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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Acute Resistance Exercise Induces Sestrin2 Phosphorylation And P62 Dephosphorylation In Human Skeletal Muscle, Nina Zeng, Randall F. D'Souza, Vandre C. Figueiredo, James F. Markworth, Llion A. Roberts, Jonathan M. Peake, Cameron J. Mitchell, David Cameron-Smith Dec 2017

Acute Resistance Exercise Induces Sestrin2 Phosphorylation And P62 Dephosphorylation In Human Skeletal Muscle, Nina Zeng, Randall F. D'Souza, Vandre C. Figueiredo, James F. Markworth, Llion A. Roberts, Jonathan M. Peake, Cameron J. Mitchell, David Cameron-Smith

Center for Muscle Biology Faculty Publications

Sestrins (1, 2, 3) are a family of stress-inducible proteins capable of attenuating oxidative stress, regulating metabolism, and stimulating autophagy. Sequestosome1 (p62) is also a stress-inducible multifunctional protein acting as a signaling hub for oxidative stress and selective autophagy. It is unclear whether Sestrin and p62Ser403 are regulated acutely or chronically by resistance exercise (RE) or training (RT) in human skeletal muscle. Therefore, the acute and chronic effects of RE on Sestrin and p62 in human skeletal muscle were examined through two studies. In Study 1, nine active men (22.1 ± 2.2 years) performed a bout of single-leg ...


Use Of Imaging Biomarkers To Assess Perfusion And Glucose Metabolism In The Skeletal Muscle Of Dystrophic Mice, Nabeel Ahmad, Ian Welch, Robert Grange, Jennifer Hadway, Savita Dhanvantari, David Hill, Ting-Yim Lee, Lisa M Hoffman Aug 2017

Use Of Imaging Biomarkers To Assess Perfusion And Glucose Metabolism In The Skeletal Muscle Of Dystrophic Mice, Nabeel Ahmad, Ian Welch, Robert Grange, Jennifer Hadway, Savita Dhanvantari, David Hill, Ting-Yim Lee, Lisa M Hoffman

Lisa Hoffman

BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe neuromuscular disease that affects 1 in 3500 boys. The disease is characterized by progressive muscle degeneration that results from mutations in or loss of the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin, from the glycoprotein membrane complex, thus increasing the susceptibility of contractile muscle to injury. To date, disease progression is typically assessed using invasive techniques such as muscle biopsies, and while there are recent reports of the use of magnetic resonance, ultrasound and optical imaging technologies to address the issue of disease progression and monitoring therapeutic intervention in dystrophic mice, our study aims to validate ...


Angiogenesis And Neo-Microcirculatory Function In Diseased Tissue Revealed By Intravital Microscopy, Giovanni-Michele Arpino Aug 2017

Angiogenesis And Neo-Microcirculatory Function In Diseased Tissue Revealed By Intravital Microscopy, Giovanni-Michele Arpino

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Angiogenesis is the process of generating new blood microvessels. In adults, angiogenesis is fundamental to tumor biology and also to tissues rendered ischemic from vascular occlusion. Despite a promising appeal, strategies designed to simulate or otherwise modify the angiogenic process in adult tissues have yet to realize significant therapeutic potential. Importantly, understanding the structure and function of new microvascular networks formed in adult, diseased tissues is limited. In fact, it remains unknown if a new or regenerated microcirculation can effectively deliver oxygen to the tissue. The purpose of this thesis was to seek out novel determinants of functional angiogenesis and ...


Autophagy And Protein Turnover Responses To Exercise-Nutrient Interactions In Human Skeletal Muscle, William J. Smiles Jun 2017

Autophagy And Protein Turnover Responses To Exercise-Nutrient Interactions In Human Skeletal Muscle, William J. Smiles

Theses

Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue comprising the largest protein reservoir of the human body with a rate of turnover of ~1-2% per day. Protein turnover is regulated by the coordination of intracellular systems regulating protein synthesis and breakdown that converge in a spatiotemporal manner on lysosomal organelles responsible for integrating a variety of contractile and nutritional stimuli. One such system, autophagy, which literally means to ‘self-eat,’ involves capturing of cellular material for deliver to, and disintegration by, the lysosome. The autophagic ‘cargo’ is subsequently recycled for use in synthetic reactions and thus maintenance of protein balance. As a dynamic ...


