Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Sea Surface Temperature Rises Shift Migration Patterns Due To Ecosystem Changes, Alexia Skrbic, Hesham El-Askary Dec 2016

Sea Surface Temperature Rises Shift Migration Patterns Due To Ecosystem Changes, Alexia Skrbic, Hesham El-Askary

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The continuing climate change is negatively impacting ecosystems, specifically oceans which are declining and food webs are being altered by the increase of greenhouse gases. The increase of the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is increasing sea surface temperature of the world’s oceans. Certain organisms lower on the food chain like phytoplankton and zooplankton are directly affected by the warming which alters how they process nutrients and their productivity. The limited amount of these primary producers in the oceans and specifically the location they inhabit directly affects all the organisms above them on the food chain. Several marine ...


The International Whaling Commission—Beyond Whaling, Andrew J. Wright, Mark P. Simmonds, Barbara Galletti Vernazzani Aug 2016

The International Whaling Commission—Beyond Whaling, Andrew J. Wright, Mark P. Simmonds, Barbara Galletti Vernazzani

Environment and Nature Conservation Collection

Since its establishment in 1946 as the international body intended to manage whaling, the International Whaling Commission (IWC) has expanded its areas of interest to ensure the wider conservation of whales. Several key conservation topics have been taken forward under its auspices including climate change, chemical and noise pollution, marine debris and whale watching. Work on each of these topics at the IWC has grown substantially since the 1990s and remains ongoing. Important developments were the establishment of the Standing Working Group on Environmental Concerns in 1996 and the IWC’s Conservation Committee in 2003. Trying to address this diverse ...


Decomposition Dynamics Under Climate Change Conditions In Boreal Peat, Rosa Del Giudice Aug 2016

Decomposition Dynamics Under Climate Change Conditions In Boreal Peat, Rosa Del Giudice

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Boreal peatlands currently act as carbon sinks, but are projected to become carbon sources under climate change. Shifts in plant community composition alongside increased decomposition rates are potential mechanisms precipitating this change. My objective was to determine the decomposition potential of different peatland plant litters (Sphagnum magellanicum (peat moss), Carex magellanica (graminoid) and Chamaedaphne calyculata (woody shrub)) during short-term (48 hour) leaching and microbial decomposition (20 week) phases. The 48-hour leaching experiment measured mass loss and leachate chemistry of litters grown under ambient and elevated CO2, while the 20-week experiment measured heterotrophic respiration and mass loss of litters incubated ...


Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) Occurrence In The Moray Firth, North-East Scotland, Kevin P. Robinson, Sonja Eisfeld, Marina Costa, Mark P. Simmonds Jul 2016

Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) Occurrence In The Moray Firth, North-East Scotland, Kevin P. Robinson, Sonja Eisfeld, Marina Costa, Mark P. Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

The short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) is regarded as notably rare or absent from the northern North Sea, but recent evidence suggests a rising frequency of the species in these waters with increasing regional sea temperatures. The following paper documents the presence of D. delphis in the Moray Firth in north-east Scotland and provides the first evidence for the sustained occurrence of these delphinids in this region during the warmer summer months at least. Sightings were collated during systematic surveys of the outer Moray Firth between 2001 and 2009 by independent research teams from the CRRU and WDCS. A total ...


Biodiversity Of Medicinal Plants In The Highlands: Problems And Perspectives, Vyacheslav Dushenkov Jul 2016

Biodiversity Of Medicinal Plants In The Highlands: Problems And Perspectives, Vyacheslav Dushenkov

Publications and Research

Climate change is affecting medicinal plants around the world and could ultimately lead to losses of some key species, in particular species endemic to a region and causing plants to migrate to new ranges. As the situation unfolds, climate change may become a pressing issue for the herbal community, affecting medicinal plant supply chains with varying requirements for plant cultivation, resource management in the wild, harvesting, processing, and importantly marketing.


