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Full-Text Articles in Law

Intellectual Property And Competition, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Aug 2017

Intellectual Property And Competition, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship

A legal system that relies on private property rights to promote economic development must consider that profits can come from two different sources. First, both competition under constant technology and innovation promote economic growth by granting many of the returns to the successful developer. Competition and innovation both increase output, whether measured by quantity or quality. Second, however, profits can come from practices that reduce output, in some cases by reducing quantity, or in others by reducing innovation.

IP rights and competition policy were traditionally regarded as in conflict. IP rights create monopoly, which was thought to be inimical to ...


Distance Education And Intellectual Property: The Realities Of Copyright Law And The Culture Of Higher Education, Michele J. Le Moal-Gray Apr 2016

Distance Education And Intellectual Property: The Realities Of Copyright Law And The Culture Of Higher Education, Michele J. Le Moal-Gray

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Redefining The Rico Statute: Potential Avenues For Improvement, David Scouten Apr 2016

Redefining The Rico Statute: Potential Avenues For Improvement, David Scouten

Senior Honors Theses

The civil application of the Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) has been misapplied by the lower courts, but the statute can be improved by incorporating elements that will make the statute a better tool for justice. It is evident from examining the procedural limitations of the statute and important case law that the securities fraud gap, terrorism financing, and difficulties for indirect victims are three critical subjects that need to be addressed by enhancing RICO. Flaws and shortcomings of the RICO statute have led to inconsistencies in court rulings. The expansive language of RICO can be limited to ...


Copyrightx: Harvard University Law School, Sue A. Gardner Jan 2016

Copyrightx: Harvard University Law School, Sue A. Gardner

Library Conference Presentations and Speeches

Slides of a talk about the 2014 iteration of the CopyrightX course administered by Professor William Fisher of Harvard University Law School.


Copyright And Good Faith Purchasers, Shyamkrishna Balganesh Jan 2016

Copyright And Good Faith Purchasers, Shyamkrishna Balganesh

Faculty Scholarship

Good faith purchasers for value — individuals who unknowingly and in good faith purchase property from a seller whose own actions in obtaining the property are of questionable legality — have long obtained special protection under the common law. Despite the seller’s own actions being tainted, such purchasers obtain valid title themselves and are allowed to freely alienate the property without any restriction. Modern copyright law, however, does just the opposite. Individuals who unknowingly and in good faith purchase property embodying an unauthorized copy of a protected work are altogether precluded from subsequently alienating such property, or risk running afoul of ...


Collaborative Academic Library Digital Collections Post- Cambridge University Press, Hathitrust And Google Decisions On Fair Use, Michelle M. Wu Jan 2016

Collaborative Academic Library Digital Collections Post- Cambridge University Press, Hathitrust And Google Decisions On Fair Use, Michelle M. Wu

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Academic libraries face numerous stressors as they seek to meet the needs of their users through technological advances while adhering to copyright laws. This paper seeks to explore one specific proposal to balance these interests, the impact of recent decisions on its viability, and the copyright challenges that remain after these decisions.


Users' Patronage: The Return Of The Gift In The "Crowd Society", Giancarlo F. Frosio Sep 2015

Users' Patronage: The Return Of The Gift In The "Crowd Society", Giancarlo F. Frosio

Giancarlo Francesco Frosio

In this work, I discuss the tension between gift and market economy throughout the history of creativity. For millennia, the production of creative artifacts has lain at the intersection between gift and market economy. From the time of Pindar and Simonides – and until the Romanticism will commence a process leading to the complete commodification of creative artifacts – market exchange models run parallel to gift exchange. From Roman amicitia to the medieval and Renaissance belief that “scientia donum dei est, unde vendi non potest,” creativity has been repeatedly construed as a gift. Again, at the time of the British and French ...


Peer-To-Peer File Sharing As User Rights Activism, Michael A. Gunn Feb 2015

Peer-To-Peer File Sharing As User Rights Activism, Michael A. Gunn

Western Journal of Legal Studies

The pre-digital marketplace is no longer sustainable. With the imposition of digital rights management restrictions on the distribution of media, the Internet cannot promote intellectual freedom. Peer-to-peer file sharing technology helps expose the work of artists and authors to a much wider audience than previously possible. This provides an opportunity for more sales and a greater number of successful artists and authors. Yet corporate copyright owners continue to propagate the “piracy” label to discredit the idea of open access channels. This paper argues that as information professionals, librarians are in a position to promote policy change that revolutionizes the political ...


The Right To Read, Lea Shaver Feb 2015

The Right To Read, Lea Shaver

Lea Shaver

Reading – for education and for pleasure – may be framed as a personal indulgence, a moral virtue, or even a civic duty. What are the implications of framing reading as a human right?