The Effect Of Insulin Treatment And Exercise Modality On Skeletal Muscle Fiber Size In Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats, John Z. Nickels Jun 2017

The Effect Of Insulin Treatment And Exercise Modality On Skeletal Muscle Fiber Size In Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats, John Z. Nickels

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Severe Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is known to have several negative effects on skeletal muscle mass, a condition known as diabetic myopathy. One of these effects is the atrophy of the glycolytic muscle fibers. However, the role of intensity of insulin treatment and exercise modality in attenuating this loss in fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) specifically has yet to be determined. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of 12 weeks of differing intensity of insulin therapy and exercise modality on the CSA of plantaris muscle fibers, identified by myosin heavy chain (MHC) of STZ-induced T1DM rats ...


Metformin To Augment Strength Training Effective Response In Seniors (Masters): Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Douglas E. Long, Bailey D. Peck, Jenny L. Martz, S. Craig Tuggle, Heather M. Bush, Gerald Mcgwin, Philip A. Kern, Marcas M. Bamman, Charlotte A. Peterson Apr 2017

Metformin To Augment Strength Training Effective Response In Seniors (Masters): Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Douglas E. Long, Bailey D. Peck, Jenny L. Martz, S. Craig Tuggle, Heather M. Bush, Gerald Mcgwin, Philip A. Kern, Marcas M. Bamman, Charlotte A. Peterson

Physical Therapy Faculty Publications

Background: Muscle mass and strength are strong determinants of a person’s quality of life and functional independence with advancing age. While resistance training is the most effective intervention to combat age-associated muscle atrophy (sarcopenia), the ability of older adults to increase muscle mass and strength in response to training is blunted and highly variable. Thus, finding novel ways to complement resistance training to improve muscle response and ultimately quality of life among older individuals is critical. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a commonly prescribed medication called metformin can be repurposed to improve the response to ...


On The Emerging Role Of The Taste Receptor Type 1 (T1r) Family Of Nutrient-Sensors In The Musculoskeletal System., Shoichiro Kokabu, Jonathan W Lowery, Takashi Toyono, Tsuyoshi Sato, Tetsuya Yoda Mar 2017

On The Emerging Role Of The Taste Receptor Type 1 (T1r) Family Of Nutrient-Sensors In The Musculoskeletal System., Shoichiro Kokabu, Jonathan W Lowery, Takashi Toyono, Tsuyoshi Sato, Tetsuya Yoda

Faculty Publications and Research

The special sense of taste guides and guards food intake and is essential for body maintenance. Salty and sour tastes are sensed via ion channels or gated ion channels while G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the taste receptor type 1 (T1R) family sense sweet and umami tastes and GPCRs of the taste receptor type 2 (T2R) family sense bitter tastes. T1R and T2R receptors share similar downstream signaling pathways that result in the stimulation of phospholipase-C-β2. The T1R family includes three members that form heterodimeric complexes to recognize either amino acids or sweet molecules such as glucose. Although these functions ...


Micrornas, Heart Failure, And Aging: Potential Interactions With Skeletal Muscle, Kevin A. Murach, John J. Mccarthy Mar 2017

Micrornas, Heart Failure, And Aging: Potential Interactions With Skeletal Muscle, Kevin A. Murach, John J. Mccarthy

Center for Muscle Biology Faculty Publications

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting mRNAs for degradation or translational repression. MiRNAs can be expressed tissue specifically and are altered in response to various physiological conditions. It has recently been shown that miRNAs are released into the circulation, potentially for the purpose of communicating with distant tissues. This manuscript discusses miRNA alterations in cardiac muscle and the circulation during heart failure, a prevalent and costly public health issue. A potential mechanism for how skeletal muscle maladaptations during heart failure could be mediated by myocardium-derived miRNAs released to the circulation is presented. An overview ...


