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Full-Text Articles in Law

A Data Commons For Food Security, Jeremiah Baarbé, Meghan Blom, Jeremy De Beer Dec 2016

A Data Commons For Food Security, Jeremiah Baarbé, Meghan Blom, Jeremy De Beer

Jeremy de Beer

We propose a ‘data commons’, formed through a licensing model that allows farmers to benefit from the datasets to which they contribute. Agricultural data is globally recognized for its importance in addressing food insecurity. This data is generated and used by a value chain of contributors, collectors, and consumers. Our licensing model addresses the crisis caused by a lack of data ownership rights for contributor farmers. Using the IAD framework we consider five case studies. These studies explore how John Deere, Plantwise, and Abalobi license data collection and how Creative Commons and the Open Data Commons license data distribution. Supported ...


There's No Such Thing As A Computer-Authored Work - And It's A Good Thing, Too, James Grimmelmann Jan 2016

There's No Such Thing As A Computer-Authored Work - And It's A Good Thing, Too, James Grimmelmann

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

Treating computers as authors for copyright purposes is a non-solution to a non-problem. It is a non-solution because unless and until computer programs can qualify as persons in life and law, it does no practical good to call them "authors" when someone else will end up owning the copyright anyway. And it responds to a non-problem because there is nothing actually distinctive about computer-generated works.

There are five plausible ways in which computer-generated works might be considered meaningfully different from human-generated works: (1) they are embedded in digital copies, (2) people create them using computers rather than by hand, (3 ...


Copyright For Literate Robots, James Grimmelmann Jan 2016

Copyright For Literate Robots, James Grimmelmann

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

Almost by accident, copyright has concluded that copyright law is for humans only: reading performed by computers doesn't count as infringement. Conceptually, this makes sense: copyright's ideal of romantic readership involves humans writing for other humans. But in an age when more and more manipulation of copyrighted works is carried out by automated processes, this split between human reading (infringement) and robotic reading (exempt) has odd consequences and creates its own tendencies toward a copyright system in which humans occupy a surprisingly peripheral place. This essay describes the shifts in fair use law that brought us here and ...


If It’S Broke, Fix It: Fixing Fixation, Megan M. Carpenter Jan 2016

If It’S Broke, Fix It: Fixing Fixation, Megan M. Carpenter

Legal Scholarship

The fixation requirement, once an intended instrument for added flexibility in copyrightability, has become an unworkable standard under modern copyright law. The last twenty-five years have witnessed a dramatic expansion in creative media. Developments in both digital media and contemporary art have challenged what it means to be fixed, and cases dealing with these works reveal how inapposite current interpretations of fixation are for these forms of expression. Yet, getting fixation “right” is important, for it is often the juridical threshold over which idea becomes expression. Thus, we must enable fixation to help define the parameters of creative expression while ...


Gray Works: How The Failure Of Copyright Law To Keep Pace With Technological Advancement In The Digital Age Has Created A Class Of Works Whose Protection Is Uncertain… And What Can Be Done About It, Kenneth R.L. Parker Dec 2015

Gray Works: How The Failure Of Copyright Law To Keep Pace With Technological Advancement In The Digital Age Has Created A Class Of Works Whose Protection Is Uncertain… And What Can Be Done About It, Kenneth R.L. Parker

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Fighting Piracy With Censorship: The Operation In Our Sites Domain Seizures V. Free Speech, Michael Joseph Harrell Dec 2015

Fighting Piracy With Censorship: The Operation In Our Sites Domain Seizures V. Free Speech, Michael Joseph Harrell

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Copyright And Social Media: A Tale Of Legislative Abdication, Diane Leenheer Zimmerman May 2015

Copyright And Social Media: A Tale Of Legislative Abdication, Diane Leenheer Zimmerman

Pace Law Review

The focus of this article will be on what I call DMCA 2.0. It will begin by discussing the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and why that statute, passed in 1998 to shore up the enforceability of copyright online by protecting content providers’ ability to engage in forms of technological self-help against online copyright infringers, has been problematic. Part II describes largely unsuccessful efforts in the form of statutes and trade agreements to shore up the DMCA. Part III turns to the latest salvo, the adoption of “voluntary agreements” whereby content owners and ISPs, in particular social media platforms ...


