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Combustion

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Full-Text Articles in Mechanical Engineering

Examination Of Flow Dynamics And Passive Cooling In An Ultra Compact Combustor, Tylor C. Rathsack Mar 2019

Examination Of Flow Dynamics And Passive Cooling In An Ultra Compact Combustor, Tylor C. Rathsack

Theses and Dissertations

The Ultra Compact Combustor (UCC) promises to greatly reduce the size of a gas turbine engine’s combustor by altering the manner in which fuel is burnt. Differing from the common axial flow combustor, the UCC utilizes a rotating flow, coaxial to the engine’s primary axis, in an outboard circumferential cavity as the primary combustion zone. The present study investigates two key UCC facets required to further this combustor design. The first area of investigation is cooling of the Hybrid Guide Vane (HGV). This UCC specific hardware acts as a combustor center body that alters the exit flow angle ...


Flow Behavior In Radial Rotating Detonation Engines, Scott A. Boller Mar 2019

Flow Behavior In Radial Rotating Detonation Engines, Scott A. Boller

Theses and Dissertations

Recent progress has been made in demonstrating Radial Rotating Detonation Engine (RRDE) technology for use in a compact Auxiliary Power Unit with a rapid response time. Investigation of RRDEs also suggests an increase in stable operating range, which is hypothesized to be due to the additional degree of freedom in the radial direction which the detonation wave can propagate. This investigation seeks to determine if the detonation wave is in fact changing its radial location. High speed photography was used to capture chemiluminescence of the detonation wave within the channel to examine its radial location, which was found to vary ...


Adding Semi-Structured Automated Grid Generation And The Menter-Shear Stress Turbulence Transport Model For Internal Combustion Engine Simulations To Novel Fem Lanl Combustion Codes, Brad Montgomery Philipbar Jan 2019

Adding Semi-Structured Automated Grid Generation And The Menter-Shear Stress Turbulence Transport Model For Internal Combustion Engine Simulations To Novel Fem Lanl Combustion Codes, Brad Montgomery Philipbar

Mechanical Engineering ETDs

The addition of GridPro semi-structured, automated generation of grids for complex moving boundaries for combustion engine applications and the Menter Shear Stress Turbulent Transfer (SST) model are being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The software is called Fast, Easy, Accurate, and Robust Continuum Engineering (FEARCE). In addition to improving the time and effort required to build complex grid geometry for turbulent reactive multi-phase flow in internal combustion engines, the SST turbulence model has been programmed into the Predictor Corrector Fractional-Step (PCS) Finite Element Method (FEM) for reactive flow and turbulent incompressible flow regime validation is performed. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes ...


Ignition And Extinction Behavior Of Fuels In A Microcombustor, Pawan Sharma Jan 2019

Ignition And Extinction Behavior Of Fuels In A Microcombustor, Pawan Sharma

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Conventional fuel testing device-CFR engine requires large quantities of fuels, which makes it unsuitable for research of small samples of fuels. This current study seeks to address this limitation by using an externally heated microcombustor as an alternative fuel testing device. Mainly three combustion behaviors have been observed inside a microcombustor: strong flames at higher flow rates, Flames with Repetitive Extinction and Ignition (FREI) at intermediate flow rates, and weak flames at marginal flow rates. In previous studies, weak combustion behavior has been proven suitable to study fuel properties from small samples of fuels. Microcombustor experiments typically rely on flame ...


Study Of Combustion Performance Of Al/Ptfe B/Ptfe And B/Al/Ptfe Composites, Liyun Feng Jan 2019

Study Of Combustion Performance Of Al/Ptfe B/Ptfe And B/Al/Ptfe Composites, Liyun Feng

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Metal particles like aluminum and boron are of great interest as additives to energetic materials due to their high gravimetric and volumetric heat of combustion. However, the ignition temperatures of metals are quite high and their burning rates which depend upon the surface area of the burning metal agglomerates are quite slow. The naturally formed oxide layer on the surface of metal particles can further inhibit their ignition and combustion by limiting fuel/oxidizer transport. The boron oxide layer on boron particles is of particular interest due to the strong diffusion barrier formed by its presence. However, the ignition temperature ...


