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Climate change

2016

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Articles 31 - 60 of 111

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Irrigation Adoption, Groundwater Demand And Policy In The U.S. Corn Belt, 2040-2070, Molly A. Van Dop Aug 2016

Irrigation Adoption, Groundwater Demand And Policy In The U.S. Corn Belt, 2040-2070, Molly A. Van Dop

Open Access Theses

Climate change across the U.S. Corn Belt will significantly increase precipitation variability and temperatures by midcentury. Corn and soybean producers will seek to find strategies that may help to mitigate the potentially negative effects on yield. The adoption of irrigation technology has increased over the last several decades to improve yields in areas with insufficient rainfall, and is currently being adopted by producers who are choosing to minimize risk due to weather variability. To see if this trend in irrigation adoption has the potential to expand in the wake of climate change, this study uses weather data from four ...


Gyrfalcon Diet During The Brood Rearing Period On The Seward Peninsula, Alaska, In The Context Of A Changing World, Bryce W. Robinson Aug 2016

Gyrfalcon Diet During The Brood Rearing Period On The Seward Peninsula, Alaska, In The Context Of A Changing World, Bryce W. Robinson

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

As climate change impacts increase so does our need to understand their effects on ecosystem dynamics. I studied Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) diet during the brood rearing period to improve our knowledge on dietary habits during nesting, and provide necessary information for understanding climate change impacts to Arctic ecosystems. I studied diet over two breeding seasons on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, using two methods: motion-activated cameras and the collection of prey remains. I observed three important dietary shifts: the proportion of ptarmigan in the diet declined significantly throughout the season, the proportion of large prey items declined significantly throughout the season ...


The Impact Of Climate Change In Bangladesh On The Rice Market And Farm Households, Mst Ashrafun Nahar Aug 2016

The Impact Of Climate Change In Bangladesh On The Rice Market And Farm Households, Mst Ashrafun Nahar

Theses and Dissertations

Bangladesh is trying to achieve self-sufficiency in domestic rice production but climate change effects on agricultural production makes it challenging to attain the goal. The country is highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change since it is the major cause to rise in sea level, more warm summer, and happening food and cyclone in the country.

This study develops an Aggregate Farm Household Model to analyze the impact of potential land loss and yield reduction from climate change on production, consumption, prices, welfare, and the ability of government to achieve self-sufficiency in rice production. The model is calibrated to ...


Agro-Climatic Change, Crop Production And Mitigation Strategies-Case Studies In Arkansas, Usa And Kenya, John Westley Magugu Aug 2016

Agro-Climatic Change, Crop Production And Mitigation Strategies-Case Studies In Arkansas, Usa And Kenya, John Westley Magugu

Theses and Dissertations

Although climate change impacts vary geographically and temporally, studies at local levels are not readily available for stakeholders to better understand how their local communities would be affected and what remedial measures could be more effective in their local contexts. This dissertation has examined climate change and its impacts in two different local contexts: eastern Arkansas in the USA and Nyando in Kenya. The first part of this dissertation develops agro-meteorological indicators and examines the relationship between agro-meteorological indicators and crop yields in eastern Arkansas between 1960 and 2014. Results reveal that temperature based indicators were more strongly correlated to ...


Coral Persistence To Ocean Warming Via Developmental Acclimation, Heather L. Schaneen Jul 2016

Coral Persistence To Ocean Warming Via Developmental Acclimation, Heather L. Schaneen

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Scleractinian corals are the ‘engineers’ of tropical coral reef ecosystems. Their three-dimensional structure provides habitat for thousands of fish and invertebrate species. The persistence of corals is threatened by climate change. In this study I investigated if corals may be able to increase tolerance to ocean warming through developmental acclimation, i.e. if corals that experience warmer temperatures during embryonic and larval development are better able to cope with higher temperatures later in life. Larvae of the broadcast spawning coral Montastraea cavernosa were raised at ambient (29°C) and future projected ocean warming temperatures (+2°C, 31°C). After larval ...


Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) Occurrence In The Moray Firth, North-East Scotland, Kevin P. Robinson, Sonja Eisfeld, Marina Costa, Mark P. Simmonds Jul 2016

Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) Occurrence In The Moray Firth, North-East Scotland, Kevin P. Robinson, Sonja Eisfeld, Marina Costa, Mark P. Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

The short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) is regarded as notably rare or absent from the northern North Sea, but recent evidence suggests a rising frequency of the species in these waters with increasing regional sea temperatures. The following paper documents the presence of D. delphis in the Moray Firth in north-east Scotland and provides the first evidence for the sustained occurrence of these delphinids in this region during the warmer summer months at least. Sightings were collated during systematic surveys of the outer Moray Firth between 2001 and 2009 by independent research teams from the CRRU and WDCS. A total ...


Biodiversity Of Medicinal Plants In The Highlands: Problems And Perspectives, Vyacheslav Dushenkov Jul 2016

Biodiversity Of Medicinal Plants In The Highlands: Problems And Perspectives, Vyacheslav Dushenkov

Publications and Research

Climate change is affecting medicinal plants around the world and could ultimately lead to losses of some key species, in particular species endemic to a region and causing plants to migrate to new ranges. As the situation unfolds, climate change may become a pressing issue for the herbal community, affecting medicinal plant supply chains with varying requirements for plant cultivation, resource management in the wild, harvesting, processing, and importantly marketing.


Combinatory Effect Of Changing Co2, Temperature, And Long-Term Growth Temperature On Isoprene Emissions, Michael Cole Jul 2016

Combinatory Effect Of Changing Co2, Temperature, And Long-Term Growth Temperature On Isoprene Emissions, Michael Cole

DePaul Discoveries

Isoprene, the most abundant hydrocarbon in the atmosphere, plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. Its reactions with NOx lead to the formation of ozone in the lower troposphere, which is harmful to plants and detrimental to human health. As air temperatures and CO2 concentrations increase with climate change, it is uncertain how isoprene emissions from plants will respond. We hypothesized that isoprene emissions will increase with the combination of increasing temperature and CO­2 concentrations. We predict that oaks grown at a higher temperature will exhibit an increase in isoprene emissions with combined short-term increases in temperature ...


Forecasting Climate Change Impacts On Plant Populations Over Large Spatial Extent, Andrew T. Tredennick, Mevin B. Hooten, Cameron L. Aldridge, Collin G. Homer, Andrew R. Kleinhesselink, Peter B. Adler Jul 2016

Forecasting Climate Change Impacts On Plant Populations Over Large Spatial Extent, Andrew T. Tredennick, Mevin B. Hooten, Cameron L. Aldridge, Collin G. Homer, Andrew R. Kleinhesselink, Peter B. Adler

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Plant population models are powerful tools for predicting climate change impacts in one location, but are difficult to apply at landscape scales. We overcome this limitation by taking advantage of two recent advances: remotely sensed, species-specific estimates of plant cover and statistical models developed for spatiotemporal dynamics of animal populations. Using computationally efficient model reparameterizations, we fit a spatiotemporal population model to a 28-year time series of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) percent cover over a 2.5 × 5 km landscape in southwestern Wyoming while formally accounting for spatial autocorrelation. We include interannual variation in precipitation and temperature as covariates in the ...


Monitoring And Mitigation Of Elevated Co2 Impacts Using Microalgae, Terry-Rene Wiesner Brown Jul 2016

Monitoring And Mitigation Of Elevated Co2 Impacts Using Microalgae, Terry-Rene Wiesner Brown

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Climate change is arguably the greatest environmental and economic challenge of our time. There are considerable documented and projected impacts to both human and natural systems as a result of climate change. These impacts include changes in temperature, sea level, precipitation patterns, and biogeography of ecologically and economically relevant species, including pathogens. One of the main drivers of climate change is elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas. Since pre-industrial times, atmospheric CO2 levels have increased from approximately 280 ppm to over 400 ppm, as a result of fossil fuel combustion, cement production and land ...


Ecosystem Resistance In The Face Of Climate Change: A Case Study From The Freshwater Marshes Of The Florida Everglades, Sparkle L. Malone, Cynthia Keough, Christina L. Staudhammer, Michael G. Ryan, William J. Parton, Paulo Olivas, Steven F. Overbauer, Jessica L. Schedlbauer, Gregory Starr Jul 2016

Ecosystem Resistance In The Face Of Climate Change: A Case Study From The Freshwater Marshes Of The Florida Everglades, Sparkle L. Malone, Cynthia Keough, Christina L. Staudhammer, Michael G. Ryan, William J. Parton, Paulo Olivas, Steven F. Overbauer, Jessica L. Schedlbauer, Gregory Starr

Jessica Schedlbauer

No abstract provided.