Although novel, the rights-based frame finds strong support in international human rights law. The right to read need not be defended as a “new” human right. Rather, it can be located at the intersection of more familiar guarantees. Well-established rights to education, science, culture, and freedom of expression, among others, provide the necessary normative support for recognizing a universal right to read as already implicit in international law ...


Transformative Teaching And Educational Fair Use After Georgia State, Brandon Butler Jan 2015

Transformative Teaching And Educational Fair Use After Georgia State, Brandon Butler

Brandon C. Butler

The Supreme Court has said that copyright’s fair use doctrine is a “First Amendment safety valve” because it ensures that certain crucial cultural activities are not unduly burdened by copyright. While many such activities (criticism, commentary, parody) have benefited from the courts’ increased attention to first amendment values, one such activity, education, has been mired for years in a minimalist, market-based vision of fair use that is largely out of touch with mainstream fair use jurisprudence. The latest installment in the history of educational fair use, the 11th Circuit’s opinion in the Georgia State e-reserves case, may be ...


Human Rights Violations By Canadian Companies Abroad: Choc V Hudbay Minerals Inc, Susana C. Mijares Peña Sep 2014

Human Rights Violations By Canadian Companies Abroad: Choc V Hudbay Minerals Inc, Susana C. Mijares Peña

Western Journal of Legal Studies

Canadian mining corporations operating abroad represent a challenge to the international legal system and Canadian legal system in the field of human rights. Currently, there are no legal mechanisms available to ensure that these corporations abide by international standards and voluntary codes. For this reason, some argue that Canadian courts should be more active in holding Canadian companies accountable for the human rights violations of their affiliates operating abroad. The recent Ontario Superior Court of Justice decision of Choc v Hudbay Minerals suggests that for the first time, a Canadian court is ready to play a regulatory role in preventing ...


The Power Balance Revisited: Authors, Publishers And Copyright In The Digital Sphere, Francina Cantatore Apr 2014

The Power Balance Revisited: Authors, Publishers And Copyright In The Digital Sphere, Francina Cantatore

Francina Cantatore

The transition of the printed word to digital product is arguably the most significant event in the history of publishing since the invention of the printing press, presenting authors with unexpected challenges. The evolving digital publishing environment has irrevocably changed the copyright expectations of authors, who find themselves grappling with the realities of both traditional expectations and digital advances in publishing. This article deals with the Australian author's place in an ever expanding digital sphere, copyright and publishing implications, and digital copyright challenges presented by this transitional environment. It also examines the views of Australian authors on the subject ...


The Evolution Of The Digital Millennium Copyright Act; Changing Interpretations Of The Dmca And Future Implications For Copyright Holders, Hillary A. Henderson Jan 2014

The Evolution Of The Digital Millennium Copyright Act; Changing Interpretations Of The Dmca And Future Implications For Copyright Holders, Hillary A. Henderson

Hillary A Henderson

Copyright law rewards an artificial monopoly to individual authors for their creations. This reward is based on the belief that, by granting authors the exclusive right to reproduce their works, they receive an incentive and means to create, which in turn advances the welfare of the general public by “promoting the progress of science and useful arts.” Copyright protection subsists . . . in original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device . . . . In no ...


Consumer Welfare In Competition And Intellectual Property Law, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Jan 2014

Consumer Welfare In Competition And Intellectual Property Law, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship

Whether antitrust policy should pursue a goal of "general welfare" or "consumer welfare" has been debated for decades. The academic debate is much more varied than the case law, however, which has consistently adopted consumer welfare as a goal, almost never condemning a practice found to produce an actual output reduction or price increase simply because productive efficiency gains accruing to producers exceeded consumer losses.

While some practices such as mergers might produce greater gains in productive efficiency than losses in consumer welfare, identifying such situations would be extraordinarily difficult. First, these efficiencies would have to be "transaction specific," meaning ...


Copyright And Inequality, Lea Shaver Jan 2014

Copyright And Inequality, Lea Shaver

Washington University Law Review

The standard theory of copyright law imagines a marketplace efficiently serving up new works to an undifferentiated world of consumers. Yet the reality is that all consumers are not equal. Class and culture combine to explain who wins, and who loses, from copyright protection. Along the dimension of class, the inequality insight reminds us just because new works are created does not mean that most people can afford them, and calls for new attention to problems of affordability. Copyright protection inflates the price of books, with implications for distributive justice, democratic culture, and economic efficiency. Along the dimension of culture ...


Reinventing Copyright And Patent, Abraham Bell, Gideon Parchomovsky Jan 2014

Reinventing Copyright And Patent, Abraham Bell, Gideon Parchomovsky

Faculty Scholarship

Intellectual property systems all over the world are modeled on the one-size-fits-all principle. However important or unimportant, inventions and original works of authorship receive the same scope of protection, for the same period, backed by the same variety of legal remedies. Metaphorically speaking, all intellectual property is equal under the law. This equality comes at a heavy price. The equality principle gives all creators access to the same remedies, even when those remedies create perverse incentives. Moreover, society overpays for innovation by inflicting on society more monopoly losses than are strictly necessary to incentivize production.

