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Collaborative Academic Library Digital Collections Post- Cambridge University Press, Hathitrust And Google Decisions On Fair Use, Michelle M. Wu Jan 2016

Collaborative Academic Library Digital Collections Post- Cambridge University Press, Hathitrust And Google Decisions On Fair Use, Michelle M. Wu

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Academic libraries face numerous stressors as they seek to meet the needs of their users through technological advances while adhering to copyright laws. This paper seeks to explore one specific proposal to balance these interests, the impact of recent decisions on its viability, and the copyright challenges that remain after these decisions.


The Romantic Author And The Romance Writer: Resisting Gendered Concepts Of Creativity, Rebecca Tushnet Jan 2015

The Romantic Author And The Romance Writer: Resisting Gendered Concepts Of Creativity, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Dominant narratives of creativity regularly expect female-associated forms of creativity to be provisioned naturally without need for the economic incentives provided by exclusive rights, just like housework and childcare. Even as the concept of Romantic authorship has come under sustained analytic assault, its challengers often look elsewhere–to the kinds of creativity in which men are more likely to participate–to find models of situated, always-influenced authorship. In this chapter, I examine one variant of the problem, in which certain arguments about copyright discount the value of forms that are predominantly produced and enjoyed by women. But creative works in ...


All Of This Has Happened Before And All Of This Will Happen Again: Innovation In Copyright Licensing, Rebecca Tushnet Jan 2014

All Of This Has Happened Before And All Of This Will Happen Again: Innovation In Copyright Licensing, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Claims that copyright licensing can substitute for fair use have a long history. This article focuses on a new cycle of the copyright licensing debate, which has brought revised arguments in favor of universal copyright licensing. First, the new arrangements offered by large copyright owners often purport to sanction the large-scale creation of derivative works, rather than mere reproductions, which were the focus of earlier blanket licensing efforts. Second, the new licenses are often free. Rather than demanding royalties as in the past, copyright owners just want a piece of the action—along with the right to claim that unlicensed ...


How Many Wrongs Make A Copyright?, Rebecca Tushnet Jan 2014

How Many Wrongs Make A Copyright?, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Derek Bambauer’s provocative paper argues that, because the remedies available to people who suffer unconsented distribution of intimate images of themselves are insufficient, we should amend copyright law to fill the gap. Bambauer’s proposal requires significant changes to every part of copyright—what copyright seeks to encourage, who counts as an author/owner, what counts as an exclusive right, what qualifies as infringement, what suffices as a defense, and what remedies are available. These differences are not mere details. Among other things, incentivizing intimacy is not the same thing as incentivizing creativity. Bambauer’s argument that copyright is ...


“I’M A Lawyer, Not An Ethnographer, Jim”: Textual Poachers And Fair Use, Rebecca Tushnet Jan 2014

“I’M A Lawyer, Not An Ethnographer, Jim”: Textual Poachers And Fair Use, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This short article, written for a festschrift for Henry Jenkins, discusses the influence of his work on media fandom in legal scholarship and advocacy around fair use.


Brief Of Amicus Curiae Academic Authors And Legal Scholars In Support Of Defendants Appellees And Affirmance, Nos. 12-14676-Ff, 12-15147-Ff (April 25, 2013), David R. Hansen, Peter A. Jazsi, Pamela Samuelson, Jason Schultz, Rebecca Tushnet Apr 2013

Brief Of Amicus Curiae Academic Authors And Legal Scholars In Support Of Defendants Appellees And Affirmance, Nos. 12-14676-Ff, 12-15147-Ff (April 25, 2013), David R. Hansen, Peter A. Jazsi, Pamela Samuelson, Jason Schultz, Rebecca Tushnet

U.S. Supreme Court Briefs

No abstract provided.


Performance Anxiety: Copyright Embodied And Disembodied, Rebecca Tushnet Jan 2013

Performance Anxiety: Copyright Embodied And Disembodied, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The primary economic and cultural significance of copyright today comes from works and rights that weren’t contemplated by the Framers of the Constitution’s Copyright Clause. Performance—both as protected work and as right—is where much of copyright’s expansion has had its greatest impact, as new technologies have made it possible to fix performances in records and films and as cultural change has propelled recorded music and audiovisual works to the forefront of the copyright industries. Yet copyright has never fully conceptualized performance, and this has led to persistent confusion about what copyright protects.

One key problem ...


Make Me Walk, Make Me Talk, Do Whatever You Please: Barbie And Exceptions, Rebecca Tushnet Jan 2013

Make Me Walk, Make Me Talk, Do Whatever You Please: Barbie And Exceptions, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Barbie represents an aspiration to an ideal and also a never-ending mutability. Barbie is the perfect woman, and she is also grotesque, plasticized hyperreality, presenting a femininity exaggerated to the point of caricature. Barbie’s marketplace success, combined with (and likely related to) her overlapping and contradictory meanings, also allow her to embody some key exceptions to copyright and trademark law. Though Mattel’s lawsuits were not responsible for the initial recognition of those exceptions, they illuminate key principles and contrasts in American law. Mattel attempted to use both copyright and trademark to control the meaning of Barbie, reflecting a ...


