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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) Occurrence In The Moray Firth, North-East Scotland, Kevin P. Robinson, Sonja Eisfeld, Marina Costa, Mark P. Simmonds Jul 2016

Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) Occurrence In The Moray Firth, North-East Scotland, Kevin P. Robinson, Sonja Eisfeld, Marina Costa, Mark P. Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

The short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) is regarded as notably rare or absent from the northern North Sea, but recent evidence suggests a rising frequency of the species in these waters with increasing regional sea temperatures. The following paper documents the presence of D. delphis in the Moray Firth in north-east Scotland and provides the first evidence for the sustained occurrence of these delphinids in this region during the warmer summer months at least. Sightings were collated during systematic surveys of the outer Moray Firth between 2001 and 2009 by independent research teams from the CRRU and WDCS. A total ...


Agenda: Coping With Water Scarcity In River Basins Worldwide: Lessons Learned From Shared Experiences, University Of Colorado Boulder. Getches-Wilkinson Center For Natural Resources, Energy, And The Environment Jun 2016

Agenda: Coping With Water Scarcity In River Basins Worldwide: Lessons Learned From Shared Experiences, University Of Colorado Boulder. Getches-Wilkinson Center For Natural Resources, Energy, And The Environment

Coping with Water Scarcity in River Basins Worldwide: Lessons Learned from Shared Experiences (Martz Summer Conference, June 9-10)

Water scarcity is increasingly dominating headlines throughout the world. In the southwestern USA, the looming water shortages on the Colorado River system and the unprecedented drought in California are garnering the greatest attention. Similar stories of scarcity and crisis can be found across the globe, suggesting an opportunity for sharing lessons and innovations. For example, the Colorado River and Australia's Murray-Darling Basin likely can share many lessons, as both systems were over-allocated, feature multiple jurisdictions, face similar climatic risks and drought stresses, and struggle to balance human demands with environmental needs. In this conference we cast our net broadly ...


Temperature Variability And Multiple Environmental Stressors: How Will Tadpole Performance Change With Our Climate?, Diana C. Macklem, Tracy A. G. Rittenhouse, Ashley M. Helton, Jason H. O'Connor, Jaron T. Kolek May 2016

Temperature Variability And Multiple Environmental Stressors: How Will Tadpole Performance Change With Our Climate?, Diana C. Macklem, Tracy A. G. Rittenhouse, Ashley M. Helton, Jason H. O'Connor, Jaron T. Kolek

University Scholar Projects

This project seeks to analyze how predicted changes in climate and its interactions with other environmental factors will influence tadpole growth and development. Our first study examined how the frequency and magnitude of temperature variability affect wood frog and gray tree frog tadpole performance. We found that performance responses to repeatedly fluctuating treatments did not differ significantly from constant temperatures held at the same mean for wood frog tadpoles. However, elevated mean temperatures of 26 degrees Celsius caused tadpoles to metamorphose early, suggesting a potential developmental threshold. We found that gray tree frog performance was affected by fluctuating temperature treatments ...


Estimated Effects Of Climate Change On The Reproductive Fitness Of The Northern Spotted Owl, Strix Occidentalis Caurina, Nadia Swit May 2016

Estimated Effects Of Climate Change On The Reproductive Fitness Of The Northern Spotted Owl, Strix Occidentalis Caurina, Nadia Swit

The Downtown Review

In this paper, the trends for current and future climate change were utilized to evaluate the potential reproductive success of the Spotted Owl, particularly the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) subspecies. As breeding season would exert additional stressors on the animal, a time period of five months, from January to June, was selected for the spring breeding season in which to evaluate temperature change. Previous research performed by Weathers and colleagues (2001) concerning the California Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) formulated a thermodynamic equation that was utilized to compare the metabolic rate of the owl at current and future environmental ...