Toward A "Digital Transfer Doctrine"? The First Sale Doctrine In The Digital Era, Sarah Reis Mar 2015

Toward A "Digital Transfer Doctrine"? The First Sale Doctrine In The Digital Era, Sarah Reis

Northwestern University Law Review

The first sale doctrine in copyright law allows a person who owns a copy of a copyrighted work to sell, lend, or give away the copy to someone else. An owner of a copy of a copyrighted work can take advantage of the first sale doctrine, but a licensee cannot. In today’s digital environment, people are increasingly purchasing digital music files and e-books instead of CDs and physical books. Customers often mistakenly believe they become owners of the digital content they purchase when in actuality they merely become licensees most of the time. Licensing agreements impose use restrictions on ...


Peer-To-Peer File Sharing As User Rights Activism, Michael A. Gunn Feb 2015

Peer-To-Peer File Sharing As User Rights Activism, Michael A. Gunn

Western Journal of Legal Studies

The pre-digital marketplace is no longer sustainable. With the imposition of digital rights management restrictions on the distribution of media, the Internet cannot promote intellectual freedom. Peer-to-peer file sharing technology helps expose the work of artists and authors to a much wider audience than previously possible. This provides an opportunity for more sales and a greater number of successful artists and authors. Yet corporate copyright owners continue to propagate the “piracy” label to discredit the idea of open access channels. This paper argues that as information professionals, librarians are in a position to promote policy change that revolutionizes the political ...


Copyright, Consumerism, And The Cloud: Proposing Standards-Essential Technology To Support First Sale In Digital Copyright, Marco Puccia Jan 2015

Copyright, Consumerism, And The Cloud: Proposing Standards-Essential Technology To Support First Sale In Digital Copyright, Marco Puccia

Seattle University Law Review

America’s entertainment industry, and the creative talent that drives it, is a national treasure. Equally valuable, however, is America’s drive and commitment toward technological innovation. These two sectors have been in tension since at least 1908, when the U.S. Supreme Court was asked to determine whether the makers of piano rolls for automatically playing pianos had to pay royalties to the composers. Since that time, the entertainment industry has continued to use copyright law to resist advances in technological innovation that it views as a threat to its existing business models. This Note seeks to provide the ...


The Multiplicity Of Copyright Laws On The Internet, Marketa Trimble Jan 2015

The Multiplicity Of Copyright Laws On The Internet, Marketa Trimble

Scholarly Works

From the early days of the Internet, commentators have warned that it would be impossible for those who act on the Internet (“Internet actors”) to comply with the copyright laws of all Internet-connected countries if the national copyright laws of all those countries were to apply simultaneously to Internet activity. A multiplicity of applicable copyright laws seems plausible at least when the Internet activity is ubiquitous — i.e., unrestricted by geoblocking or by other means — given the territoriality principle that governs international copyright law and the choice-of-law rules that countries typically use for copyright infringements.

This Article posits that the ...


The Google Art Project: An Analysis From A Legal And Social Perspective On Copyright Implications, Katrina Wu Nov 2014

The Google Art Project: An Analysis From A Legal And Social Perspective On Copyright Implications, Katrina Wu

Katrina Wu

The Google Art Project is an ambitious attempt by Google to curate worldwide artwork online in the highest resolution possible. Google accomplishes this by partnering with museums where museums provide access to art collections and Google provides the technology to capture high quality images. Under this existing model, Google places the burden of copyright clearances on museums and removes images from online if requested by copyright owners. An endeavor like the Google Art Project is not unprecedented however, when Google attempted to put the world’s books online under the Google Books Project, scanning millions of titles and offering snippets ...