Climate-Ready Agriculture: A Situation Statement For Western Australia, Robert Anthony Sudmeyer, Anne Bennett, Melanie Strawbridge Jul 2016

Climate-Ready Agriculture: A Situation Statement For Western Australia, Robert Anthony Sudmeyer, Anne Bennett, Melanie Strawbridge

Bulletins 4000 -

Projected future changes in the state’s climate will present new challenges for our producers. The Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia (DAFWA) continues to work with agricultural industries to lay solid foundations for an agricultural sector that has a range of response options.

This situation statement provides an assessment of how climate-ready the state’s agricultural sectors are and provides guidance for investment priorities for DAFWA for the period 2015–2020.


Agenda: Coping With Water Scarcity In River Basins Worldwide: Lessons Learned From Shared Experiences, University Of Colorado Boulder. Getches-Wilkinson Center For Natural Resources, Energy, And The Environment Jun 2016

Agenda: Coping With Water Scarcity In River Basins Worldwide: Lessons Learned From Shared Experiences, University Of Colorado Boulder. Getches-Wilkinson Center For Natural Resources, Energy, And The Environment

Coping with Water Scarcity in River Basins Worldwide: Lessons Learned from Shared Experiences (Martz Summer Conference, June 9-10)

Water scarcity is increasingly dominating headlines throughout the world. In the southwestern USA, the looming water shortages on the Colorado River system and the unprecedented drought in California are garnering the greatest attention. Similar stories of scarcity and crisis can be found across the globe, suggesting an opportunity for sharing lessons and innovations. For example, the Colorado River and Australia's Murray-Darling Basin likely can share many lessons, as both systems were over-allocated, feature multiple jurisdictions, face similar climatic risks and drought stresses, and struggle to balance human demands with environmental needs. In this conference we cast our net broadly ...


Long-Term Sandhills Prairie Responses To Precipitation, Temperature, And Cattle Stocking Rate, John A. Guretzky, Cheryl Dunn, Heidi L. Hillhouse Jun 2016

Long-Term Sandhills Prairie Responses To Precipitation, Temperature, And Cattle Stocking Rate, John A. Guretzky, Cheryl Dunn, Heidi L. Hillhouse

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Understanding of Sandhills prairie, the most expansive sand dune region stabilized by perennial grasses in the Western Hemisphere, is limited by lack of long-term vegetation data. We used a 26-year dataset to evaluate Sandhills prairie responses to yearto- year variation in precipitation, temperature, and cattle stocking rate. Basal cover, a measurement that is constant seasonally and used to detect long-term changes in bunchgrass vegetation, was measured in 38–40 permanent plots positioned along four transects spanning 769 ha from 1979 to 2007. Across this period, total basal cover averaged 2.4 % and was dominated by warm-season grasses (81.1 %). Schizachyrium ...


Calculating The Predictability Of Climate Change: The Effect Of Climate Change On Moth Species In The Pacific Northwest Varies Among Functional Groups., Julie Maurer May 2016

Calculating The Predictability Of Climate Change: The Effect Of Climate Change On Moth Species In The Pacific Northwest Varies Among Functional Groups., Julie Maurer

Scholars Week

Climate change has driven shifts in phenology and distribution for many species. These effects are often idiosyncratic and it remains unclear whether they vary consistently among functional groups, limiting our ability to draw broad conclusions about how climate change affects species. Previous studies have indicated that Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are sensitive to climate change. We analyzed a large database of moth specimen records from the Pacific Northwest (PNW) to examine climate change responses over more than 100 years for a suite of 241 functionally diverse species, including spring and fall active species as well as dietary generalists and specialists ...