Using Glycosylated Hemoglobin And Heat Shock Protein 70 As Thermal Biomarkers In North American Pikas (Ochotona Princeps), Steven Edmonds Apr 2016

Using Glycosylated Hemoglobin And Heat Shock Protein 70 As Thermal Biomarkers In North American Pikas (Ochotona Princeps), Steven Edmonds

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Pikas (Ochotona princeps), high altitude lagomorphs, are potentially one of the first mammals to be directly affected by global warming. Population decline has been observed in pika populations in Nevada and California. The cause of their decline is unknown but several studies suggest that heat stress, especially at lower altitudes, is a contributing factor. In Montana, populations are potentially stressed in the same way. One hypothesis is that direct thermal stress is causing population decline. This study looks at heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in high and low altitude pika populations as biomarkers for thermal stress ...


Damsels In Distress: A Preliminary Assessment Of Pomacentridae Extinction Risk, Allison Roberts Feb 2016

Damsels In Distress: A Preliminary Assessment Of Pomacentridae Extinction Risk, Allison Roberts

Undergraduate Research Symposium

The family Pomacentridae is among the most diverse of the perciformes, boasting 400 different species of damselfish. These fish are found in coral reefs of varying depths around the world, most of which risk great damage due to climate change. In addition, many species are key components of the ornamental aquarium trade. Considering these threats, the importance of examining the state of Pomacentridae is paramount in examining the health of our oceans. Using IUCN Red List methods, preliminary data suggests some species of damselfish are at elevated risk of extinction.


A Review Of Fall Sandhill Crane Migration Through Indiana, Allisyn-Marie T. Y. Gillet Jan 2016

A Review Of Fall Sandhill Crane Migration Through Indiana, Allisyn-Marie T. Y. Gillet

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The Indiana Division of Fish and Wildlife conducts surveys from October to December to collect long-term data on greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida). Results from these censuses contribute to a fall index of the Eastern Population, which informs wildlife management decisions and research priorities. Recent findings from the annual U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fall Sandhill Crane Migration Survey demonstrate a decline in the number of cranes observed at fall staging areas throughout Indiana since 1979. However, nationwide data exhibit a trend of population increase. I provide evidence to show that the apparent decline in the number of ...


Microtopoclimatic Effects On A Climate-Sensitive Habitat Specialist, The American Pika (Ochotona Princeps), Aidan Taylor Beers Jan 2016

Microtopoclimatic Effects On A Climate-Sensitive Habitat Specialist, The American Pika (Ochotona Princeps), Aidan Taylor Beers

Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

There has been increasing acknowledgement that refugia at different scales facilitate the long-term survival of species and populations through climate oscillations. Species distributions and persistence are already affected by current climate change, and many taxa will become more spatially limited and less connected under further warming scenarios. Identifying likely microrefugia will improve our predictions of how species, communities, and ecosystems are likely to respond to climate change by providing a clearer understanding of likely demographic processes and connectivity. In this thesis, I considered suitable microhabitat in the face of current changing climates in the context of the persistence or development ...


A Genetically Distinct Hybrid Zone Occurs For Two Globally Invasive Mosquito Fish Species With Striking Phenotypic Resemblance, Rebecca J. Wilk, Lisa Horth Jan 2016

A Genetically Distinct Hybrid Zone Occurs For Two Globally Invasive Mosquito Fish Species With Striking Phenotypic Resemblance, Rebecca J. Wilk, Lisa Horth

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Hybrid zones allow for the investigation of incipient speciation and related evolutionary processes of selection, gene flow, and migration. Interspecific dynamics, like competition, can impact the size, shape, and directional movement of species in hybrid zones. Hybrid zones contribute to a paradox for the biological species concept because interbreeding between species occurs while parental forms remain distinct. A longā€standing zone of intergradation or introgression exists for eastern and western mosquito fish (Gambusia holbrooki and G. affinis) around Mobile Bay, AL. The region has been studied episodically, over decades, making it perfect for addressing temporal dynamics and for providing a ...