Digital Music Sampling And Copyright Policy - A Bittersweet Symphony? Assessing The Continued Legality Of Music Sampling In The United Kingdom, The Netherlands, And The United States, Melissa Hahn Sep 2014

Digital Music Sampling And Copyright Policy - A Bittersweet Symphony? Assessing The Continued Legality Of Music Sampling In The United Kingdom, The Netherlands, And The United States, Melissa Hahn

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Ip Law Book Review: Configuring The Networked Self: Law, Code, And The Play Of Every Day Practice, Frank Pasquale Apr 2014

Ip Law Book Review: Configuring The Networked Self: Law, Code, And The Play Of Every Day Practice, Frank Pasquale

Frank A. Pasquale

Julie Cohen's Configuring the Networked Self is an extraordinarily insightful book. Cohen not only applies extant theory to law; she also distills it into her own distinctive social theory of the information age. Thus, even relatively short sections of chapters of her book often merit article-length close readings. I here offer a brief for the practical importance of Cohen’s theory, and ways it should influence intellectual property policy and scholarship.


Ip Law Book Review: Configuring The Networked Self: Law, Code, And The Play Of Every Day Practice, Frank A. Pasquale Apr 2014

Ip Law Book Review: Configuring The Networked Self: Law, Code, And The Play Of Every Day Practice, Frank A. Pasquale

Faculty Scholarship

Julie Cohen's Configuring the Networked Self is an extraordinarily insightful book. Cohen not only applies extant theory to law; she also distills it into her own distinctive social theory of the information age. Thus, even relatively short sections of chapters of her book often merit article-length close readings. I here offer a brief for the practical importance of Cohen’s theory, and ways it should influence intellectual property policy and scholarship.


Dissolving Innovation In Meltwater: A Misguided Paradigm For Online Search, Bill D. Herman Mar 2014

Dissolving Innovation In Meltwater: A Misguided Paradigm For Online Search, Bill D. Herman

Bill D. Herman

With the exponential increases in online information, internet search engines have helped fill a substantial and growing need for the capacity to sort through and manage data. News outlets in general and newspapers in particular are among the most socially important sources of online content being indexed, and these outlets are faring rather poorly in the internet economy. Both of these sectors are thus in a precarious, potentially conflicted relationship, with copyright law serving as the primary legal basis for mediating the relationship. A 2013 decision, Associated Press v. Meltwater, is one recent attempt to mediate this relationship. In it ...


The Evolution Of The Digital Millennium Copyright Act; Changing Interpretations Of The Dmca And Future Implications For Copyright Holders, Hillary A. Henderson Jan 2014

The Evolution Of The Digital Millennium Copyright Act; Changing Interpretations Of The Dmca And Future Implications For Copyright Holders, Hillary A. Henderson

Hillary A Henderson

Copyright law rewards an artificial monopoly to individual authors for their creations. This reward is based on the belief that, by granting authors the exclusive right to reproduce their works, they receive an incentive and means to create, which in turn advances the welfare of the general public by “promoting the progress of science and useful arts.” Copyright protection subsists . . . in original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device . . . . In no ...


Toward A Closer Integration Of Law And Computer Science, Christopher S. Yoo Jan 2014

Toward A Closer Integration Of Law And Computer Science, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship

Legal issues increasingly arise in increasingly complex technological contexts. Prominent recent examples include the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the Protect Intellectual Property Act (PIPA), network neutrality, the increasing availability of location information, and the NSA’s surveillance program. Other emerging issues include data privacy, online video distribution, patent policy, and spectrum policy. In short, the rapid rate of technological change has increasingly shown that law and engineering can no longer remain compartmentalized into separate spheres. The logical response would be to embed the interaction between law and policy deeper into the fabric of both fields. An essential step ...


The Territoriality Referendum, Marketa Trimble Jan 2014

The Territoriality Referendum, Marketa Trimble

Scholarly Works

Many Internet users have encountered geoblocking tools – tools that prevent users from accessing certain content on the Internet based on the location from which the users are connecting to the Internet. Because at least some users want to access such content, they turn to tools that enable them to evade geoblocking, to appear on the Internet as if they were located in another location, and to access the content that is available in this other location. So far these activities appear to be under the radar of intellectual property (“IP”) owners, perhaps because geoblocking evasion by users for the purposes ...


Machine Learning And Law, Harry Surden Jan 2014

Machine Learning And Law, Harry Surden

Articles

This Article explores the application of machine learning techniques within the practice of law. Broadly speaking “machine learning” refers to computer algorithms that have the ability to “learn” or improve in performance over time on some task. In general, machine learning algorithms are designed to detect patterns in data and then apply these patterns going forward to new data in order to automate particular tasks. Outside of law, machine learning techniques have been successfully applied to automate tasks that were once thought to necessitate human intelligence — for example language translation, fraud-detection, driving automobiles, facial recognition, and data-mining. If performing well ...


