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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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Life Sciences

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 66

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Ontogenetic Scaling Patterns And Functional Anatomy Of The Pelvic Limb Musculature In Emus (Dromaius Novaehollandiae), Luis P. Lamas, Russell P. Main, John R. Hutchinson Dec 2014

Ontogenetic Scaling Patterns And Functional Anatomy Of The Pelvic Limb Musculature In Emus (Dromaius Novaehollandiae), Luis P. Lamas, Russell P. Main, John R. Hutchinson

Department of Basic Medical Sciences Faculty Publications

Emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) are exclusively terrestrial, bipedal and cursorial ratites with some similar biomechanical characteristics to humans. Their growth rates are impressive, as their body mass increases eighty-fold from hatching to adulthood whilst maintaining the same mode of locomotion throughout life. These ontogenetic characteristics stimulate biomechanical questions about the strategies that allow emus to cope with their rapid growth and locomotion, which can be partly addressed via scaling (allometric) analysis of morphology. In this study we have collected pelvic limb anatomical data (muscle architecture, tendon length, tendon mass and bone lengths) and calculated muscle physiological cross sectional area (PCSA) and ...


An Optogenetic Brain-Machine Interface For Spatiotemporal Neuromodulation, Ryan Andrew Baumgartner Dec 2014

An Optogenetic Brain-Machine Interface For Spatiotemporal Neuromodulation, Ryan Andrew Baumgartner

Theses and Dissertations

Direct neural stimulation has recently become a standard therapy for neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, Essential Tremors, and Dystonia. Currently, deep brain electro-stimulation and neuro-pharmaceutical treatments are the dominant therapeutic options available to the public. As our understanding of brain function and neurological diseases improves, we are able to develop more advanced neuromodulation techniques. These methods could become viable treatment solutions for treating brain dysfunction. Optogenetics, first introduced by a research team led by Karl Deisseroth at Stanford University, has proved to be a versatile technique with remarkable potential to be used in treatments for brain disorders, dysfunction ...


Role Of Sensation In Altered Phalanx Grip Force In Persons With Stroke, Leah R. Enders Dec 2014

Role Of Sensation In Altered Phalanx Grip Force In Persons With Stroke, Leah R. Enders

Theses and Dissertations

Many individuals experience hand impairment after stroke leading to decreased ability to perform daily living activities. Previous research studies have investigated how stroke survivors' pinch grip control differs from healthy individuals, even though many individuals can only grasp with power grip after stroke. Furthermore, many stroke survivors experience tactile sensory deficit in their paretic limb in addition to motor deficit. It is currently unknown how stroke induced tactile sensory deficit affects power grip force directional control, which is important in terms of preventing object slippage and power grip normal force generation. Additionally it is unknown if power grip could be ...


Flow Cytometry Is A Promising And Rapid Method For Differentiating Between Freely Suspended Escherichia Coli And E. Coli Attached To Clay Particles, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Shawn M. Rigby, Laura R. Jarboe, Wei Zhang Dec 2014

Flow Cytometry Is A Promising And Rapid Method For Differentiating Between Freely Suspended Escherichia Coli And E. Coli Attached To Clay Particles, Xiao Liang, Michelle L. Soupir, Shawn M. Rigby, Laura R. Jarboe, Wei Zhang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Aim: A standard procedure does not exist to distinguish between attached and unattached micro-organisms. In this study, we compared two methods to quantify between Escherichia coli attached to clay particles and E. coli freely suspended in solution: flow cytometry (attachment assay and viability assay) and settling (or centrifugation followed by settling).

Methods and Results: Methods were tested using three environmental strains collected from swine facilities (A, B and C) and one purchased modified pathogenic strain (ATCC 43888); four clay particles: Hectorite, Kaolinite, Ca-Montmorillonite, Montmorillonite K-10; and a range of surface area ratios (particle surface area to E. coli surface area ...


Induction Of Differentiation Of Dental Pulp-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (Dpsc), Aubrey Young Dec 2014

Induction Of Differentiation Of Dental Pulp-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (Dpsc), Aubrey Young

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Mesenchymal stem cells are derived from a variety of human tissues and are being bioengineered and studied for possible uses in the advancement of medicine. Recent efforts are being focused on Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSC's) due to the accessibility of this tissue. Many factors influence DPSC quality and quantity, including the specific methods used to isolate, collect, concentrate, and store these isolates once they are removed. Ancillary factors, such as the choice of media, the selection of early versus late passage cells, and cryopreservation techniques may also influence the differentiation potential and proliferative capacity of DPSC isolates.

The ...


Long-Acting Antituberculous Therapeutic Nanoparticles Target Macrophage Endosomes, Benson J. Edagwa, Dongwei Guo, Pavan Puligujja, Han Chen, Joellyn Mcmillan, Xinming Liu, Howard Gendelman, Prabagaran Narayanasamy Dec 2014

Long-Acting Antituberculous Therapeutic Nanoparticles Target Macrophage Endosomes, Benson J. Edagwa, Dongwei Guo, Pavan Puligujja, Han Chen, Joellyn Mcmillan, Xinming Liu, Howard Gendelman, Prabagaran Narayanasamy

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

Eradication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection requires daily administration of combinations of rifampin (RIF), isoniazid [isonicotinylhydrazine (INH)], pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, among other drug therapies. To facilitate and optimize MTB therapeutic selections, a mononuclear phagocyte (MP; monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell)-targeted drug delivery strategy was developed. Long-acting nanoformulations of RIF and an INH derivative, pentenyl- INH (INHP), were prepared, and their physicochemical properties were evaluated. This included the evaluation of MP particle uptake and retention, cell viability, and antimicrobial efficacy. Drug levels reached 6 μg/106 cells in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) for nanoparticle treatments compared with 0.1 μg ...