Combustion Dynamics And Heat Transfer In An Ultra Compact Combustor, Brian T. Bohan Sep 2018

Combustion Dynamics And Heat Transfer In An Ultra Compact Combustor, Brian T. Bohan

Theses and Dissertations

The Ultra Compact Combustor (UCC) is an innovative combustion system alternative to a traditional turbine engine burner with the potential to improve engine efficiency with a reduced combustor volume. The UCC shortens the axial length of the combustor, and therefore reduces engine weight, by burning in an annulus and swirling the reactants in the circumferential direction. These length and weight improvements can directly lead to an increased thrust-to-weight rating of the engine. The present research included five objectives which advanced the UCC concept on four fronts; cooling UCC turbine vanes, advanced computational modeling of UCC systems, system air split control ...


Thermophotovoltaic Devices: Combustion Chamber Optimization And Modelling To Maximize Fuel Efficiency, Arnold Chris Toppo, Ernesto Marinero, Zhaxylyk Kudyshev Aug 2018

Thermophotovoltaic Devices: Combustion Chamber Optimization And Modelling To Maximize Fuel Efficiency, Arnold Chris Toppo, Ernesto Marinero, Zhaxylyk Kudyshev

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Currently, 110 billion cubic meters of natural gas (primarily methane), a potent greenhouse gas, are flared off for environmental and safety reasons. This process results in enough fuel to provide the combined natural gas consumption of Germany and France. The research team developed a thermophotovoltaic device to convert thermal energy to electricity at a high efficiency using proprietary emitters and combustion system. With the current focus being fuel efficiency and the combustion process, the assembly was simulated using ANSYS Fluent modelling software and the following parameters were optimized: air/fuel ratios, flow rates, and inlet sizes. Simultaneously the heat transfer ...


Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy Of Industrial Flame Systems, Torrey Rahe Schenkenberger Hayden Jan 2018

Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy Of Industrial Flame Systems, Torrey Rahe Schenkenberger Hayden

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Combustion is widely used for materials processing, propulsion, and power production. Understanding the temporal and spatial variations within practical combustion systems can help to optimize their stability, uniformity, emissions, and/or efficiency. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) provides quantitative, non-intrusive, time-resolved measurements of line-of-sight thermodynamic properties in a gas sample. This dissertation describes the development and application of novel WMS sensors for measurements in industrial flame environments. After an overview of WMS, we describe the development of the first WMS sensor to measure OH radical near 1491 nm. We perform the first dual-comb spectroscopy measurement above a premixed flame in order ...


Large Eddy Simulations Of Industrial Burners, Siddharth Prashant Nigam Jan 2018

Large Eddy Simulations Of Industrial Burners, Siddharth Prashant Nigam

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

During the past four years, a gift from 3M has funded a project that is at the intersection of academia and industry at the University of Colorado, Boulder (CU). The overall objective of this joint computational and experimental effort is to explore optimization and improvement of burner/chilled-roll systems for polymer film flame treatments. Using the computational and experimental tools developed in this project, existing treatment processes will be improved and new avenues of technology innovation will be explored.

In this thesis, industry-relevant heat treatment processes with catalytic and ribbon burners are studied using large eddy simulations (LES). The simulations ...


NoX Formation In Light-Hydrocarbon, Premixed Flames, Robert T. Hughes Jan 2018

NoX Formation In Light-Hydrocarbon, Premixed Flames, Robert T. Hughes

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

This study explores the reactions and related species of NOx pollutants in methane flames in order to understand their production and consumption during the combustion process. To do this, several analytical simulations were run to explore the behavior of nitrogen species in the pre-flame, post- flame, and reaction layer regions. The results were then analyzed in order to identify all "steady-state" species in the flame as well as the determine all the unnecessary reactions and species that are not required to meet a defined accuracy. The reductions were then applied and proven to be viable.