Copyright's Hand Abstractions Test For Patent's Section-101 Subject-Matter Eligibility, Mark Carter Dec 2013

Copyright's Hand Abstractions Test For Patent's Section-101 Subject-Matter Eligibility, Mark Carter

Mark R. Carter, J.D., Ph.D.

Since the Federal Circuit’s 2007 In re Bilski decision and the Supreme Court’s 2008 Bilski v. Kappos decision, patent law’s subject-matter eligibility standard under 35 U.S.C. § 101 has been uncertain. This paper posits patent law's patent-ineligible abstract ideas are science concepts and science laws, composed of science concepts, as defined by science philosophers. Somewhat analogous to copyright law, it also presents a Downward Patent-Eligibility Hand Abstractions Test from an alleged abstract idea or natural phenomenon to independent claims as a coherent, systematic, and practical approach to judging utility-patent eligibility. Patent claims manifest an innate ...


The Copyrightability Of Nonliteral Elements Of Computer Programs, Julian Velasco Nov 2013

The Copyrightability Of Nonliteral Elements Of Computer Programs, Julian Velasco

Julian Velasco

No abstract provided.


Guidelines To Limit Criminal Prosecutions Of Filesharing Services, Benton Martin, Jeremiah Newhall Oct 2013

Guidelines To Limit Criminal Prosecutions Of Filesharing Services, Benton Martin, Jeremiah Newhall

Benton C. Martin

This short essay acknowledges certain efficiencies in enforcing copyright law against "secondary" infringers like filesharing services through criminal proceedings, but it proposes guidelines for prosecutors to use in limiting prosecutions against this type of infringer.


Applying The Fragmented Literal Similarity Test To Musical-Work And Sound-Recording Infringement: Correcting The Bridgeport Music, Inc. V. Dimension Films Legacy, Mark R. Carter , J.D., Ph.D. Jun 2013

Applying The Fragmented Literal Similarity Test To Musical-Work And Sound-Recording Infringement: Correcting The Bridgeport Music, Inc. V. Dimension Films Legacy, Mark R. Carter , J.D., Ph.D.

Mark R. Carter, J.D., Ph.D.

Copyright law simultaneously protects recorded music in two distinct ways. A musical work, i.e. composition, and its sound recording are both copyrightable. Copyright law protects all copyrightable works against unapproved reproduction, i.e. copying. Normally, the substantial similarity standard tests reproduction infringement. A sound-recording sample may be so short as to lack substantial similarity to the musical-work and thus not infringe it. But, Bridgeport Music, Inc. v. Dimension Films chucked substantial similarity to hold the same sample, however short, necessarily infringes the sound-recording re-production right. This disparate copyright protection between musical works and sound recordings of the same sample ...


Migración A La Nube: ¿Está Segura Nuestra Información?, Rodolfo C. Rivas Rea Esq., Marco A. Vargas Iñiguez Esq. Jun 2013

Migración A La Nube: ¿Está Segura Nuestra Información?, Rodolfo C. Rivas Rea Esq., Marco A. Vargas Iñiguez Esq.

Rodolfo C. Rivas

The authors discuss the benefits and risks of moving your business data to the cloud through case studies and offer practical tips to protect business confidential information stored in the cloud. //////////////////////// Los autores estudian los beneficios y los riesgos de almacenar datos e información en la nube a través de casos de estudio y ofrecen consejos prácticos para proteger la información comercial confidencial almacenada en la nube.