Judges As Bad Reviewers: Fair Use And Epistemological Humility, Rebecca Tushnet Jan 2013

Judges As Bad Reviewers: Fair Use And Epistemological Humility, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The future of fair use depends on whether judges act like bad reviewers, or whether they behave differently in interpreting challenged works than they do in almost every other aspect of judging. Ordinarily, judges are asked to produce definitive answers about the meanings of texts. But when it comes to literary judgments, the bad reviewer is the one who insists that a work has only one meaning, and announces the bottom line as if it were an absolute. A good reviewer explains the sources of her judgment, making room for other interpretations. This is also what is necessary to a ...


Scary Monsters: Hybrids, Mashups, And Other Illegitimate Children, Rebecca Tushnet Jan 2011

Scary Monsters: Hybrids, Mashups, And Other Illegitimate Children, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Human creativity, like human reproduction, always makes new out of old in ways that copyright law has not fully recognized. The genre of vidding, a type of remix made mostly by women, demonstrates how creativity can be disruptive, and how that disruptiveness is often tied to ideas about sex and gender. The most frightening of our modern creations—the Frankenstein’s monsters that seem most appropriative and uncanny in light of old copyright doctrine—are good indicators of what our next generation of creativity may look like, especially if creators’ diversity in gender, race, and economic background is taken into ...


Building A Collaborative Digital Collection: A Necessary Evolution In Libraries, Michelle M. Wu Jan 2011

Building A Collaborative Digital Collection: A Necessary Evolution In Libraries, Michelle M. Wu

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Law libraries are losing ground in the effort to preserve information in the digital age. In part, this is due declining budgets, user needs, and a caution born from the great responsibility libraries feel to ensure future access instead of selecting a form that may not survive. That caution, though, has caused others, such as Google, to fill the silence with their vision. Libraries must stand and contribute actively to the creation of digital collections if we expect a voice in future discussion. This article presents a vision of the start of a collaborative, digital academic law library, one that ...


Copyright As Property In The Post-Industrial Economy: A Research Agenda, Julie E. Cohen Jan 2011

Copyright As Property In The Post-Industrial Economy: A Research Agenda, Julie E. Cohen

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The incentives-for-authors formulation of copyright’s purpose is so deeply ingrained in our discourse and our thought processes that it is astonishingly hard to avoid invoking, even when one is consciously trying not to do so. Yet avoiding that formulation is exactly what we ought to be doing. Everything we know about creativity and creative processes suggests that copyright plays very little role in motivating creative work. In the contemporary information society, the purpose of copyright is to enable the provision of capital and organization so that creative work may be exploited. And the choice of copyright as a principal ...


Government Relations Office And Copyright Committee, Aall Issue Brief 2010-5, Roger V. Skalbeck, Jennifer Wondracek Jan 2010

Government Relations Office And Copyright Committee, Aall Issue Brief 2010-5, Roger V. Skalbeck, Jennifer Wondracek

Digital Preservation Publications

No abstract provided.


I Put You There: User-Generated Content And Anticircumvention, Rebecca Tushnet Jan 2010

I Put You There: User-Generated Content And Anticircumvention, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This Article discusses recent rulemaking proceedings before the Copyright Office concerning the anticircumvention provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). During these proceedings, non-institutionally affiliated artists organized to assert their interests in making fair use of existing works, adding new voices to the debate. A proposed exemption for noncommercial remix video is justified to address the in terrorem effect of anticircumvention law on fair use. Without an exemption, fair users are subjected to a digital literacy test combined with a digital poll tax, and this regime suppresses fair use. The experience of artists (vidders) confronting the law illustrates both ...


Economies Of Desire: Fair Use And Marketplace Assumptions, Rebecca Tushnet Nov 2009

Economies Of Desire: Fair Use And Marketplace Assumptions, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

At the moment that “incentives” for creation meet “preferences” for the same, the economic account of copyright loses its explanatory power. This piece explores the ways in which the desire to create can be excessive, beyond rationality, and free from the need for economic incentive. Psychological and sociological concepts can do more to explain creative impulses than classical economics. As a result, a copyright law that treats creative activity as a product of economic incentives can miss the mark and harm what it aims to promote. The idea of abundance—even overabundance—in creativity can help define the proper scope ...


