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Full-Text Articles in Law

Care For A Sample? De Minimis, Fair Use, Blockchain, And An Approach To An Affordable Music Sampling System For Independent Artists, Sean M. Corrado Jan 2019

Care For A Sample? De Minimis, Fair Use, Blockchain, And An Approach To An Affordable Music Sampling System For Independent Artists, Sean M. Corrado

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

Thanks, in part, to social media and the digital streaming age of music, independent artists have seen a rise in popularity and many musicians have achieved mainstream success without the affiliation of a major record label. Alongside the growth of independent music has come the widespread use of music sampling. Sampling, which was once depicted as a crime perpetrated by hip-hop artists, is now prevalent across charttopping hits from all genres. Artists have used sampling as a tool to integrate cultures, eras, and styles of music while experimenting with the bounds of musical creativity. Artists whose works are sampled have ...


Data Scraping As A Cause Of Action: Limiting Use Of The Cfaa And Trespass In Online Copying Cases, Kathleen C. Riley Jan 2019

Data Scraping As A Cause Of Action: Limiting Use Of The Cfaa And Trespass In Online Copying Cases, Kathleen C. Riley

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

In recent years, online platforms have used claims such as the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (“CFAA”) and trespass to curb data scraping, or copying of web content accomplished using robots or web crawlers. However, as the term “data scraping” implies, the content typically copied is data or information that is not protected by intellectual property law, and the means by which the copying occurs is not considered to be hacking. Trespass and the CFAA are both concerned with authorization, but in data scraping cases, these torts are used in such a way that implies that real property norms exist ...


Revisiting Controlled Digital Lending Post-Redigi, Michelle M. Wu Jan 2019

Revisiting Controlled Digital Lending Post-Redigi, Michelle M. Wu

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Now that the Second Circuit has ruled on the ReDigi appeal, some libraries and users may be curious to see how the decision factors into controlled digital lending (CDL) efforts. To understand the interest and the implications, we first need to establish the basic contours of copyright, fair use, CDL, and ReDigi.


Argh, No More Pirating America’S Booty: Improving Copyright Protections For American Creators In China, Johnathan Ling Jan 2019

Argh, No More Pirating America’S Booty: Improving Copyright Protections For American Creators In China, Johnathan Ling

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

The advent of the internet brought about revolutionary changes and challenges to the world. Internet piracy is one area which is presenting new challenges, particularly to copyright holders such as artists, filmmakers, and creators. China has been a hotbed of piracy and is home to the second highest number of file sharing infringers in the world. China has made strides to improve its copyright protection, such as implementing a copyright law in 1990, as well as joining the World Trade Organization and signing on to the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, which specifies minimum levels of intellectual ...


Trends In Fashion Law: Striking The Proper Balance Between Protecting The Art Form And Sustaining A Thriving Online Market, Elisabeth Johnson Dec 2018

Trends In Fashion Law: Striking The Proper Balance Between Protecting The Art Form And Sustaining A Thriving Online Market, Elisabeth Johnson

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

No abstract provided.


The Sample Solution: How Blockchain Technology Can Clarify A Divided Copyright Doctrine On Music Sampling, Angelo Massagli Dec 2018

The Sample Solution: How Blockchain Technology Can Clarify A Divided Copyright Doctrine On Music Sampling, Angelo Massagli

University of Miami Business Law Review

This article will examine how blockchain technology can clarify the complex and inconsistent judicial approach to the copyright doctrine regarding music sampling. As it stands today, circuit courts are divided over how to handle copyright infringement stemming from unlicensed music sampling. The first approach is simple: if you want to sample, get a license. The second approach is more lenient and applies a de minimis standard that forces courts to make fact sensitive, case–by–case decisions regarding whether or not the sample of the original work is sufficient enough to be defined as an infringement. The reason for this ...


Freebooting On Facebook -- Should The Social Media Giant Face Liability?, Nicholas J. Tait Dec 2018

Freebooting On Facebook -- Should The Social Media Giant Face Liability?, Nicholas J. Tait

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


The Curious Case Of Cady Noland And The Disappearing Cabin, Amanda Hoefer Dec 2018

The Curious Case Of Cady Noland And The Disappearing Cabin, Amanda Hoefer

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Location Unaware: Developing A Standard Of Secondary Liability For Location-Aware Technology Developers, Joseph Phillip Sklar Nov 2018

Location Unaware: Developing A Standard Of Secondary Liability For Location-Aware Technology Developers, Joseph Phillip Sklar

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Ereserves, Annotations, And Registration: Copyright At The 11th Circuit, Stephen Wolfson Nov 2018

Ereserves, Annotations, And Registration: Copyright At The 11th Circuit, Stephen Wolfson

Presentations

This presentation discusses eReserves, the 11th circuit and copyright issues surrounding the Georgia State University case heard by Judge Evans in 2008.