A Multiple‐Scale Assessment Of Long‐Term Aspen Persistence And Elevational Range Shifts In The Colorado Front Range, Mario Bretfeld, Scott B. Franklin, Robert K. Peet May 2016

A Multiple‐Scale Assessment Of Long‐Term Aspen Persistence And Elevational Range Shifts In The Colorado Front Range, Mario Bretfeld, Scott B. Franklin, Robert K. Peet

Aspen Bibliography

Aspen forests and woodlands are some of the most species‐rich forest communities in the northern hemisphere. Changing climate, altered disturbance regimes, land use, and increased herbivore pressure threaten these forests both in Eurasia and North America. In addition, rapid mortality dubbed “Sudden Aspen Decline” is a concern for aspen's long‐term presence in the western United States, especially Colorado and Utah. Yet it is still unclear whether aspen is persistent or declining at the landscape scale. We assessed aspen persistence at different spatial scales in the Colorado Front Range by resampling 89 plots containing aspen from among 305 ...


A Systems Approach To Modelling The Effects Of Climate Change On Agroforestry: A Case Study In Western Tanzania, Elaine M. Samuel May 2016

A Systems Approach To Modelling The Effects Of Climate Change On Agroforestry: A Case Study In Western Tanzania, Elaine M. Samuel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Climate change is anticipated to have significant effects on agricultural production in sub-Saharan Africa as the magnitude of weather events increase in severity. Smallholder farmers in western Tanzania are potentially vulnerable to climate change impact as crops rely on precipitation as the only source of water. It is prudent to evaluate different modes of agricultural adaptations, such as agroforestry, that these farmers can easily adopt to improve their resiliency to the effects of climate change. System dynamics modelling is a cost-effective tool to simulate the long-term behaviour of agroforestry systems under future climate conditions. Water, Nutrient, and Light Capture in ...


Temperature Variability And Multiple Environmental Stressors: How Will Tadpole Performance Change With Our Climate?, Diana C. Macklem, Tracy A. G. Rittenhouse, Ashley M. Helton, Jason H. O'Connor, Jaron T. Kolek May 2016

Temperature Variability And Multiple Environmental Stressors: How Will Tadpole Performance Change With Our Climate?, Diana C. Macklem, Tracy A. G. Rittenhouse, Ashley M. Helton, Jason H. O'Connor, Jaron T. Kolek

University Scholar Projects

This project seeks to analyze how predicted changes in climate and its interactions with other environmental factors will influence tadpole growth and development. Our first study examined how the frequency and magnitude of temperature variability affect wood frog and gray tree frog tadpole performance. We found that performance responses to repeatedly fluctuating treatments did not differ significantly from constant temperatures held at the same mean for wood frog tadpoles. However, elevated mean temperatures of 26 degrees Celsius caused tadpoles to metamorphose early, suggesting a potential developmental threshold. We found that gray tree frog performance was affected by fluctuating temperature treatments ...


Estimated Effects Of Climate Change On The Reproductive Fitness Of The Northern Spotted Owl, Strix Occidentalis Caurina, Nadia Swit May 2016

Estimated Effects Of Climate Change On The Reproductive Fitness Of The Northern Spotted Owl, Strix Occidentalis Caurina, Nadia Swit

The Downtown Review

In this paper, the trends for current and future climate change were utilized to evaluate the potential reproductive success of the Spotted Owl, particularly the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) subspecies. As breeding season would exert additional stressors on the animal, a time period of five months, from January to June, was selected for the spring breeding season in which to evaluate temperature change. Previous research performed by Weathers and colleagues (2001) concerning the California Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) formulated a thermodynamic equation that was utilized to compare the metabolic rate of the owl at current and future environmental ...


Irrigated And Rainfed Crops Zea Mays L. (Maize) And Glycine Max (Soybean) Acting As A Source Or Sink For Atmospheric Warming At Mead, Nebraska, Jane A. Okalebo Dr., Kenneth G. Hubbard, Andy Suyker May 2016

Irrigated And Rainfed Crops Zea Mays L. (Maize) And Glycine Max (Soybean) Acting As A Source Or Sink For Atmospheric Warming At Mead, Nebraska, Jane A. Okalebo Dr., Kenneth G. Hubbard, Andy Suyker

Conference on Applied Statistics in Agriculture

Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) influence the climate at a global and local scale. Using long term microclimate data (2002-2009, 2011-2012) from the Carbon Sequestration Project (CSP), Mead, NE, this study examines how crop selection and water management can mitigate heat in the atmosphere. Mitigation of global warming is dependent on the management of crop lands, and the amount and timing of rainfall during the growing season. Rainfed crops were found to heat the passing air. The irrigated maize crop was able to mitigate 20 to 62% of the sensible heat (H) compared to the rainfed maize counterpart ...