Ecosystem Resistance In The Face Of Climate Change: A Case Study From The Freshwater Marshes Of The Florida Everglades, Sparkle L. Malone, Cynthia Keough, Christina L. Staudhammer, Michael G. Ryan, William J. Parton, Paulo Olivas, Steven F. Overbauer, Jessica L. Schedlbauer, Gregory Starr Jul 2016

Ecosystem Resistance In The Face Of Climate Change: A Case Study From The Freshwater Marshes Of The Florida Everglades, Sparkle L. Malone, Cynthia Keough, Christina L. Staudhammer, Michael G. Ryan, William J. Parton, Paulo Olivas, Steven F. Overbauer, Jessica L. Schedlbauer, Gregory Starr

Jessica Schedlbauer

No abstract provided.


Symbiont Type And Photophysiology Of Acropora Loripes And Platygyra Daedalea Under Future Scenarios Of Rising Ocean Temperatures And Pco2, Lauren Howe-Kerr Apr 2016

Symbiont Type And Photophysiology Of Acropora Loripes And Platygyra Daedalea Under Future Scenarios Of Rising Ocean Temperatures And Pco2, Lauren Howe-Kerr

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Coral cover is declining at an alarming rate, and it is estimated that 60% of reefs worldwide may be lost by 2030. Elevated seawater temperatures and ocean acidification are contributing to an increase in the frequency and severity of bleaching events. These events disrupt the symbiosis between corals and their photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp). Relatively little is known about the ability of corals to acclimatize to changing environmental conditions or whether the rate of climate change is too fast for corals to keep up, limiting the accuracy of future predictions for reef resilience. However, the ability of some coral species ...


Ecological And Management Implications Of Climate Change Induced Shifts In The Phenology Of Alewife (Alosa Pseudoharengus), Sam Stettiner, Michelle Staudinger, Adrian Jordaan, John Sheppard Jan 2016

Ecological And Management Implications Of Climate Change Induced Shifts In The Phenology Of Alewife (Alosa Pseudoharengus), Sam Stettiner, Michelle Staudinger, Adrian Jordaan, John Sheppard

Student Showcase

Climate change is causing species to shift their phenology, or the timing of recurring life events such as migration and reproduction, in variable and complex ways. This can potentially result in mismatches or asynchronies in food and habitat resources that negatively impact individual fitness, population dynamics, and ecosystem function. This project seeks to improve our understanding of shifts in the timing of seasonal migration and spawning of adult anadromous alewife, Alosa psuedoherengus in seven natal stream systems within the state of Massachusetts: Acushnet, Agawam, Herring, Jones, Nemasket, Stoney Brook, and Town Brook Rivers. Initial analyses examined if and how the ...


Modeling Historical And Future Range Of Variability Scenarios In The Yuba River Watershed, Tahoe National Forest, California, Maritza Mallek Jan 2016

Modeling Historical And Future Range Of Variability Scenarios In The Yuba River Watershed, Tahoe National Forest, California, Maritza Mallek

Masters Theses

In California's northern Sierra Nevada mountains, the fire-dependent processes of forest ecosystems have been interrupted and altered by human land use and fire suppression. U.S. Forest Service policy directs land managers to plan for a future that includes multiple use and the restoration of resilient ecosystems. Planning decisions are to be informed by an analysis of the range of variability of ecological processes at multiple scales. Current climate trends in the northern Sierra are of increasing temperatures, increased precipitation, and earlier snowmelt, as well as changes to the frequency and duration of drought. These climate changes have and ...


A Review Of Fall Sandhill Crane Migration Through Indiana, Allisyn-Marie T. Y. Gillet Jan 2016

A Review Of Fall Sandhill Crane Migration Through Indiana, Allisyn-Marie T. Y. Gillet

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The Indiana Division of Fish and Wildlife conducts surveys from October to December to collect long-term data on greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida). Results from these censuses contribute to a fall index of the Eastern Population, which informs wildlife management decisions and research priorities. Recent findings from the annual U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fall Sandhill Crane Migration Survey demonstrate a decline in the number of cranes observed at fall staging areas throughout Indiana since 1979. However, nationwide data exhibit a trend of population increase. I provide evidence to show that the apparent decline in the number of ...