I Programmi Per Elaboratore E I Confini Del Diritto D'Autore. La Corte Di Giustizia Nega La Tutela A Funzionalità, Linguaggio Di Programmazione E Formato Dei File Di Dati (Computer Programs And The Boundaries Of Copyright: The Court Of Justice Denies Protection To Functionalities, Programming Language And Formats Of Data Files), Guido Noto La Diega Jun 2013

I Programmi Per Elaboratore E I Confini Del Diritto D'Autore. La Corte Di Giustizia Nega La Tutela A Funzionalità, Linguaggio Di Programmazione E Formato Dei File Di Dati (Computer Programs And The Boundaries Of Copyright: The Court Of Justice Denies Protection To Functionalities, Programming Language And Formats Of Data Files), Guido Noto La Diega

Guido Noto La Diega

A comment to the Sas Institute Inc. v. World Programming Ltd case [Court of Justice, Grand Chamber, 2 May 2012, C-406/10]. It is one of the most important European decisions in the field of computer programs and it is notable both from a practical and a theoretical point of view. The European Court of Justice denies protection to functionalities, programming language and format of data files, because they have to be considered as 'ideas' and not as 'expression'. The idea/expression dichotomy, often called into question especially in software copyright, is placed at the core of a not anymore ...


Protection Of Intellectual Property Rights In Computers And Computer Programs: Recent Developments , Alan C. Rose Feb 2013

Protection Of Intellectual Property Rights In Computers And Computer Programs: Recent Developments , Alan C. Rose

Pepperdine Law Review

The following article examines the protection offered to computers and computer programs, under the various applicable patent, copyright and trade secret laws. Concerning patent protection; the author discusses the history and current status of the patent laws, and analyzes in detail the landmark case of Diamond v. Diehr. Discussed also is an analysis of copyright protection for computer programs, offered by the 1980 amendments to section 117 of the 1976 Copyright Act; which paved the way for the increased protection.


Le Idee E Il Muro Del Suono. I Programmi Per Elaboratore Nella Più Recente Giurisprudenza Europea (Ideas And Sound Barrier: Computer Programs In The Most Recent European Case-Law), Guido Noto La Diega Jan 2013

Le Idee E Il Muro Del Suono. I Programmi Per Elaboratore Nella Più Recente Giurisprudenza Europea (Ideas And Sound Barrier: Computer Programs In The Most Recent European Case-Law), Guido Noto La Diega

Guido Noto La Diega

After a deep introduction on the technical and definitory aspects of computer programs, in this essay I study the European case-law, stressing the renovated importance of the idea/expression dichotomy. The occasion is propitious to describe the evolution of law in a technological environment: nihilistic views have to be abandoned. Italian Abstract: Dopo un'approfondita introduzione sugli aspetti tecnici e le preliminari definizioni in materia di programmi per elaboratore, questo saggio si concentra sulla giurisprudenza europea, dove si torna a sottolineare con forza l'importanza della dicotomia idea/espressione. L'occasione si rivela propizia per descrivere l'evoluzione del diritto ...


La Industria Del Libro 3.0 Y J.K. Rowling, Rodolfo C. Rivas Rea Esq., Maria Alejandra Lopez Garcia Esq. Dec 2012

La Industria Del Libro 3.0 Y J.K. Rowling, Rodolfo C. Rivas Rea Esq., Maria Alejandra Lopez Garcia Esq.

Rodolfo C. Rivas

The authors provide a brief overview of what could be called the 3.0 version of the book industry. Under the 3.0 book industry, the author’s role in exploiting their creations has to embrace new and creative business models, which may often come into conflict with publisher’s old business models. In the article, the authors take a look at the innovative business models implemented by J.K. Rowling, Stephen King, Radiohead and Frank Ocean amongst others. ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Los autores proporcionan una breve descripción de lo que podría llamarse la versión 3.0 de la industria del libro. En ...


Changing Places: A New Role For Creators In The Digital World, Rodolfo C. Rivas Rea Esq., Maria Alejandra Lopez Garcia Esq. Nov 2012

Changing Places: A New Role For Creators In The Digital World, Rodolfo C. Rivas Rea Esq., Maria Alejandra Lopez Garcia Esq.

Rodolfo C. Rivas

The authors provide a brief overview of the author’s role in exploiting their creations and how new technologies have made authors and publishers explore new business models. In the article, the authors take a look at the innovative business models implemented by J.K. Rowling, Stephen King, Radiohead and Frank Ocean amongst others./////////////////////////////////////////////////// Los autores proporcionan una breve descripción de la función del autor en la explotación de sus creaciones y cómo las nuevas tecnologías han obligado a los autores y editores explorar nuevos modelos de negocio. En el artículo, los autores echan un vistazo a los modelos de ...