Examining The Growth And Performance Of The Effect Of Uv-B Radiation On United Arab Emirates Date Palm Tree (Phoenix Dactylifera), Saeedallah Abdulwali Niazwali May 2016

Examining The Growth And Performance Of The Effect Of Uv-B Radiation On United Arab Emirates Date Palm Tree (Phoenix Dactylifera), Saeedallah Abdulwali Niazwali

Theses

The stratospheric ozone depletion and elevated solar UV-B radiation have a negative effect on living life forms. UV radiation is one of the unsafe components that cause hindrance to both flora and fauna on the earth. This will have important implications for ecosystem processes and food production. The present study has been designed with primary objective of the effect of UV-B radiation on five numbers of most cultivated Emirates varieties (i.e., BARHI, FRDWT, NBTSF, FRDRD and KHD). After 4 and 8 hrs/day UVB treatment the Shoot, Root and total Plant length, Total plant fresh weight, Shoot and Root ...


Greater Bud Outgrowth Of Bromus Inermis Than Pascopyrum Smithii Under Multiple Environmental Conditions, Jacqueline P. Ott, Jack L. Butler, Yuping Rong, Lan Xu May 2016

Greater Bud Outgrowth Of Bromus Inermis Than Pascopyrum Smithii Under Multiple Environmental Conditions, Jacqueline P. Ott, Jack L. Butler, Yuping Rong, Lan Xu

Natural Resource Management Faculty Publications

Tiller recruitment of perennial grasses in mixed-grass prairie primarily occurs from belowground buds. Environmental conditions, such as temperature, soil moisture and grazing can affect bud outgrowth of both invasive and native perennial grasses. Differential bud outgrowth responses of native and invasive species to climate change and grazing could alter competitive interactions that have implications for future land management. The aims of this work were to (i) compare how spring temperature altered bud outgrowth of native Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) Á. Löve (western wheatgrass) and introduced Bromus inermis Leyss.(smooth brome), (ii) compare how watering frequency altered bud outgrowth of these two ...


The Effects Of Large Herbivores On Soil Organic Matter Quality In Terrestrial Ecosystems, Adrian Alvarez May 2016

The Effects Of Large Herbivores On Soil Organic Matter Quality In Terrestrial Ecosystems, Adrian Alvarez

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Understanding the factors that control the natural fluxes of carbon into and out of terrestrial ecosystems is of paramount importance to forecast and adapt to climate change. Soil respiration – the release of carbon dioxide from roots and soil micro-organisms– is considered to be the largest terrestrial source of carbon dioxide. Microbial respiration, the least understood component of soil respiration, is to a great extent determined by soil organic matter quality, reflecting the relative fractions of labile and recalcitrant soil carbon. The goal of this research was to examine how herbivory affects soil organic matter quality across a wide range of ...


Rapid Savanna Response To Changing Precipitation Intensity, Ryan S. Berry May 2016

Rapid Savanna Response To Changing Precipitation Intensity, Ryan S. Berry

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As the atmosphere warms, precipitation events are likely to become less frequent but more intense. While extensive efforts have been made to understand how changes in mean annual precipitation will affect plant growth, particularly in semi-arid systems, relatively little is known about how increasing precipitation intensity will affect plant growth and hydrologic cycles. A recent study by Kulmatiski and Beard (2013) found that small increases in precipitation intensity increased woody plant growth and decreased grass growth in a three-year experiment in a savanna system, Kruger National Park. Here we report results from the following two years of that experiment. Due ...


