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Full-Text Articles in Law

Authenticity Key To Success In Life And In Legal Information, Susan Drisko Zago Jun 2016

Authenticity Key To Success In Life And In Legal Information, Susan Drisko Zago

Legal Scholarship

[Excerpt] "Authenticity is defined as something that is not false or an imitation. Savvy consumers pay a premium for an authentic product and treat with suspicion a product that does not ring true.

We have a system of trademark and copyright protections that protect a company’s intellectual property rights and brands and consumer protections to protect the consumer from counterfeit and unsafe products. Now, there is model legislation that will provide a systematic way to protect, preserve and provide better electronic access to the bread and butter of our legal profession: our official state legal documents."


If It’S Broke, Fix It: Fixing Fixation, Megan M. Carpenter Jan 2016

If It’S Broke, Fix It: Fixing Fixation, Megan M. Carpenter

Legal Scholarship

The fixation requirement, once an intended instrument for added flexibility in copyrightability, has become an unworkable standard under modern copyright law. The last twenty-five years have witnessed a dramatic expansion in creative media. Developments in both digital media and contemporary art have challenged what it means to be fixed, and cases dealing with these works reveal how inapposite current interpretations of fixation are for these forms of expression. Yet, getting fixation “right” is important, for it is often the juridical threshold over which idea becomes expression. Thus, we must enable fixation to help define the parameters of creative expression while ...


Unh School Of Law Ip Library: 20th Anniversary Reflection On The Only Academic Ip Library In The United States, Jon R. Cavicchi Jan 2016

Unh School Of Law Ip Library: 20th Anniversary Reflection On The Only Academic Ip Library In The United States, Jon R. Cavicchi

Legal Scholarship

[Excerpt] The UNH School of Law Intellectual Property Library celebrates its twentieth anniversary this year. It is a fortuitous time for this look back and for strategic considerations for the future. This anniversary comes at a time in the history of legal education when conditions over the past few years have intensified the analysis of mission and resources for law school libraries. This article is a retrospective review of the history and dynamics surrounding the founding and first twenty years of growth. It is also an analysis of the future growth and mission of the IP Library during times that ...


Ip Basics: Copyright In Written Work, Thomas G. Field Jr. Jan 2015

Ip Basics: Copyright In Written Work, Thomas G. Field Jr.

Legal Scholarship

Written primarily for free-lance writers, this discussion addresses ownership and duration of copyrights, deposit and registration, notice, and remedies that are closely tied to prompt registration. It also discusses licensing and other matters of interest, as well as the need for counsel.


Ip Basics: Advice On Ip Careers For Those Without Technical Backgrounds, Thomas G. Field Jr. Jan 2015

Ip Basics: Advice On Ip Careers For Those Without Technical Backgrounds, Thomas G. Field Jr.

Legal Scholarship

[Excerpt] If you can spend three more years in school, intellectual property offers a wide range of interesting and rewarding careers. Those without technical backgrounds, however, should not pursue an intellectual property career blindly. Unless your undergraduate degree is in a physical science or engineering -- or you have at least a masters (and probably some experience) in biotechnology, patent opportunities will be slim. As discussed in more detail below, people without technical training are more apt to deal with copyrights, trademarks and special contracts such as licenses or franchise agreements. Yet intellectual property law covering non-technical subjects is often as ...


Ip Basics: Copyright On The Internet, Thomas G. Field Jr. Jan 2015

Ip Basics: Copyright On The Internet, Thomas G. Field Jr.

Legal Scholarship

This discussion focuses on copyright issues most apt to concern those who post to or own email lists or those who have put up web pages. Such matters as the fundamental distinction between works that are and are not "for hire," registration, and issues to consider in transferring copyright interests are treated in other copyright discussions above.


Ip Basics: Managing Intellectual Property, Thomas G. Field Jr. Jan 2015

Ip Basics: Managing Intellectual Property, Thomas G. Field Jr.

Legal Scholarship

This provides an overview of the IP management process, including the key decisions to be made in the effort to make the most of intellectual property.


Ip Basics: Advice On Ip Careers For Those With Technical Backgrounds, Thomas G. Field Jr. Jan 2015

Ip Basics: Advice On Ip Careers For Those With Technical Backgrounds, Thomas G. Field Jr.

Legal Scholarship

[Excerpt] Full-time law school takes three years and culminates in the Juris Doctor. A J.D. from a school accredited by the American Bar Association qualifies a person to take the bar exam in any state. As mentioned above, college graduates need not pursue any particular line of study to be accepted into law school. At the University of New Hampshire School of Law, for example, over a third of our students have degrees in engineering or science, and many have had extensive experience or advanced degrees, including M.D.s and Ph.Ds. -- the last being particularly helpful for ...


Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca Jan 2015

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca

Legal Scholarship

Authorship, and hence, initial ownership of copyrighted works is oftentimes controlled by the 1976 Copyright Act’s work made for hire doctrine. This doctrine states that works created by employees within the scope of their employment result in the employer owning the copyright. One key determination in this analysis is whether the hired party is an employee or independent contractor. In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court, in CCNV v. Reid, answered the question of how employees are distinguished from independent contractors by setting forth a list of factors courts should consider. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not give further ...


Ip Basics: Copyright In Visual Arts, Thomas G. Field Jr. Jan 2015

Ip Basics: Copyright In Visual Arts, Thomas G. Field Jr.

Legal Scholarship

This discussion focuses on the needs of free-lance artists, craftspeople, photographers, sculptors and the like.


Ip Basics: Copyright For Digital Authors, Thomas G. Field Jr. Jan 2015

Ip Basics: Copyright For Digital Authors, Thomas G. Field Jr.

Legal Scholarship

Written for computer artists and programmers, this paper addresses the basics, as well as the registration of multiple works, difference between works that are and are not prepared "for hire," and other matters of interest to entrepreneurs as well as to free-lance programmers and artists.


Function Over Form: Bringing The Fixation Requirement Into The Modern Era, Megan M. Carpenter, Steven Hetcher Jan 2014

Function Over Form: Bringing The Fixation Requirement Into The Modern Era, Megan M. Carpenter, Steven Hetcher

Legal Scholarship

This Article examines the ways that contemporary creativity challenges copyright’s fixation requirement. In this Article, we identify concrete problems with the fixation requirement, both practically and in light of the fundamental purpose and policy behind copyright law, and argue for a change that would amend the fixation requirement to better function in the modern era.

Specifically, we conclude that a fair appraisal of the justifications for the fixation requirement provides little, if any, rationale for fixation except to the extent that fixation helps to separate idea from expression in determining the “metes and bounds” of creative expression. Recent case ...


Safe Harbor For The Innocent Infringer In The Digital Age, Tonya M. Evans Jan 2013

Safe Harbor For The Innocent Infringer In The Digital Age, Tonya M. Evans

Legal Scholarship

The primary goal of this Article is three-fold: (1) to explore the role of the innocent infringer archetype historically and in the digital age; (2) to highlight the tension between customary and generally accepted online uses and copyright law that compromise efficient use of technology and progress of the digital technologies, the Internet, and society at large; and (3) to offer a legislative fix in the form of safe harbor for direct innocent infringers. Such an exemption seems not only more efficient but also more just in the online environment where unwitting infringement for the average copyright consumer is far ...


Copyright Law And Pornography, Ann Bartow Jan 2012

Copyright Law And Pornography, Ann Bartow

Legal Scholarship

The government can and should stop providing financial incentives in the form of copyright protection for the production and distribution of pornographic works that cause direct harms, such as child pornography, revenge pornography, crush pornography and filmed sexual abuse. The Article proceeds in five parts. Part I provides an overview of the relationship of copyright law to pornography. Copyright law, viewed in a certain light, plays a structural role in the commoditization of sex and sexual images. In most jurisdictions in the United States, buying and selling sex is illegal, but when sex-for-hire is fixed in a tangible medium of ...


Review Essay, Property Outlaws: How Squatters, Pirates, And Protesters Improve The Law Of Ownership By Eduardo Moisés Peñalver And Sonia K. Katyal, Ann Bartow Jan 2012

Review Essay, Property Outlaws: How Squatters, Pirates, And Protesters Improve The Law Of Ownership By Eduardo Moisés Peñalver And Sonia K. Katyal, Ann Bartow

Legal Scholarship

[Excerpt] "This book challenges the notion that rigidly fostering stability in the private ownership of property is the only appropriate goal of the legal system. The authors assert that dynamic sociopolitical responses to civil disobedience by lawbreakers sometimes propel beneficial legal reforms in a wide array of contexts. Property outlaws with clean hands and good hearts, they argue, can productively draw attention to the need to reform ossified property laws. In the words sometimes attributed to the historical rock star of successful civil disobedience Mohandas Ghandi: “First they ignore you, then they ridicule you, then they fight you, and then ...


Drawing A Line In The Sand: When A Curator Becomes A Creator, Megan M. Carpenter Mar 2011

Drawing A Line In The Sand: When A Curator Becomes A Creator, Megan M. Carpenter

Legal Scholarship

Over the last twenty years, audience attendance at museums, galleries, and performing arts institutions in the United States has decreased dramatically. Major museums and galleries are considering ways to add engaging and meaningful value to the user experience with technology, from incorporating user-generated content to creating multimedia installations billed as “collaborative” works.