In this Article, we propose ...


Lawrence Lessig V Liberation Music Pty Ltd: Youtube's Hand (Or Bots) In The Over-Zealous Enforcement Of Copyright, Corinne Tan Dec 2013

Lawrence Lessig V Liberation Music Pty Ltd: Youtube's Hand (Or Bots) In The Over-Zealous Enforcement Of Copyright, Corinne Tan

Corinne Tan

The renowned law professor Lawrence Lessig's filing of a complaint against Liberation Music in August 2013 has recently been resolved in his favour. The complaint provided a gem of an opportunity to clarify the rights of users to modify and disseminate content available on social media sites. In spite of the victory scored by Lessig and the Electonic Frontier Foundation, this Opinion reminds users not to forget the role of sites such as YouTube in the over-zealous enforcement of copyright.


Vara’S Orphans: How Indigenous Artists Can Still Look For Hope In The Moral Rights Regime, Amy Skelton Jun 2013

Vara’S Orphans: How Indigenous Artists Can Still Look For Hope In The Moral Rights Regime, Amy Skelton

Indiana Journal of Law and Social Equality

No abstract provided.


Rediscovering Cumulative Creativity From The Oral Formulaic Tradition To Digital Remix: Can I Get A Witness?, Giancarlo Francesco Frosio Mar 2013

Rediscovering Cumulative Creativity From The Oral Formulaic Tradition To Digital Remix: Can I Get A Witness?, Giancarlo Francesco Frosio

Giancarlo Francesco Frosio

For most of human history the essential nature of creativity was understood to be cumulative and collective. This notion has been largely forgotten by modern policies regulating creativity and speech. As hard as it may be to believe, the most valuable components of our immortal culture were created under a fully open regime with regard to access to pre-existing expressions and reuse. From the Platonic mimēsis to the Roman imitatio, from Macrobius’ Saturnalia to the imitatio Vergili, from medieval auctoritas and Chaucer the compilator to Anon the singer and social textuality, from Chrétien’s art of rewriting to Shakespeare’s ...


Managerial Judging And Substantive Law, Tobias Barrington Wolff Jan 2013

Managerial Judging And Substantive Law, Tobias Barrington Wolff

Faculty Scholarship

The figure of the proactive jurist, involved in case management from the outset of the litigation and attentive throughout the proceedings to the impact of her decisions on settlement dynamics -- a managerial judge -- has displaced the passive umpire as the dominant paradigm in the federal district courts. Thus far, discussions of managerial judging have focused primarily upon values endogenous to the practice of judging. Procedural scholarship has paid little attention to the impact of the underlying substantive law on the parameters and conduct of complex proceedings.

In this Article, I examine the interface between substantive law and managerial judging. The ...


Tattoos & Ip Norms, Aaron Perzanowski Dec 2012

Tattoos & Ip Norms, Aaron Perzanowski

Aaron K. Perzanowski

The U.S. tattoo industry generates billions of dollars in annual revenue. Like the music, film, and publishing industries, it derives value from the creation of new, original works of authorship. But unlike rights holders in those more traditional creative industries, tattoo artists rarely assert formal legal rights in disputes over copying or ownership of the works they create. Instead, tattooing is governed by a set of nuanced, overlapping, and occasionally contradictory social norms enforced through informal sanctions. And in contrast to other creative communities that rely on social norms because of the unavailability of formal intellectual property protection, the ...


Musical Copyright Infringement: The Replacement Of Arnstein V. Porter - A More Comprehensive Use Of Expert Testimony And The Implementation Of An "Actual Audience" Test , Michelle V. Francis Nov 2012

Musical Copyright Infringement: The Replacement Of Arnstein V. Porter - A More Comprehensive Use Of Expert Testimony And The Implementation Of An "Actual Audience" Test , Michelle V. Francis

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Constructing Intellectual Property, Alexandra George Feb 2012

Constructing Intellectual Property, Alexandra George

Alexandra E George

What is "intellectual property"? This book examines the way in which this important area of law is constructed by the legal system. It argues that intellectual property is a body of rules, created by the legal system, that regulate the documented forms of abstract objects, which are also defined into existence by the legal system. Intellectual property law thus constructs its own objects of regulation, and it does so through the application of a collection of core concepts. By analyzing the metaphysical structure of intellectual property law and the concepts the legal system uses to construct "intellectual property," the book ...