Investigation Of The Performance And Emissions Characteristics Of Dual Fuel Combustion In A Single Cylinder Idi Diesel Engine, Johnnie L. Williams Jr Jan 2018

Investigation Of The Performance And Emissions Characteristics Of Dual Fuel Combustion In A Single Cylinder Idi Diesel Engine, Johnnie L. Williams Jr

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Restrictions in the allowable exhaust gas emissions of diesel engines has become a driving factor in the design, development, and implementation of internal combustion (IC) engines. A dual fuel research engine concept was developed and implemented in an indirect injected engine in order to research combustion characteristics and emissions for non-road applications. The experimental engine was operated at a constant speed and load 2400 rpm and 5.5 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). n-Butanol was port fuel injected at 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by mass fraction with neat ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD#2). Peak pressure, maximum pressure rise ...


Simulation Of An Ethylene Flame With Turbulence, Soot And Radiation Modeling, Santu Golder Jan 2018

Simulation Of An Ethylene Flame With Turbulence, Soot And Radiation Modeling, Santu Golder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis will investigate soot models that are available in commercial codes. We will look at the effect of turbulence models, gravity, soot models and radiation. Simulations will be compared to Coppalle and Joyeux [1]. The flame is an ethylene air diffusion flame at a Reynolds number of 5700. Simulations show the SST turbulence model, one-step soot model and Rosseland radiation model including gravity agree well with experimental data (temperature and soot). Flamelet soot modeling from Carbonell et al. [2] and flamelet radiation modeling from Doom [3] has been incorporated and compared as well.


A Multi-Scale Approach For Modeling Shock Ignition And Burn Of Granular Hmx, Pratap Thamanna Rao Nov 2017

A Multi-Scale Approach For Modeling Shock Ignition And Burn Of Granular Hmx, Pratap Thamanna Rao

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in confined, low-density granular HMX (65%-85% Theoretical Maximum Density, TMD) occurs by a complex mechanism that involves compaction shock interactions within the material. Piston driven DDT experiments indicate that detonation is abruptly triggered by the interaction of a strong burn-supported secondary shock and a piston-supported primary (input) shock, where the nature of the interaction depends on initial packing density and primary shock strength. These interactions influence transition by affecting hot-spot formation within the micro-structure during pore collapse. In this study, meso-scale simulations of hot-spot formation in shock loaded granular HMX are used to guide the development ...


Fundamental Studies Of Flame Structure Through Laser Plasma Diagnostics, Wendong Wu Aug 2017

Fundamental Studies Of Flame Structure Through Laser Plasma Diagnostics, Wendong Wu

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Increasing concerns about air pollution and global climate change are drawing attention to the need for efficiency improvements and emission reductions for combustion processes, which account for more than 85% of energy production in United States. Combustion efficiency and emissions are affected by the mixing and reacting of fuel and oxidizer. Understanding such behavior plays a critical role in flame structure studies and combustion optimization. However, experimentally obtaining mixture fraction, which is a widely used quantity to describe the mixing behavior, has proven to be a challenge, especially for heavier hydrocarbon fuels or fuel rich flames. Moreover, measuring flame temperature ...


Additive Manufacturing Of High Solids Loading Hybrid Rocket Fuel Grains, Stephen P. Johnson, Michael Baier, Ibrahim E. Gunduz, Steven F. Son Aug 2017

Additive Manufacturing Of High Solids Loading Hybrid Rocket Fuel Grains, Stephen P. Johnson, Michael Baier, Ibrahim E. Gunduz, Steven F. Son

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Hybrid rocket motors offer many of the benefits of both liquid and solid rocket systems. Like liquid engines, hybrid rocket motors are able to be throttled, can be stopped and restarted, and are safer than solid rocket motors since the fuel and oxidizer are in different physical states. Hybrid rocket motors are similar to solid motors in that they are relatively simple and have a high density-specific impulse. One of the major drawbacks of hybrid rocket motors is a slower burning rate than solid rocket motors. Complex port geometries provide greater burning surface area to compensate for lower burning rates ...