In 2010, the Dallas Museum of Art’s Coastlines: Images of Land and Sea exhibition featured landscapes from 1850 to the present, as well as a sound installation composed by students and faculty in the Arts and Technology program at the University of Texas at Dallas, which played ...


Space Age Love Song: The Mix Tape In A Digital Universe, Megan M. Carpenter Jan 2010

Space Age Love Song: The Mix Tape In A Digital Universe, Megan M. Carpenter

Legal Scholarship

Music sharing is one of the most controversial topics in copyright law. And mix tapes have been the classic, iconic form of music sharing for the last 30 years. Even in the face of technological development so rapid and far-reaching as to remove the literal “tape” from “mix tape,” there are nonetheless modern incarnations that crop up on a regular basis, from mix CDs to mix-sharing websites. Social norms permit and even encourage the creation of these modern mix tapes for such diverse reasons as wedding favors and birthday gifts.

If copyright law is meant to promote creativity and proscribe ...


Considering The Reach Of Phelps, Thomas G. Field Jr. Dec 2008

Considering The Reach Of Phelps, Thomas G. Field Jr.

University of New Hampshire Law Review

[Excerpt] “As the Supreme Court recently confirmed in Quanta Computer, Inc. v. LG Electronics, Inc., patent and copyright owners have limited rights following voluntary transfers of protected goods. Moreover, as discussed at length by the Second Circuit in Platt & Munk Co. v. Republic Graphics, Inc., patent owners‟ rights have long been similarly affected by involuntary transfers. Platt & Munk finds the lack of equivalent copyright rulings remarkable, but does not allow lack of direct precedent to stand in the way of finding that involuntary transferees of copyright-protected goods have the same rights as voluntary transferees.

Initially, the Fourth Circuit, in Christopher ...


Copyright Law And Pornography: Reconsidering Incentives To Create And Distribute Pornography, Ann Bartow Jan 2008

Copyright Law And Pornography: Reconsidering Incentives To Create And Distribute Pornography, Ann Bartow

Legal Scholarship

As it moved into the mainstream in the 1970s and early 1980s, pornography obtained copyright protections through judicial fiat, rather than as a result of legislative action. This essay explains how pornography came to be eligible for copyright protections, discusses the social and legal effects of this change, and raises questions about the propriety of according pornography the full benefits of copyright law without taking into account the harms that pornography production can inflict on subordinated or coerced "performers."


Pornography, Coercion, And Copyright Law 2.0, Ann Bartow Jan 2008

Pornography, Coercion, And Copyright Law 2.0, Ann Bartow

Legal Scholarship

The lack of regulation of the production of pornography in the United States leaves pornography performers exposed to substantial risks. Producers of pornography typically respond to attempts to regulate pornography as infringements upon free speech. At the same time, large corporations involved in the production and sale of pornography rely on copyright law's complex regulatory framework to protect their pornographic content from copying and unauthorized distribution. Web 2.0 also facilitates the production and distribution of pornography by individuals. These user-generators produce their own pornography, often looking to monetize their productions themselves via advertising revenues and subscription models. Much ...


The True Colors Of Trademark Law: Green-Lighting A Red Tide Of Anti Competition Blues, Ann Bartow Jan 2008

The True Colors Of Trademark Law: Green-Lighting A Red Tide Of Anti Competition Blues, Ann Bartow

Legal Scholarship

The elevation of color to stand-alone trademark status illustrates the unbounded nature of trademarks within the judicial consciousness. The availability of color-alone marks also facilitates the commoditization of color in ways that complicate the development and distribution of products and services that use color for multiple purposes conterminously. The economic case for color-alone trademarks is severely undermined by careful observation of the ways that colors are actually deployed in commerce, which makes it clear that the trademarks of multiple goods and services can utilize the same color to telegraph the same message without confusing anyone or diluting the commercial power ...


Viewing Virtual Property Ownership Through The Lens Of Innovation, Ryan G. Vacca Jan 2008

Viewing Virtual Property Ownership Through The Lens Of Innovation, Ryan G. Vacca

Legal Scholarship

Over the past several years scholars have wrestled with how property rights in items created in virtual worlds should be conceptualized. Regardless of how the property is conceptualized and what property theory best fits, most agree the law ought to recognize virtual property as property and vest someone with those rights.