Revenge Porn, Thomas Lonardo, Tricia P. Martland, Rhode Island Bar Journal Nov 2018

Revenge Porn, Thomas Lonardo, Tricia P. Martland, Rhode Island Bar Journal

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Intellectual Property In Experience, Madhavi Sunder Nov 2018

Intellectual Property In Experience, Madhavi Sunder

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In today’s economy, consumers demand experiences. From Star Wars to Harry Potter, fans do not just want to watch or read about their favorite characters— they want to be them. They don the robes of Gryffindor, flick their wands, and drink the butterbeer. The owners of fantasy properties understand this, expanding their offerings from light sabers to the Galaxy’s Edge®, the new Disney Star Wars immersive theme park opening in 2019.

Since Star Wars, Congress and the courts have abetted what is now a $262 billion-a-year industry in merchandising, fashioning “merchandising rights” appurtenant to copyrights and trademarks that ...


Equitable Resale Royalties, Brian L. Frye Oct 2018

Equitable Resale Royalties, Brian L. Frye

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

A “resale royalty right” is a legal right that gives certain artists the right to claim a percentage of the resale price of the artworks they created. Many countries have created a resale royalty right, but the United States has not, and a federal court recently held that a resale royalty right created by California was preempted by federal law.

Commentators disagree about the justification of the resale royalty right. Supporters argue that equity entitles artists to a resale royalty right, which also encourages the production of artwork and protects artists from exploitation. Opponents argue that the resale royalty right ...


Price Discrimination & Intellectual Property, Michael Meurer, Ben Depoorter Oct 2018

Price Discrimination & Intellectual Property, Michael Meurer, Ben Depoorter

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter reviews the law and economics literature on intellectual property law and price discrimination. We introduce legal scholars to the wide range of techniques used by intellectual property owners to practice price discrimination; in many cases the link between commercial practice and price discrimination may not be apparent to non-economists. We introduce economists to the many facets of intellectual property law that influence the profitability and practice of price discrimination. The law in this area has complex effects on customer sorting and arbitrage. Intellectual property law offers fertile ground for analysis of policies that facilitate or discourage price discrimination ...


"Distinctive Sounds": A Critique Of The Transformative Fair Use Test In Practice And The Need For A New Music Fair Use Exception, Kristin Bateman Sep 2018

"Distinctive Sounds": A Critique Of The Transformative Fair Use Test In Practice And The Need For A New Music Fair Use Exception, Kristin Bateman

Seattle University Law Review

The Constitution gives Congress the power “[t]o promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts,” resulting in our modern regime of patent, trademark, and copyright law. Over time, however, this artistic tradition of copying has collided with more modern concepts of intellectual property rights, especially copyright protections. The advent of the internet as well as state-of-the-art recording and mixing software has vastly increased opportunities to copy, remix, sample, parody, and otherwise alter the work of other artists, particularly musicians. More than twenty years after Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, transformative fair use has become the predominant test courts have used ...


The Lost Tort Of Moral Rights Invasion, Patrick R. Goold Jul 2018

The Lost Tort Of Moral Rights Invasion, Patrick R. Goold

Akron Law Review

Moral rights are often portrayed as an unwelcome import into U.S. law. During the nineteenth century, European lawmakers, influenced by personality theories of authorship, began granting authors rights of attribution and integrity. However, while these rights proliferated in Europe and international copyright treaties, they were not adopted in the United States. According to a common historical narrative, U.S. courts and lawmakers resisted moral rights because they were deemed incompatible with the copyright tradition of treating expressive works as alienable property. What little moral rights U.S. law provides today is thus seen as a necessary evil, grudgingly accepted ...


Super Bowl I, Jazz Radio, And The Glass Menagerie: Copyright, Preservation, And Private Copies, R. Anthony Reese Jul 2018

Super Bowl I, Jazz Radio, And The Glass Menagerie: Copyright, Preservation, And Private Copies, R. Anthony Reese

Akron Law Review

Copyright law is often described as providing incentives to make and disseminate creative works. Copyright law should also seek to foster the preservation of creative works so that people can enjoy, use, study, critique, and build upon them long after they are first created. Traditionally, copyright law fostered preservation largely because most copyright owners principally exploited their works by making and distributing many tangible copies of those works. Those copies could end up in many different hands, and each copy could potentially survive into the future. Some kinds of works, though, were disseminated principally by performance, and as a result ...