Multi-Proxy Reconstructions Of Holocene Environmental Change And Catchment Biogeochemistry Using Algal Pigments And Stable Isotopes Preserved In Lake Sediment From Baffin Island And Iceland, Christopher Roth Florian Jan 2016

Multi-Proxy Reconstructions Of Holocene Environmental Change And Catchment Biogeochemistry Using Algal Pigments And Stable Isotopes Preserved In Lake Sediment From Baffin Island And Iceland, Christopher Roth Florian

Geological Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Lake sediments provide a continuous record of environmental change, integrating information about multiple biogeochemical processes occurring within the lake and catchment. Much of this is recorded by the chemical characteristics of sedimentary organic matter, which can be used as a proxy for past conditions. This dissertation examines Holocene lake sediment records from Baffin Island and Iceland, which, as a result of Arctic amplification feedbacks, are particularly sensitive to changes in climate. We integrated sedimentary algal pigments with more commonly used proxies such as stable isotopes, C:N ratio, and biogenic silica in order to derive a more complete understanding of ...


Predicting Suitable Habitat Decline Of Midwestern United States Amphibians And Quantifying The Consequence Of Declines Using Pond-Breeding Salamanders, Brock Struecker Jan 2016

Predicting Suitable Habitat Decline Of Midwestern United States Amphibians And Quantifying The Consequence Of Declines Using Pond-Breeding Salamanders, Brock Struecker

Master's Theses

With current declines of vertebrate taxa meeting or exceeding those of historic mass extinction events, there is a growing need to investigate the main drivers of declines. Amphibians are perhaps at greatest risk of global climate change and land-use changes than most other vertebrate classes and also have significant roles in ecosystem processes – combined, this creates a cause for concern. I designed a study that would investigate the effects of current and predicted climate change and land-use changes on amphibians using species distribution models and a field study to identify the potential consequences of amphibian species declines by investigating the ...


Assessing The Impacts Of Climate Change On The Surface Temperature Of Inland Lakes In Michigan, Kaitlin Reinl Jan 2016

Assessing The Impacts Of Climate Change On The Surface Temperature Of Inland Lakes In Michigan, Kaitlin Reinl

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The aim of this study was to validate and apply a lake model for predicting the susceptibility of small inland lakes in Michigan to changes in thermal regime and increased cyanobacteria growth as a result of future climate conditions. The Freshwater Lake Model was selected, tested for sensitivity to various inputs, and validated through comparison to observed conditions. The sensitivity analysis showed that the lake model was most sensitive to solar radiation, air temperature, and air humidity. Comparison of predicted climate data with observed conditions revealed highly variable climate model error. The lake model validation was conducted using 10 lakes ...


Predicting The Impact Of Future Climate On Ecologically Important Macroalgae, Charlie Phelps Jan 2016

Predicting The Impact Of Future Climate On Ecologically Important Macroalgae, Charlie Phelps

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Macroalgae play an important role in coastal reef systems and are often referred to as ecosystem engineers. They serve as primary producers, supporting a diverse range of organisms, and are a sink for atmospheric CO2. Water acidification and ocean warming caused by anthropogenic activities are affecting many marine flora and fauna, potentially impacting the physical and chemical performance of macroalgae and the consumption rates of associated herbivores. Many studies have focused on ocean acidification or ocean warming individually but there is an overall lack of research investigating the combined effects and the ensuing repercussions on consumer-prey relationships.

Three species of ...


The Thorny Problem In A Changing Ocean : Responses Of The Coral-Eating Crown Of Thorns Starfish (Cots) To Ocean Warming And Acidification, And The Implications For Coral Reefs, Pamela Ziphillia Aro Kamya Jan 2016

The Thorny Problem In A Changing Ocean : Responses Of The Coral-Eating Crown Of Thorns Starfish (Cots) To Ocean Warming And Acidification, And The Implications For Coral Reefs, Pamela Ziphillia Aro Kamya

Theses

Increases in anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide are causing unprecedented warming and acidification of the world’s oceans. These global changes in ocean conditions have profound impacts on marine organisms and ecosystems. One of the most critical ecosystems under threat from global climate change are coral reefs. Throughout the Indo-Pacific region declines in coral reef cover from climate change has been exacerbated population outbreaks of the coral-eating crown of thorns starfish (COTS), Acanthaster planci. While it is understood how corals will respond to ocean warming and acidification, there is no knowledge of how this predator of corals will fare in ...