When Bias Is Bipartisan: Teaching About The Democratic Process In An Intellectual Property Law Republic, Ann Bartow Jan 2008

When Bias Is Bipartisan: Teaching About The Democratic Process In An Intellectual Property Law Republic, Ann Bartow

Legal Scholarship

[Introduction]: Intellectual property law courses offer law professors the opportunity to teach a subject area rich with complicated statutory and court-made doctrines about which students do not usually have strong or extensively delineated moral views. I It also gives everyone in the classroom a refreshing break from the traditional partisanship of political party politics. Identification as a Democrat or Republican does not provide too much guidance or create too many expectations about a person's views of intellectual property issues, freeing classroom debates from the constrictions that political loyalties impose in so many other contexts.


Some Peer-To-Peer, Democratically And Voluntarily Produced Thoughts About 'The Wealth Of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets And Freedom,' By Yochai Benkler, Ann Bartow Jan 2007

Some Peer-To-Peer, Democratically And Voluntarily Produced Thoughts About 'The Wealth Of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets And Freedom,' By Yochai Benkler, Ann Bartow

Legal Scholarship

In this review essay, Bartow concludes that The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom by Yochai Benkler is a book well worth reading, but that Benkler still has a bit more work to do before his Grand Unifying Theory of Life, The Internet, and Everything is satisfactorily complete. It isn't enough to concede that the Internet won't benefit everyone. He needs to more thoroughly consider the ways in which the lives of poor people actually worsen when previously accessible information, goods and services are rendered less convenient or completely unattainable by their migration online ...


Open Access, Law, Knowledge, Copyrights, Dominance And Subordination, Ann Bartow Jan 2006

Open Access, Law, Knowledge, Copyrights, Dominance And Subordination, Ann Bartow

Legal Scholarship

The concept of open access to legal knowledge is at the surface a very appealing one. A citizenry that is well informed about the law may be more likely to comply with legal dictates and proscriptions, or at a minimum, will be aware of the consequences for not doing so. What is less apparent, however, is whether an open access approach to legal knowledge is realistically attainable without fundamental changes to the copyright laws that would recalibrate the power balance between content owners and citizens desiring access to interpretive legal resources. A truly useful application of open access principles would ...


Fair Use And The Fairer Sex: Gender, Feminism, And Copyright Law, Ann Bartow Jan 2006

Fair Use And The Fairer Sex: Gender, Feminism, And Copyright Law, Ann Bartow

Legal Scholarship

Copyright laws are written and enforced to help certain groups of people assert and retain control over the resources generated by creative productivity. Because those people are predominantly male, the copyright infrastructure plays a role, largely unexamined by legal scholars, in helping to sustain the material and economic inequality between women and men. This essay considers some of the ways in which gender issues and copyright laws intersect, proposes a feminist critique of the copyright legal regime which advocates low levels of copyright protections, and asserts the importance of considering the social and economic disparities between women and men when ...


Intellectual Property And Indigenous Peoples: Adapting Copyright Law To The Needs Of A Global Community, Megan M. Carpenter Jan 2004

Intellectual Property And Indigenous Peoples: Adapting Copyright Law To The Needs Of A Global Community, Megan M. Carpenter

Legal Scholarship

The definition and scope of intellectual property and associated laws are under intense debate in the emerging discourse surrounding intellectual property and human rights. These debates primarily arise within the context of indigenous peoples' rights to protection and ownership of culturally specific properties. It is true that intellectual property laws are based on Western, developed markets, Western concepts of creation and invention, and Western concepts of ownership. But whatever their origins, those laws have been, and currently are, the primary vehicle for the protection of artistic, literary, and scientific works worldwide. To segregate indigenous interests from this international legal regime ...


On-Line Tutorial Project: Intellectual Property In E-Commerce, William J. Murphy Jan 2001

On-Line Tutorial Project: Intellectual Property In E-Commerce, William J. Murphy

Legal Scholarship

Copyrights, Trademarks and Patents make up most of the area of law known as Intellectual Property. Intellectual Property's importance in Electronic Commerce is difficult to overstate. The Internet has been defined as a global network of networks through which computers communicate by sending information in packets, and each network consists of computers connected by cables or wireless links. It is the Intellectual Property laws of Copyright, Trademark and Patents that are attempting to harmonize the effects that E-Commerce and the Internet have had on the individual's ability to access and use this information. It should be remembered that ...


Overview Of Potential Intellectual Property Protection For Biotechnology, Kate H. Murashige Mar 1994

Overview Of Potential Intellectual Property Protection For Biotechnology, Kate H. Murashige

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment (1990-2002)

Dr. Murashige compares the function and value of copyright, patent and trade secret laws in recovering investments in developing genome-related biotechnology.