Transformed, I'M Sure: A (Polite) Introduction To Fair Use In Dh, Jill Cirasella Jun 2018

Transformed, I'M Sure: A (Polite) Introduction To Fair Use In Dh, Jill Cirasella

Publications and Research

This presentation looks at how the words "including" and "such as" in the fair use section of United States copyright law (i.e., Section 107 of Title 17 of the United States Code) allow for unforeseen fair uses, including transformative works made by digital humanists.


Illustrating A Technical Manual: Copyright And Fair Use In A Real World Professional Context, Karyn Hinkle Jun 2018

Illustrating A Technical Manual: Copyright And Fair Use In A Real World Professional Context, Karyn Hinkle

Library Faculty and Staff Publications

This lesson was developed for students preparing to enter professional practice who were assigned to write and/or illustrate a technical howto manual on a topic of their choice (how to put on ski boots, draw blood, use a fitness tracking app, etc.). The teaching librarian conducts a class session on finding and creating images to illustrate the manuals and teaches differences between using copyrighted and non-copyrighted images. The students work on finding images in the public domain, creating their own images, and incorporating copyrighted images via Creative Commons licenses and the principle of fair use. Librarians can teach this ...


Fair Use In The Visual Arts: Lesson Plans For Librarians, Alexander Watkins, Bridget Madden, Alexandra Provo, Danielle Reay, Anna Simon Jun 2018

Fair Use In The Visual Arts: Lesson Plans For Librarians, Alexander Watkins, Bridget Madden, Alexandra Provo, Danielle Reay, Anna Simon

University Libraries Faculty & Staff Contributions

The authors guide art information professionals in crafting learning experiences that empower students to understand copyright and take advantage of fair use in their art, design, and academic practices. The College Art Association’s Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for the Visual Arts, endorsed by ARLIS/NA in 2015, is a key document that has the potential to transform the use of images in the visual arts. Education will be an essential part of the integration of the Code into the visual arts, and art information professionals are well positioned to teach fair use and the Code. This ...


Linking On The Internet And Copyright Liability – A Clarion Call For Doctrinal Clarity And Legal Certainty, Cheng Lim Saw Jun 2018

Linking On The Internet And Copyright Liability – A Clarion Call For Doctrinal Clarity And Legal Certainty, Cheng Lim Saw

Research Collection School Of Law

Prompted by the decisions of the CJEU in Svensson and GS Media, this paper attempts to unmask the potential copyright liability of an internet user who engages in hyperlinking, framing and/or inline linking from a principled and conceptually coherent perspective. The overall discourse in this paper will be guided by the following two questions:1.Do these forms of online activity constitute acts of communication (or making available) in the first instance?2.Should they fall within the purview of Art. 3(1) of the EU Information Society Directive and be subject to potential primary/direct liability (as opposed ...


The Blessing Of Talent And The Curse Of Poverty: Rectifying Copyright Law's Implementation Of Authors' Material Interests In International Human Rights Law, Saleh Al-Sharieh May 2018

The Blessing Of Talent And The Curse Of Poverty: Rectifying Copyright Law's Implementation Of Authors' Material Interests In International Human Rights Law, Saleh Al-Sharieh

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) grants authors the right to the protection of the material interests resulting from their intellectual works. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights interpreted these interests to comprise the ability to achieve an adequate standard of living (as a minimum). This paper argues that copyright law provides a useful yet incomplete model for the protection of authors’ material interests. Copyright creates the legal environment necessary for establishing a market for intellectual works but does not guarantee its benefits to authors. Therefore, States Parties to the ICESCR should both tailor ...


“Wake Up, Mr. West!”: Distinguishing Albums And Compilations For Statutory Damages In Copyright Within A Streaming–Centric Music Economy, Tyler Laurence May 2018

“Wake Up, Mr. West!”: Distinguishing Albums And Compilations For Statutory Damages In Copyright Within A Streaming–Centric Music Economy, Tyler Laurence

University of Miami Business Law Review

The concept of the music album has been a vital cornerstone of the recorded music industry since its adoption in the form of the long–play vinyl record in 1948. For over sixty years, the ability for artists to package a cohesive collection of performances has remained of paramount priority and an art within itself, notwithstanding the flurry of technological innovations that have altered the album’s size, shape, length, and interactivity. These collections of songs have even withstood the so–called “era of unbundilization,” as digital music services declared a new piecemeal distribution standard of albums through the turn ...