In The Matter Of Exemption To Prohibition On Circumvention Of Copyright Protection Systems For Access Control Technologies: Hearing Before The U.S. Copyright Office, Library Of Cong., May 6, 2009 (Statement Of Roger V. Skalbeck, Geo. U. L. Library, On Behalf Of The American Association Of Law Libraries, The Medical Library Association And The Special Libraries Association), Roger Skalbeck May 2009

In The Matter Of Exemption To Prohibition On Circumvention Of Copyright Protection Systems For Access Control Technologies: Hearing Before The U.S. Copyright Office, Library Of Cong., May 6, 2009 (Statement Of Roger V. Skalbeck, Geo. U. L. Library, On Behalf Of The American Association Of Law Libraries, The Medical Library Association And The Special Libraries Association), Roger Skalbeck

Testimony Before Congress

The American Association of Law Libraries, the Medical Library Association, and the Special Libraries Association submit the following comments on exemptions that should be granted pursuant to 17 U.S.C. § 1201 (a)(1)(C).

Our request for an exemption is specifically aimed at literary and audiovisual works, usually commercially-produced, lawfully-acquired DVDs, when circumvention is used to make compilations of brief portions of the works for educational use by faculty members in a classroom setting.

Specifically, we request that the exemption granted to faculty in media and film studies programs after the 2006 rulemaking proceeding be broadened to faculty of ...


Sight, Sound And Meaning: Teaching Intellectual Property With Audiovisual Materials, Rebecca Tushnet Jan 2008

Sight, Sound And Meaning: Teaching Intellectual Property With Audiovisual Materials, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article addresses the author's experience using audiovisual materials from the Georgetown Intellectual Property Teaching Resources database. She used audiovisual materials extensively in class to allow students to see the subject matter of the cases rather than just reading verbal descriptions and enable them to apply the principles they read about to new, concrete examples. Many students in IP courses have special interests in music, film, or the visual arts, and the database allows her--and other teachers--to present materials that engage them. She found that students are more willing to speak up in class when they can see or ...


Payment In Credit: Copyright Law And Subcultural Creativity, Rebecca Tushnet Aug 2007

Payment In Credit: Copyright Law And Subcultural Creativity, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Copyright lawyers talk and write a lot about the uncertainties of fair use and the deterrent effects of a clearance culture on publishers, teachers, filmmakers, and the like, but we know less about the choices people make about copyright on a daily basis, especially when they are not at work. Thus, this article examines one subcultural group that engages in a variety of practices, from pure copying and distribution of others' works to creation of new stories, art, and audiovisual works: the media-fan community. Fans justify their unauthorized derivative works as legitimate, no matter what formal copyright law says, with ...


Domain And Forum: Public Space, Public Freedom, Rebecca Tushnet Jan 2007

Domain And Forum: Public Space, Public Freedom, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The particular problems of content and viewpoint discrimination rarely surface in copyright, though some people have argued that fair use implicates them. Nonetheless, one important lesson for copyright from public forum doctrine is that First Amendment law can take some - though not many - speech-related options off the table. In this brief comment, I argue that analogies between copyright law and public forum doctrine highlight important shared commitments to free and robust public discourse, but also substantial practical barriers to judicial enforcement of those commitments.


Creativity And Culture In Copyright Theory, Julie E. Cohen Jan 2007

Creativity And Culture In Copyright Theory, Julie E. Cohen

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Creativity is universally agreed to be a good that copyright law should seek to promote, yet copyright scholarship and policymaking have proceeded largely on the basis of assumptions about what it actually is. When asked to discuss the source of their inspiration, individual artists describe a process that is intrinsically ineffable. Rights theorists of all varieties have generally subscribed to this understanding, describing creativity in terms of an individual liberty whose form remains largely unspecified. Economic theorists of copyright work from the opposite end of the creative process, seeking to divine the optimal rules for promoting creativity by measuring its ...


Pervasively Distributed Copyright Enforcement, Julie E. Cohen Jan 2006

Pervasively Distributed Copyright Enforcement, Julie E. Cohen

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In an effort to control flows of unauthorized information, the major copyright industries are pursuing a range of strategies designed to distribute copyright enforcement functions across a wide range of actors and to embed these functions within communications networks, protocols, and devices. Some of these strategies have received considerable academic and public scrutiny, but much less attention has been paid to the ways in which all of them overlap and intersect with one another. This article offers a framework for theorizing this process. The distributed extension of intellectual property enforcement into private spaces and throughout communications networks can be understood ...


My Library: Copyright And The Role Of Institutions In A Peer-To-Peer World, Rebecca Tushnet Jan 2006

My Library: Copyright And The Role Of Institutions In A Peer-To-Peer World, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Today's technology turns every computer - every hard drive - into a type of library. But the institutions traditionally known as libraries have been given special consideration under copyright law, even as commercial endeavors and filesharing programs have begun to emulate some of their functions. This Article explores how recent technological and legal trends are affecting public and school-affiliated libraries, which have special concerns that are not necessarily captured by an end-consumer-oriented analysis. Despite the promise that technology will empower individuals, we must recognize the crucial structural role of intermediaries that select and distribute copyrighted works. By exploring how traditional libraries ...


