindsay E. Kipp Ph.D

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used to improve muscle function in physical rehabilitation settings. However, reasons for limited use as an alternative to voluntary exercise may be due to lack of familiarity and perceived discomfort during treatment. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine attitude toward NMES exercise and perceived pain and muscle soreness experienced from NMES exercise with increasing stimulation intensity. METHODS: Thirty healthy adults (age: 23.6 ± 0.5 years) who had not experienced electrical stimulation within the last year completed the study. Repetitive, intermittent stimulation of 10 seconds on and 15 seconds off was ...


Exercise In Aging: Can Handgrip Training Improve Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Recovery Kinetics?, Susie Chung, Ryan Rosenberry 2450189, Paul Bhella, Michael Nelson Feb 2018

Exercise In Aging: Can Handgrip Training Improve Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Recovery Kinetics?, Susie Chung, Ryan Rosenberry 2450189, Paul Bhella, Michael Nelson

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Loss of skeletal muscle function is a key factor contributing to reduced mobility and quality of life in aging individuals. While the exact mechanism remains unclear, impaired skeletal muscle oxidative capacity has been shown to play a major role. Exercise training increases oxidative capacity early in life; however, the potential for exercise to improve oxidative capacity later in life remains equivocal. PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that 4 weeks of exercise training can improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity in elderly individuals beyond the 6th decade of life. METHODS: To-date, 4 community-dwelling seniors from the local Dallas-Fort Worth area (70 ...


Oral Glucose Challenge Impairs Skeletal Muscle Microvascular Blood Flow In Healthy People, Ryan D. Russell, Donghua Hu, Timothy Greenaway, James E. Sharman, Stephen Rattigan, Stephen M. Richards, Michelle A. Keske Jan 2018

Oral Glucose Challenge Impairs Skeletal Muscle Microvascular Blood Flow In Healthy People, Ryan D. Russell, Donghua Hu, Timothy Greenaway, James E. Sharman, Stephen Rattigan, Stephen M. Richards, Michelle A. Keske

Health & Human Performance Faculty Publications and Presentations

Skeletal muscle microvascular (capillary) blood flow increases in the postprandial state or during insulin infusion due to dilation of precapillary arterioles to augment glucose disposal. This effect occurs independently of changes in large artery function. However, acute hyperglycemia impairs vascular function, causes insulin to vasoconstrict precapillary arterioles, and causes muscle insulin resistance in vivo. We hypothesized that acute hyperglycemia impairs postprandial muscle microvascular perfusion, without disrupting normal large artery hemodynamics, in healthy humans. Fifteen healthy people (5 F/10 M) underwent an oral glucose challenge (OGC, 50 g glucose) and a mixed-meal challenge (MMC) on two separate occasions (randomized, crossover ...


No Evidence Of Direct Association Between Glut4 And Glycogen In Human Skeletal Muscle, Robyn M. Murphy, Marcelo Flores-Opazo, Barnaby P. Frankish, Andrew Garnham, David Stapleton, Mark Hargreaves Jan 2018

No Evidence Of Direct Association Between Glut4 And Glycogen In Human Skeletal Muscle, Robyn M. Murphy, Marcelo Flores-Opazo, Barnaby P. Frankish, Andrew Garnham, David Stapleton, Mark Hargreaves

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Previous studies have demonstrated that exercise increases whole body and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity that is linked with increased GLUT4 at the plasma membrane following insulin stimulation and associated with muscle glycogen depletion. To assess the potential direct association between muscle glycogen and GLUT4, seven untrained, male subjects exercised for 60 min at ~75% VO2 peak, with muscle samples obtained by percutaneous needle biopsy immediately before and after exercise. Exercise reduced muscle glycogen content by ~43%. An ultracentrifugation protocol resulted in a ~2‐3‐fold enriched glycogen fraction from muscle samples for analysis. Total GLUT4 content was unaltered by exercise ...


Muscle Atrophy Due To Nerve Damage Is Accompanied By Elevated Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis Rates, Henning Langer, Joan M. Senden, Annemie P. Gijsen, Stefan Kempa, Luc Van Loon, Simone Spuler Jan 2018

Muscle Atrophy Due To Nerve Damage Is Accompanied By Elevated Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis Rates, Henning Langer, Joan M. Senden, Annemie P. Gijsen, Stefan Kempa, Luc Van Loon, Simone Spuler

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Muscle loss is a severe complication of many medical conditions such as cancer, cardiac failure, muscular dystrophies, and nerve damage. The contribution of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to the loss of muscle mass after nerve damage is not clear. Using deuterium oxide (D2O) labeling, we demonstrate that MPS is significantly increased in rat m. tibialis anterior (TA) compared to control (3.23 ± 0.72 [damaged] to 2.09 ± 0.26%∗day−1 [control]) after 4 weeks of nerve constriction injury. This is the case despite substantial loss of mass of the TA (350 ± 96 mg [damaged] to 946 ± 361 mg ...


Exercise And Glut4 In Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, Marcelo Flores-Opazo, Eva Boland, Andrew Garnham, Robyn M. Murphy, Sean L. Mcgee, Mark Hargreaves Jan 2018

Exercise And Glut4 In Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, Marcelo Flores-Opazo, Eva Boland, Andrew Garnham, Robyn M. Murphy, Sean L. Mcgee, Mark Hargreaves

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

To examine the effect of acute and chronic exercise on adipose tissue GLUT4 expression, a total of 20 healthy, male subjects performed one of two studies. Ten subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise for 60 min at 73 ± 2% VO2 peak and abdominal adipose tissue samples were obtained immediately before and after exercise and after 3 h of recovery. Another 10 subjects completed 10 days of exercise training, comprising a combination of six sessions of 60 min at 75% VO2 peak and four sessions of 6 × 5 min at 90% VO2 peak, separated by 3 min at 40% VO2 peak. Abdominal ...