Ip Law Book Review, Vol. 8 #2, William T. Gallagher May 2018

Ip Law Book Review, Vol. 8 #2, William T. Gallagher

Intellectual Property Law

THE BRANDING OF THE AMERICAN MIND: HOW UNIVERSITIES CAPTURE, MANAGE, AND MONETIZE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND WHY IT MATTERS, by Jacob Rooksby. Reviewed by Liza Vertinsky, Emory University School of Law

ILLEGAL LITERATURE: TOWARD A DISRUPTIVE CREATIVITY by David S. Roh. Reviewed by Shubha Ghosh, Syracuse University College of Law

ARTISTIC LICENSE: THE PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEMS OF COPYRIGHT AND APPROPRIATION, by Darren Hudson Hick. Reviewed by Shubha Ghosh, Syracuse University College of Law

THE LAW AND PRACTICE OF TRADEMARK TRANSACTIONS: A GLOBAL AND LOCAL OUTLOOK, edited by Irene Calboli and Jacques de Werra. Reviewed by Jake Linford, Florida State University College of ...


The Battle To Define Asia’S Intellectual Property Law: From Tpp To Rcep, Anupam Chander, Madhavi Sunder May 2018

The Battle To Define Asia’S Intellectual Property Law: From Tpp To Rcep, Anupam Chander, Madhavi Sunder

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

A battle is under way to decide the intellectual property law for half the world’s population. A trade agreement that hopes to create a free trade area even larger than that forged by Genghis Khan will define intellectual property rules across much of Asia and the Pacific. The sixteen countries negotiating the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) include China, India, Japan, and South Korea, and stretch to Australia and New Zealand. A review of a leaked draft reveals a struggle largely between India on one side and South Korea and Japan on the other over the intellectual property rules ...


Oops!... I Infringed Again: An Analysis Of U.S. Copyright And Its Intended Beneficiaries, Gabriele A. Forbes-Bennett Apr 2018

Oops!... I Infringed Again: An Analysis Of U.S. Copyright And Its Intended Beneficiaries, Gabriele A. Forbes-Bennett

Student Theses

This paper seeks to establish the reasons why federal copyright protection was created, discuss the shifts in reasoning behind major amendments, and explore its effects on copyright holders and the public, with a slight focus on the music industry. Federal copyright has existed in the United States since the late 1700s, with the creation of the Copyright Act in 1790. Adopted from the first copyright law ever created, the English Statute of Anne (1710), the Copyright Act was meant to protect citizens from piracy in a world where the risk of such a thing was rapidly increasing. The stated objective ...


Balances Of Power Between Ip Creators: Ethical Issues In Scholarly Communication, Kristin Laughtin-Dunker Apr 2018

Balances Of Power Between Ip Creators: Ethical Issues In Scholarly Communication, Kristin Laughtin-Dunker

Library Presentations, Posters, and Videos

Scholarly communications often values free access above all else, but what happens when that drive for openness conflicts with ethical issues of consent and ownership? In this CARL IG Showcase panel, members of SCORE (Scholarly Communication and Open Resources for Education) will discuss some of the thorny issues of ethics and scholarly communication, including: consent (particularly among diverse communities outside of the institution) and digital collections, students as information creators / library as publisher, and decolonizing who we consider scholars and what we consider scholarship. This panel will feature speakers who will share current discussions and personal stories on issues pertinent ...


Emojis And The Law, Eric Goldman Apr 2018

Emojis And The Law, Eric Goldman

Faculty Publications

Emojis are an increasingly important way we express ourselves. Though emojis may be cute and fun, their usage can lead to misunderstandings with significant legal stakes—such as whether someone should be obligated by contract, liable for sexual harassment, or sent to jail.

Our legal system has substantial experience interpreting new forms of content, so it should be equipped to handle emojis. Nevertheless, some special attributes of emojis create extra interpretative challenges. This Article identifies those attributes and proposes how courts should handle them.

One particularly troublesome interpretative challenge arises from the different ways platforms depict emojis that are nominally ...


Fair Use And Social Media, John Dettinger Feb 2018

Fair Use And Social Media, John Dettinger

Musselman Library Staff Publications

This poster was created in a collaborative effort by Musselman Library’s Copyright Committee as part of a display for Fair Use Week 2018. The poster was intended to get viewers to think about the 4 factors of fair use in the context of two art projects that used social media photos: Yolocaust by Shahak Shapira and New Portraits by Richard Prince. It was also intended to get viewers thinking about the ways their social media content might get used beyond the original intention.


What Is (And Isn't) Fair Use In Music Sampling?, Devin Mckinney Feb 2018

What Is (And Isn't) Fair Use In Music Sampling?, Devin Mckinney

Musselman Library Staff Publications

"Fair use" is a principle embedded in copyright law which permits -- under circumstances governed by a set of considerations commonly known as "the four factors" -- the borrowing of material from copyrighted works to create new works. Created for Fair Use Week 2018, this poster highlights the principle as it has applied to three controversial cases involving music sampling. For each case, the observer is given the essential facts; shown which of the four factors (represented by icons) were most central; and told the real-world outcome of each case. As an interactive display, the poster covered each "Outcome" column with a ...