The Future Of Copyright, Lawrence B. Solum Jan 2005

The Future Of Copyright, Lawrence B. Solum

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Review of Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity by Lawrence Lessig (2004).

Sometimes technological change is so profound that it rocks the foundations of an entire body of law. Peer-to-peer (P2P) filesharing systems--Napster, Gnutella, KaZaA, Grokster, and Freenet3--are mere symptoms of a set of technological innovations that have set in motion an ongoing process of fundamental changes in the nature of copyright law. The video tape recorder begat the Sony substantial noninfringing use defense. The digital cassette recorder begat the Audio Home Recording Act. The internet begat the Digital ...


Comment: Copyright's Public-Private Distinction, Julie E. Cohen Jan 2005

Comment: Copyright's Public-Private Distinction, Julie E. Cohen

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

I would like to focus my remarks on the question of user privacy. In her fascinating paper for this Symposium, Professor Litman expresses a guarded optimism that in its forthcoming decision in MGM v. Grokster, I the Court will retain the staple article of commerce doctrine that it first articulated in Sony. She opines, however, that the user privacy strand of the Sony decision is a lost cause. I don't believe that it's possible to retain the staple article of commerce doctrine while abandoning user privacy. At least in the realm of networked digital technologies, the two concepts ...


The Place Of The User In Copyright Law, Julie E. Cohen Jan 2005

The Place Of The User In Copyright Law, Julie E. Cohen

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Copyright doctrine . . . is characterized by the absence of the user. As copyright moves into the digital age, this absence has begun to matter profoundly. As I will show, the absence of the user has consequences that reach far beyond debates about the legality of private copying, or about the proper scope of user-oriented exemptions such as the fair use and first sale doctrines. The user's absence produces a domino effect that ripples through the structure of copyright law, shaping both its unquestioned rules and its thorniest dilemmas. The resulting imbalance - empty space where one cornerstone of a well-balanced copyright ...


Artists Don't Get No Respect: Panel On Attribution And Integrity, Rebecca Tushnet, Jonathan Band, Robert Clarida, Eugene Mopsik Jan 2005

Artists Don't Get No Respect: Panel On Attribution And Integrity, Rebecca Tushnet, Jonathan Band, Robert Clarida, Eugene Mopsik

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

When I was considering the question of the moral right to attribution and how unauthorized fan creativity relates to that concept, it struck me that there are two interesting issues from a theoretical perspective. The first is: who gets the credit? When I was in law school and discovered fan fiction, the reason why I got into intellectual property was because most of these stories had a disclaimer-no copyright infringement intended, these characters aren't mine, I'm not making any money, please don't sue. And as a student, my question was – does that work? Is that good enough ...


Copy This Essay: How Fair Use Doctrine Harms Free Speech And How Copying Serves It, Rebecca Tushnet Jan 2004

Copy This Essay: How Fair Use Doctrine Harms Free Speech And How Copying Serves It, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Defenders of transformative uses have invoked the First Amendment to bolster claims that such uses should not be subject to the copyright owner’s permission. But this focus on transformation is critically incomplete, leaving unchallenged much of copyright’s scope, despite the large number of nontransformative copying activities that are also instances of free speech. The current debate leaves the way open for expansions of copyright that, while not targeted at dissenting viewpoints, nonetheless may have a profoundly negative effect on freedom of speech. In other words, transformation has limited our thinking about the free speech interests implicated by copying ...


Copyright And The Perfect Curve, Julie E. Cohen Jan 2000

Copyright And The Perfect Curve, Julie E. Cohen

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This essay argues that the assumption that “progress” is qualitatively independent of the underlying entitlement structure is wrong. In particular, I shall argue that a shift to a copyright rule structure based on highly granular, contractually enforced “price discrimination” would work a fundamental shift, as well, in the nature of the progress produced. The critique of the contractual price discrimination model, moreover, exposes deep defects in the use of neoclassical “law and economics” methodology to solve problems relating to the incentive structure of copyright law. What is needed, instead, is an economic model of copyright that acknowledges the central role ...


Copyright As A Model For Free Speech Law: What Copyright Has In Common With Anti-Pornography Laws, Campaign Finance Reform, And Telecommunications Regulation, Rebecca Tushnet Jan 2000

Copyright As A Model For Free Speech Law: What Copyright Has In Common With Anti-Pornography Laws, Campaign Finance Reform, And Telecommunications Regulation, Rebecca Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Copyright raises real and troubling free speech issues, and standard responses to those concerns are inadequate. This Article aims to put copyright in the context of other free speech doctrine. Acknowledging the link between copyright and free speech can help determine the proper contours of a copyright regime that both allows and limits property rights in expression, skewing the content of speech toward change.