Striated Muscle Activator Of Rho Signalling (Stars) Is Reduced In Ageing Human Skeletal Muscle And Targeted By Mir-628-5p, Andrew Russell, M. A. Wallace, M. Kalanon, Evelyn Zacharewicz, P. A.D. Gatta, Andrew Garnham, Séverine Lamon Jan 2017

Striated Muscle Activator Of Rho Signalling (Stars) Is Reduced In Ageing Human Skeletal Muscle And Targeted By Mir-628-5p, Andrew Russell, M. A. Wallace, M. Kalanon, Evelyn Zacharewicz, P. A.D. Gatta, Andrew Garnham, Séverine Lamon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aim: The striated muscle activator of Rho signalling (STARS) is a muscle-specific actin-binding protein. The STARS signalling pathway is activated by resistance exercise and is anticipated to play a role in signal mechan-otransduction. Animal studies have reported a negative regulation of STARS signalling with age, but such regulation has not been investigated in humans. Methods: Ten young (18–30 years) and 10 older (60–75 years) subjects completed an acute bout of resistance exercise. Gene and protein expres-sion of members of the STARS signalling pathway and miRNA expression of a subset of miRNAs, predicted or known to target members of ...


Muscle Fiber Capillarization As Determining Factor On Indices Of Insulin Sensitivity In Humans, Tim Snijders, Joshua P. Nederveen, Lex B. Verdijk, Alfons J.H.M. Houben, Gijs H. Goossens, Gianna Parise, Luc Van Loon Jan 2017

Muscle Fiber Capillarization As Determining Factor On Indices Of Insulin Sensitivity In Humans, Tim Snijders, Joshua P. Nederveen, Lex B. Verdijk, Alfons J.H.M. Houben, Gijs H. Goossens, Gianna Parise, Luc Van Loon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

To investigate the association between muscle fiber capillarization and indices of insulin sensitivity in healthy older adults. A skeletal muscle biopsy was taken from the m. vastus lateralis of 22 healthy (nondiabetic) male older adults. In addition, all participants underwent an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). Muscle fiber capillarization was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Participants were divided into a group with relatively low (LOW) or high (HIGH) muscle fiber capillarization (capillary-to-fiber perimeter exchange (CFPE) index), based on the median value for the entire group. All participants were healthy, nonobese, and had a normal glucose tolerance, according to the individual OGTT results ...


The Gene Smart Study: Method, Study Design, And Preliminary Findings, Xu Yan, Nir Eynon, Ioannis D. Papadimitriou, Jujiao Kuang, Fiona Munson, Oren Tirosh, Lannie O’Keefe, Lyn R. Griffiths, Kevin J. Ashton, Nuala Byrne, Yannis P. Pitsiladis, David J. Bishop Jan 2017

The Gene Smart Study: Method, Study Design, And Preliminary Findings, Xu Yan, Nir Eynon, Ioannis D. Papadimitriou, Jujiao Kuang, Fiona Munson, Oren Tirosh, Lannie O’Keefe, Lyn R. Griffiths, Kevin J. Ashton, Nuala Byrne, Yannis P. Pitsiladis, David J. Bishop

ECU Publications Post 2013

The gene SMART (genes and the Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Training) Study aims to identify genetic variants that predict the response to both a single session of High-Intensity Interval Exercise (HIIE) and to four weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT). While the training and testing centre is located at Victoria University, Melbourne, three other centres have been launched at Bond University, Queensland University of Technology, Australia, and the University of Brighton, UK. Currently 39 participants have already completed the study and the overall aim is to recruit 200 moderately-trained, healthy Caucasians participants (all males 18–45 y, BMI < 30). Participants will undergo exercise testing and exercise training by an identical exercise program. Dietary habits will be assessed by questionnaire and dietitian consultation. Activity history is assessed by questionnaire and current activity level is assessed by an activity monitor. Skeletal muscle biopsies and blood samples will be collected before, immediately after and 3 h post HIIE, with the fourth resting biopsy and blood sample taken after four weeks of supervised HIIT (3 training sessions per week). Each session consists of eight to fourteen 2-min intervals performed at the pre-training lactate threshold (LT) power plus 40 to 70% of the difference between pre-training lactate threshold (LT) and peak aerobic power (Wpeak ...