A Spatiotemporal Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Model Predicting Severity, Cycle Period, And Invasion Speed, Jacob P. Duncan May 2016

A Spatiotemporal Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Model Predicting Severity, Cycle Period, And Invasion Speed, Jacob P. Duncan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), a tree-killing bark beetle, has historically been part of the normal disturbance regime in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests. In recent years, warm winters and summers have allowed MPB populations to achieve synchronous emergence and successful attacks, resulting in widespread population outbreaks and resultant tree mortality across western North America. We develop an age-structured forest demographic model that incorporates temperature-dependent MPB infestations: the Susceptible-Infested-Juvenile (SIJ) model. Stability of fixed points is analyzed as a function of population growth rates, and indicates the existence of periodic outbreaks that intensify as growth rates increase. We ...


Microclimate Moderates Plant Responses To Macroclimate Warming, Pieter De Frenne, Francisco Rodríguez-Sánchez, David Anthony Coomes, Lander Baeten, Gorik Verstraeten, Mark Vellend, Markus Bernhardt-Römermann, Carissa D. Brownd, Jörg Brunet, Johnny Cornelis, Guillaume M. Decocq, Hartmut Dierschke, Ove Eriksson, Frank S. Gilliam, Radim Hédl, Thilo Heinken, Martin Hermy, Patrick Hommel, Michael A. Jenkins, Daniel L. Kelly, Keith J. Kirby, Fraser J. G. Mitchell, Tobias Naaf, Miles Newman, George Peterken, Petr Petrík, Jan Schultz, Grégory Sonnier, Hans Van Calster, Donald M. Waller, Gian-Reto Walther, Peter S. White, Kerry D. Woods, Monika Wulf, Bente Jessen Graae, Kris Verheyen Apr 2016

Microclimate Moderates Plant Responses To Macroclimate Warming, Pieter De Frenne, Francisco Rodríguez-Sánchez, David Anthony Coomes, Lander Baeten, Gorik Verstraeten, Mark Vellend, Markus Bernhardt-Römermann, Carissa D. Brownd, Jörg Brunet, Johnny Cornelis, Guillaume M. Decocq, Hartmut Dierschke, Ove Eriksson, Frank S. Gilliam, Radim Hédl, Thilo Heinken, Martin Hermy, Patrick Hommel, Michael A. Jenkins, Daniel L. Kelly, Keith J. Kirby, Fraser J. G. Mitchell, Tobias Naaf, Miles Newman, George Peterken, Petr Petrík, Jan Schultz, Grégory Sonnier, Hans Van Calster, Donald M. Waller, Gian-Reto Walther, Peter S. White, Kerry D. Woods, Monika Wulf, Bente Jessen Graae, Kris Verheyen

Frank S. Gilliam

Recent global warming is acting across marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems to favor species adapted to warmer conditions and/or reduce the abundance of cold-adapted organisms (i.e., “thermophilization” of communities). Lack of community responses to increased temperature, however, has also been reported for several taxa and regions, suggesting that “climatic lags” may be frequent. Here we show that microclimatic effects brought about by forest canopy closure can buffer biotic responses to macroclimate warming, thus explaining an apparent climatic lag. Using data from 1,409 vegetation plots in European and North American temperate forests, each surveyed at least twice over ...


Microclimate Moderates Plant Responses To Macroclimate Warming, Pieter De Frenne, Francisco Rodríguez-Sánchez, David Anthony Coomes, Lander Baeten, Gorik Verstraeten, Mark Vellend, Markus Bernhardt-Römermann, Carissa D. Brownd, Jörg Brunet, Johnny Cornelis, Guillaume M. Decocq, Hartmut Dierschke, Ove Eriksson, Frank S. Gilliam, Radim Hédl, Thilo Heinken, Martin Hermy, Patrick Hommel, Michael A. Jenkins, Daniel L. Kelly, Keith J. Kirby, Fraser J. G. Mitchell, Tobias Naaf, Miles Newman, George Peterken, Petr Petrík, Jan Schultz, Grégory Sonnier, Hans Van Calster, Donald M. Waller, Gian-Reto Walther, Peter S. White, Kerry D. Woods, Monika Wulf, Bente Jessen Graae, Kris Verheyen Apr 2016