Design Of A Novel Microreactor To Study Short Residence Time Combustion, Tianzhu Fan Jan 2017

Design Of A Novel Microreactor To Study Short Residence Time Combustion, Tianzhu Fan

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Microreactors are useful tools for understanding the short residence time reactions of biomass polymers and fuel molecules. When coupled with sensitive detection methods, microreactors have the ability to detect all molecules produced in the reactor, including stable, meta-stable, and radical species, making microreactors one of the few experiments where nearly all chemical species may be detected. At the University of Colorado Boulder, our microreactor studies have involved very small (~1 mm internal diameter, ~28 mm long) silicon carbide (SiC) tubes to study short residence time pyrolysis reactions in conjunction with photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR ...


Autoignition Studies Of Gasoline Surrogate Fuels In The Advanced Fuel Ignition Delay Analyzer, Drew Morales Cameron Jan 2017

Autoignition Studies Of Gasoline Surrogate Fuels In The Advanced Fuel Ignition Delay Analyzer, Drew Morales Cameron

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Improving vehicle efficiency is a substantial way to reduce CO2 emissions from the transportation sector. The most limiting factor of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engine efficiency is the phenomenon known as knocking. The current methods to characterize fuel knock resistance are with the Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) methods. However, it has been shown that these engine-based test methods do not directly predict knock resistance in modern direct injection (DI) gasoline engines, especially under boosted conditions. Alternative test devices have been used to more directly study ignition kinetics. Constant volume combustion chambers (CVCCs) have been ...


Design Of A 1 Megawatt Heat Input Direct Power Extraction System For Advanced Topping Cycles, Brian Matthew Lovich Jan 2017

Design Of A 1 Megawatt Heat Input Direct Power Extraction System For Advanced Topping Cycles, Brian Matthew Lovich

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Power development has become a standard for living; as such more efficient and cleaner methods are desired. One such method is that of the direct power extraction system utilizing Magnetohydrodynamic properties. This paper will discuss the combustor designed and developed for a direct power extraction system at the 1 MW heat input range. A short history of the power systems utilized with a focus on the direct power class will be conducted in the first chapter to give insight into the benefits of using the direct power system. Then a literature review the fundamentals of direct power systems will be ...


Reaction Tuning Of Selectively Deposited Nano-Thermite Inks For Thrust And Heat Deposition, Raghav Ramachandran Dec 2016

Reaction Tuning Of Selectively Deposited Nano-Thermite Inks For Thrust And Heat Deposition, Raghav Ramachandran

Open Access Theses

Currently there is very little systematic work that quantifies the performance of energetic materials in terms of thrust or heat deposition applied to electronic circuits. A better understanding of the interactions between nano-scale energetic materials and electronic systems, as a function of stoichiometry is needed for enhanced defeat. Both of these needs are addressed in this research. Formulations of Al-CuO and Al-Bi2O3 nano-thermites were prepared at different equivalence ratios and selectively deposited onto silicon substrates and thrust and heat deposition of these materials was quantified. Both nano-thermite systems produced maximum thrust near stoichiometric ratios, and more fuel-rich mixtures led to ...


The Feasibility Of Utilising Compressed Natural Gas As Part Of A Systematic Approach To Establishing The Necessary Groundwork For The Hydrogen Based Transport Economy, James Brunton, John Howlett, David Kennedy Sep 2016

The Feasibility Of Utilising Compressed Natural Gas As Part Of A Systematic Approach To Establishing The Necessary Groundwork For The Hydrogen Based Transport Economy, James Brunton, John Howlett, David Kennedy

Conference Papers

One key objective for vehicle manufacturers is to develop technology and infrastructure to facilitate the progression from combustion to conversion by the year 2050. In the short to medium term however, the combustion of fossil fuels such as petrol and diesel, coupled with advanced transmission innovations and emission control technology that are governed by strict Euro VI regulations appears to be the main path forward for the transport sector and the environment. This paper presents the feasibility of utilising the developing compressed natural gas network capabilities as part of a systematic approach to establishing the necessary groundwork for a hydrogen ...