Review Essay, Property Outlaws: How Squatters, Pirates, And Protesters Improve The Law Of Ownership By Eduardo Moisés Peñalver And Sonia K. Katyal, Ann Bartow Jan 2012

Review Essay, Property Outlaws: How Squatters, Pirates, And Protesters Improve The Law Of Ownership By Eduardo Moisés Peñalver And Sonia K. Katyal, Ann Bartow

Legal Scholarship

[Excerpt] "This book challenges the notion that rigidly fostering stability in the private ownership of property is the only appropriate goal of the legal system. The authors assert that dynamic sociopolitical responses to civil disobedience by lawbreakers sometimes propel beneficial legal reforms in a wide array of contexts. Property outlaws with clean hands and good hearts, they argue, can productively draw attention to the need to reform ossified property laws. In the words sometimes attributed to the historical rock star of successful civil disobedience Mohandas Ghandi: “First they ignore you, then they ridicule you, then they fight you, and then ...


Real Copyright Reform, Jessica Litman Oct 2010

Real Copyright Reform, Jessica Litman

Jessica Litman

A copyright system is designed to produce an ecology that nurtures the creation, dissemination and enjoyment of works of authorship. When it works well, it encourages creators to generate new works, assists intermediaries in disseminating them widely, and supports readers, listeners and viewers in enjoying them. If the system poses difficult entry barriers to creators, imposes demanding impediments on intermediaries, or inflicts burdensome conditions and hurdles on readers, then the system fails to achieve at least some of its purposes. The current U.S. copyright statute is flawed in all three respects. In this article, I explore how the current ...


Foreseeability And Copyright Incentives, Shyamkrishna Balganesh Apr 2009

Foreseeability And Copyright Incentives, Shyamkrishna Balganesh

Faculty Scholarship

Copyright law’s principal justification today is the economic theory of creator incentives. Central to this theory is the recognition that while copyright’s exclusive rights framework provides creators with an economic incentive to create, it also entails large social costs, and that creators therefore need to be given just enough incentive to create in order to balance the system’s benefits against its costs. Yet, none of copyright’s current doctrines enable courts to circumscribe a creator’s entitlement by reference to limitations inherent in the very idea of incentives. While the common law too relies on providing actors ...


Looking For Fair Use In The Dmca's Safety Dance, Ira Nathenson Dec 2008

Looking For Fair Use In The Dmca's Safety Dance, Ira Nathenson

Ira Steven Nathenson

Like a ballet, the notice-and-take-down provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act ("DMCA") provide complex procedures to obtain take-downs of online infringement. Copyright owners send notices of infringement to service providers, who in turn remove claimed infringement in exchange for a statutory safe harbor from copyright liability. But like a dance meant for two, the DMCA is less effective in protecting the "third wheel," the users of internet services. Even Senator John McCain - who in 1998 voted for the DMCA - wrote in exasperation to YouTube after some of his presidential campaign videos were removed due to take-downs. McCain asked YouTube ...


Some Peer-To-Peer, Democratically And Voluntarily Produced Thoughts About 'The Wealth Of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets And Freedom,' By Yochai Benkler, Ann Bartow Jan 2007

Some Peer-To-Peer, Democratically And Voluntarily Produced Thoughts About 'The Wealth Of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets And Freedom,' By Yochai Benkler, Ann Bartow

Legal Scholarship

In this review essay, Bartow concludes that The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom by Yochai Benkler is a book well worth reading, but that Benkler still has a bit more work to do before his Grand Unifying Theory of Life, The Internet, and Everything is satisfactorily complete. It isn't enough to concede that the Internet won't benefit everyone. He needs to more thoroughly consider the ways in which the lives of poor people actually worsen when previously accessible information, goods and services are rendered less convenient or completely unattainable by their migration online ...


Technoconsen(T)Sus, Andrea M. Matwyshyn Aug 2006

Technoconsen(T)Sus, Andrea M. Matwyshyn

ExpressO

Law is contributing to an information security paradox. Consumers are regularly “consenting” to the installation of computer code that makes them more vulnerable to harms such as identity theft. In particular, digital rights management technology accompanying digital music has recently left a wake of compromised user machines. Using the case study of security-invasive digital rights management technology, this article argues that a fundamental tension exists among intellectual property law, computer intrusion law and contract law regarding meaningful consumer consent in digital contexts. This article proposes to ease the noise in consent doctrine through creating an objective “reasonable digital consumer” standard ...


Taking Copyright Seriously: Abridging Rights Is More Serious Than Inflating Rights, Alina Ng Jul 2006

Taking Copyright Seriously: Abridging Rights Is More Serious Than Inflating Rights, Alina Ng

ExpressO

The proper balance between private rights and public interests in copyright has always been a heated debate. As communication and information technologies converge and develop to enable authors and users of creative works to create and use works without the physical limitations of the analog world, the debate has become more intense. This paper intends to contribute to the debate by bringing attention to basic ideas about rights and the importance of copyright as an institution to ensure that authors create new literary and artistic works for the benefit of the public. Rights under copyright are rights that define the ...