Microclimate Moderates Plant Responses To Macroclimate Warming, Pieter De Frenne, Francisco Rodríguez-Sánchez, David Anthony Coomes, Lander Baeten, Gorik Verstraeten, Mark Vellend, Markus Bernhardt-Römermann, Carissa D. Brownd, Jörg Brunet, Johnny Cornelis, Guillaume M. Decocq, Hartmut Dierschke, Ove Eriksson, Frank S. Gilliam, Radim Hédl, Thilo Heinken, Martin Hermy, Patrick Hommel, Michael A. Jenkins, Daniel L. Kelly, Keith J. Kirby, Fraser J. G. Mitchell, Tobias Naaf, Miles Newman, George Peterken, Petr Petrík, Jan Schultz, Grégory Sonnier, Hans Van Calster, Donald M. Waller, Gian-Reto Walther, Peter S. White, Kerry D. Woods, Monika Wulf, Bente Jessen Graae, Kris Verheyen

Frank S. Gilliam

Recent global warming is acting across marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems to favor species adapted to warmer conditions and/or reduce the abundance of cold-adapted organisms (i.e., “thermophilization” of communities). Lack of community responses to increased temperature, however, has also been reported for several taxa and regions, suggesting that “climatic lags” may be frequent. Here we show that microclimatic effects brought about by forest canopy closure can buffer biotic responses to macroclimate warming, thus explaining an apparent climatic lag. Using data from 1,409 vegetation plots in European and North American temperate forests, each surveyed at least twice over ...


Cold Tolerance Of Photosynthesis As A Determinant Of Tree Species Regeneration Patterns In An Evergreen Temperate Forest, Christopher P. Bickford, Sarah J. Richardson, Karen I. Bonner Apr 2016

Cold Tolerance Of Photosynthesis As A Determinant Of Tree Species Regeneration Patterns In An Evergreen Temperate Forest, Christopher P. Bickford, Sarah J. Richardson, Karen I. Bonner

Christopher P Bickford

Niche partitioning of light among seedling species is a key mechanism supporting coexistence in forests. Species sort along light gradients through direct responses to light and through indirect responses mediated by other environmental factors. Canopy gaps in temperate evergreen rainforests experience sub-zero temperatures and thus gap-dependent species are vulnerable to cold photoinhibition from exposure to high light at low temperatures. We used a shadehouse experiment to test two hypotheses: (1) that gap-dependent species are resistant to cold photoinhibition; and (2) that gap-dependence observed in the field may be driven by the interaction between high light and low temperatures. Specifically, we ...


Mapping Temperate Vegetation Climate Adaptation Variability Using Normalized Land Surface Phenology, Liang Liang, Mark D. Schwartz, Xiaoyang Zhang Apr 2016

Mapping Temperate Vegetation Climate Adaptation Variability Using Normalized Land Surface Phenology, Liang Liang, Mark D. Schwartz, Xiaoyang Zhang

Geography Faculty Publications

Climate influences geographic differences of vegetation phenology through both contemporary and historical variability. The latter effect is embodied in vegetation heterogeneity underlain by spatially varied genotype and species compositions tied to climatic adaptation. Such long-term climatic effects are difficult to map and therefore often neglected in evaluating spatially explicit phenological responses to climate change. In this study we demonstrate a way to indirectly infer the portion of land surface phenology variation that is potentially contributed by underlying genotypic differences across space. The method undertaken normalized remotely sensed vegetation start-of-season (or greenup onset) with a cloned plants-based phenological model. As the ...


Mapping Temperate Vegetation Climate Adaptation Variability Using Normalized Land Surface Phenology, Liang Liang, Mark D. Schwartz, Xiaoyang Zhang Apr 2016

Mapping Temperate Vegetation Climate Adaptation Variability Using Normalized Land Surface Phenology, Liang Liang, Mark D. Schwartz, Xiaoyang Zhang

GSCE Faculty Publications

Climate influences geographic differences of vegetation phenology through both contemporary and historical variability. The latter effect is embodied in vegetation heterogeneity underlain by spatially varied genotype and species compositions tied to climatic adaptation. Such long-term climatic effects are difficult to map and therefore often neglected in evaluating spatially explicit phenological responses to climate change. In this study we demonstrate a way to indirectly infer the portion of land surface phenology variation that is potentially contributed by underlying genotypic differences across space. The method undertaken normalized remotely sensed vegetation start-of-season (or greenup onset) with a cloned plants-based phenological model. As the ...