Data Driven Low-Bandwidth Intelligent Control Of A Jet Engine Combustor, Nathan L. Toner Aug 2016

Data Driven Low-Bandwidth Intelligent Control Of A Jet Engine Combustor, Nathan L. Toner

Open Access Dissertations

This thesis introduces a low-bandwidth control architecture for navigating the input space of an un-modeled combustor system between desired operating conditions while avoiding regions of instability and blow-out. An experimental procedure is discussed for identifying regions of instability and gathering sufficient data to build a data-driven model of the system's operating modes. Regions of instability and blow-out are identified experimentally and a data-driven operating point classifier is designed. This classifier acts as a map of the operating space of the combustor, indicating regions in which the flame is in a "good" or "bad" operating mode. A data-driven predictor is ...


An Experimental Investigation Of Self-Excited Combustion Dynamics In A Single Element Lean Direct Injection (Ldi) Combustor, Rohan M. Gejji Aug 2016

An Experimental Investigation Of Self-Excited Combustion Dynamics In A Single Element Lean Direct Injection (Ldi) Combustor, Rohan M. Gejji

Open Access Dissertations

The management of combustion dynamics in gas turbine combustors has become more challenging as strict NOx/CO emission standards have led to engine operation in a narrow, lean regime. While premixed or partially premixed combustor configurations such as the Lean Premixed Pre-vaporized (LPP), Rich Quench Lean burn (RQL), and Lean Direct Injection (LDI) have shown a potential for reduced NOx emissions, they promote a coupling between acoustics, hydrodynamics and combustion that can lead to combustion instabilities. These couplings can be quite complex, and their detailed understanding is a pre-requisite to any engine development program and for the development of predictive ...


The Validation And Verification Of Les Modeling Using Kiva, David Fyda Aug 2016

The Validation And Verification Of Les Modeling Using Kiva, David Fyda

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In recent years, the use of large-eddy simulation (LES) has grown into new research methods. LES is preferred when compared to Reynold’s Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS), which separates velocity components into steady and fluctuating components. While RANS is relatively easy to implement, it does not fully resolve the range of turbulence eddies and has limitations that make it inaccurate in many practical circumstances. Direct numerical simulation, DNS, fully resolves all turbulent eddies to the smallest grid scale, but requires an extremely fine grid. This makes it computationally impractical to use as the computational power required to solve even the ...


Gasoline Confined In Nano-Porous Media, Matthew Giso Jun 2016

Gasoline Confined In Nano-Porous Media, Matthew Giso

Honors Theses

The heat of combustion was determined for gasoline confined in nano-porous media of differing pore size by bomb calorimetry. The heat of combustion of the confined fuels was comparable to that of bulk within the experimental uncertainty. This suggests that all of the confined fuel burns without any flame quenching and no chemical interactions at the interface between pore walls and fuel mitigate combustion.


Application Of A Multi-Zone Model For The Prediction Of Species Concentrations In Rapid Compression Machine Experiments, David Wilson Apr 2016

Application Of A Multi-Zone Model For The Prediction Of Species Concentrations In Rapid Compression Machine Experiments, David Wilson

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Accurate chemical kinetic models, which predict species evolution and heat release rates in chemically reactive systems, are essential for further advancements in fuel and combustion technology. An experimental facility that is widely used for evaluating the accuracy of kinetic models is a rapid compression machine (RCM), which creates a well-defined reaction environment by compressing a reactive mixture inside a chamber. Generally, RCM experiments are conducted in order to obtain ignition delay data. However, chemical speciation data provides greater insight into reaction pathways, and is therefore a more rigorous benchmark for validating kinetic models. In order for a chemical kinetic model ...