Fish Ladders Designed For Drop Culverts And Central Stoneroller Ecology Across A Latitudinal Gradient, John Arthur Lorenzen Jan 2016

Fish Ladders Designed For Drop Culverts And Central Stoneroller Ecology Across A Latitudinal Gradient, John Arthur Lorenzen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Stream connectivity is essential for the persistence of fish populations and maintenance of fish assemblage structure. Stream-road crossings can become barriers resulting in a loss of connectivity. Creating innovative tools for fisheries managers to allow fish passage through barrier stream-road crossings is important worldwide as climate change may force range shifts to stay within thermal requirements. Understanding how populations and metapopulations respond to climate is important as fisheries managers can use this information to make informed management decisions in regards to climate change and possible range shifts. Thus, we developed and tested a fish ladder to retrofit barrier stream-road crossings ...


Ecology Of Largemouth Bass In An Aging Reservoir: Implications For Creating A Trophy Largemouth Bass Fishery, Jason Breeggemann Jan 2016

Ecology Of Largemouth Bass In An Aging Reservoir: Implications For Creating A Trophy Largemouth Bass Fishery, Jason Breeggemann

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There are an estimated 3-9 million small reservoirs and nearly 1,000 large reservoirs in the United States. Most of these reservoirs were built several decades ago and are experiencing symptoms of reservoir aging, including loss of habitat, sedimentation, and decreased fishery production. Furthermore, over the last several decades, there has been an increasing interest among anglers for high quality, trophy fisheries. However, little is known about exactly how the reservoir aging process affects the ecology and especially growth potential of Largemouth Bass, particularly under potential climate change scenarios. Grand Lake in TX is a 45ha ageing reservoir that was ...


Body Size Distributions Signal A Regime Shift In A Lake Ecosystem, Trisha L. Spanbauer, Craig R. Allen, David G. Angeler, Tarsha Eason, Sherilyn C. Fritz, Ahjond S. Garmestani, Kirsty L. Nash, Jeffery R. Stone, Craig A. Stow, Shana M. Sundstrom Jan 2016

Body Size Distributions Signal A Regime Shift In A Lake Ecosystem, Trisha L. Spanbauer, Craig R. Allen, David G. Angeler, Tarsha Eason, Sherilyn C. Fritz, Ahjond S. Garmestani, Kirsty L. Nash, Jeffery R. Stone, Craig A. Stow, Shana M. Sundstrom

Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit -- Staff Publications

Communities of organisms, from mammals to microorganisms, have discontinuous distributions of body size. This pattern of size structuring is a conservative trait of community organization and is a product of processes that occur at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we assessed whether body size patterns serve as an indicator of a threshold between alternative regimes. Over the past 7000 years, the biological communities of Foy Lake (Montana, USA) have undergone a major regime shift owing to climate change. We used a palaeoecological record of diatom communities to estimate diatom sizes, and then analysed the discontinuous distribution of ...


Linking Vital Rates Of Landbirds On A Tropical Island To Rainfall And Vegetation Greenness, James F. Saracco, Paul Radley, Peter Pyle, Erin Rowan, Ron Taylor, Lauren Helton Jan 2016

Linking Vital Rates Of Landbirds On A Tropical Island To Rainfall And Vegetation Greenness, James F. Saracco, Paul Radley, Peter Pyle, Erin Rowan, Ron Taylor, Lauren Helton

ECU Publications Post 2013

Remote tropical oceanic islands are of high conservation priority, and they are exemplified by range-restricted species with small global populations. Spatial and temporal patterns in rainfall and plant productivity may be important in driving dynamics of these species. Yet, little is known about environmental influences on population dynamics for most islands and species. Here we leveraged avian capture-recapture, rainfall, and remote-sensed habitat data (enhanced vegetation index [EVI]) to assess relationships between rainfall, vegetation greenness, and demographic rates (productivity, adult apparent survival) of three native bird species on Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands: rufous fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons), bridled white-eye (Zosterops conspicillatus), and ...