Economical Retrofit System To Reduce Cooking Emissions In Third World Dwellings, Jonathan Vanzummeren, Tyler Sturgeon, Ben Dalessandro Jan 2016

Economical Retrofit System To Reduce Cooking Emissions In Third World Dwellings, Jonathan Vanzummeren, Tyler Sturgeon, Ben Dalessandro

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Abstract:

The purpose of this document is to propose and demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of substituting an open flame biomass cooking process with a closed system with the capabilities of sustaining an adequate fire. Clay ovens or “chulhas” are the traditional piece of cooking equipment used in poorer areas of the world. They are often built inside cramped one-room housing units with little or no ventilation. The emissions released from burning fuel sources such as wood, coal, or animal waste bring with them detrimental and often fatal health problems and results in approximately 1.3 million deaths per year ...


Design Of A Thermal Management System For An Oxy-Methane Direct Power Extraction Combustor, Jad Gerges Aboud Jan 2016

Design Of A Thermal Management System For An Oxy-Methane Direct Power Extraction Combustor, Jad Gerges Aboud

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The overarching goal of this Thesis is to present the design of a thermal management system for an oxy-methane direct power extraction combustor. The design is initiated by performing a 2D analysis on the combustor geometry and then using these results in a 3D model. This is done by using results for heat transfer coefficient and temperatures found from the 2D simulation and importing these to the 3D model. The approach used here couples the combustion process, heat transfer through the chamber wall, and fluid flow behaviors in order to observe the thermal characteristics of the combustor during operation. This ...


Combustion Of Novel Thermite Mixtures For Iodine Generation, Sergio Emanuel Guerrero Jan 2016

Combustion Of Novel Thermite Mixtures For Iodine Generation, Sergio Emanuel Guerrero

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Halogen-containing reactive materials could be used for mitigating the spread of hazardous, active biological microorganisms aerosolized as a result of explosion. The present work exhibits experimental results on the combustion of mechanically alloyed aluminum-iodine (Al-I2) powder mixed with Fe2O3, CuO, MoO3, Bi2O3, and I2O5. Wet mixing was used to prepare the samples, which were then compacted into pellets and ignited with a CO2 laser. A chamber was designed and built to accommodate for combustion and collection of products, and the available laser ignition setup was modified to enable combustion experiments with rapidly burning gas-generating mixtures. High-speed video recording was used ...


High Pressure Combustion And Supersonic Jet Ignition For H2/Air, Michael G. Woodworth, Sayan Biswas, Li Qiao Aug 2015

High Pressure Combustion And Supersonic Jet Ignition For H2/Air, Michael G. Woodworth, Sayan Biswas, Li Qiao

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

There are many incentives to increase the fuel efficiency of combustion processes. This paper looks at two available options to achieve this goal. The former aims to develop an experimental method that can analyze combustion at extremely high pressures to improve the understanding of high pressure H2/air combustion. Experimental data has been lacking a suitable combustion diagnostic to visualize high pressure combustion processes, making it difficult to improve the process. Improvement of x-ray diffraction tomography in a windowless combustor makes it possible to see flame propagation at high pressure. The procedure and chamber are still in the design phase ...


Sample Size Effect On Combustion Analysis, Osueke C. O, Uguru Okorie Daniel, Aondoyila Kuhe Jul 2015

Sample Size Effect On Combustion Analysis, Osueke C. O, Uguru Okorie Daniel, Aondoyila Kuhe

Innovative Research Publications IRP India

Engine parameters vary from one cycle to the other and this makes engine analysis with data from a single working cycle insufficient in capturing or modelling an engine behaviour. The variation observed in engine has necessitated the use sample sizes of data obtained during an engine operation to obtain results that are representative of the engine being investigated. Research has shown that the use of very large data sample size increases the storage needed and processing time and does not necessary give better results over results obtained with lesser sample sizes. The number of sample size to use for analysis ...