A Portable Impedance Biosensing System Based On A Laptop With Labview For Rapid Detection Of Avian Influenza Virus, Yixiang Wang Dec 2014

A Portable Impedance Biosensing System Based On A Laptop With Labview For Rapid Detection Of Avian Influenza Virus, Yixiang Wang

Theses and Dissertations

Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) H5N1 is a highly pathogenic virus found not only in birds but also in human. Rapid and sensitive detection method is needed to help prevent the spread of AIV H5N1. In this study, a portable impedance biosensing system based on a laptop with LabVIEW software was developed for detection of AIV H5N1. First, a virtual instrument was programmed with LabVIEW software to form a platform for impedance measurement, data processing and control. The audio card of a laptop was used as a function generator while a data acquisition card was used with the signal channels for ...


Development And Characterization Of An Autologous Whole Cell Breast Cancer Vaccine, Samantha Leigh Kurtz Dec 2014

Development And Characterization Of An Autologous Whole Cell Breast Cancer Vaccine, Samantha Leigh Kurtz

Theses and Dissertations

Approximately 40,000 women will die from breast cancer in the United States in 2014. About 90% of these deaths will be due to metastases, rather than the primary tumor and majority of metastases are due to the recurrence and progression of non-metastatic disease. Current adjuvant treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation, have severe side effects and may result in overtreatment and drug resistance.

Since greater than 90% of patients are diagnosed between stages I-III and have minimal residual disease after treatment, there is an opportunity to treat patients with an autologous breast cancer vaccine. Autologous vaccines under development have ...


Amphiphilic Degradable Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composites As Smart Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds: A Dissertation, Artem B. Kutikov Nov 2014

Amphiphilic Degradable Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composites As Smart Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds: A Dissertation, Artem B. Kutikov

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Over 600,000 bone-grafting operations are performed each year in the United States. The majority of the bone used for these surgeries comes from autografts that are limited in quantity or allografts with high failure rates. Current synthetic bone grafting materials have poor mechanical properties, handling characteristics, and bioactivity. The goal of this dissertation was to develop a clinically translatable bone tissue engineering scaffold with improved handling characteristics, bioactivity, and smart delivery modalities. We hypothesized that this could be achieved through the rational selection of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved materials that blend favorably with hydroxyapatite (HA), the principle ...


Movement Effects On The Flow Physics And Nutrient Delivery In Engineered Valvular Tissues, Manuel Salinas Nov 2014

Movement Effects On The Flow Physics And Nutrient Delivery In Engineered Valvular Tissues, Manuel Salinas

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mechanical conditioning has been shown to promote tissue formation in a wide variety of tissue engineering efforts. However the underlying mechanisms by which external mechanical stimuli regulate cells and tissues are not known. This is particularly relevant in the area of heart valve tissue engineering (HVTE) owing to the intense hemodynamic environments that surround native valves. Some studies suggest that oscillatory shear stress (OSS) caused by steady flow and scaffold flexure play a critical role in engineered tissue formation derived from bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs). In addition, scaffold flexure may enhance nutrient (e.g. oxygen, glucose) transport. In ...


Were Neandertal Humeri Adapted For Spear Thrusting Or Throwing? A Finite Element Study, Michael Anthony Berthaume Nov 2014

Were Neandertal Humeri Adapted For Spear Thrusting Or Throwing? A Finite Element Study, Michael Anthony Berthaume

Masters Theses

An ongoing debate concerning Neandertal ecology is whether or not they utilized long range weaponry. The anteroposteriorly expanded cross-section of Neandertal humeri have led some to argue they thrusted their weapons, while the rounder cross-section of Late Upper Paleolithic modern human humeri suggests they threw their weapons. We test the hypothesis that Neandertal humeri were built to resist strains engendered by thrusting rather than throwing using finite element models of one Neandertal, one Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) human and three recent human humeri, representing a range of cross-sectional shapes and sizes. Electromyography and kinematic data and articulated skeletons were used ...


Effect Of Plasticizer On Oxygen Permeability Of Cast Polylactic Acid (Pla) Films Determined Using Dynamic Accumulation Method, Kurniawan Yuniarto, Bruce A. Welt, Aris Purwanto, Hadi Karia Purwadaria, Ayman Abdellatief, Titi C. Sunarti, Setyo Purwanto Oct 2014

Effect Of Plasticizer On Oxygen Permeability Of Cast Polylactic Acid (Pla) Films Determined Using Dynamic Accumulation Method, Kurniawan Yuniarto, Bruce A. Welt, Aris Purwanto, Hadi Karia Purwadaria, Ayman Abdellatief, Titi C. Sunarti, Setyo Purwanto

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Polylactic acid (PLA) is becoming an increasingly important biopolymer for packaging applications. PLA brittleness limits its applicability. This study evaluated PLA properties with increasing amounts of added polyethylene glycol (PEG) plasticizer. Oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of cast films was determined using the newly available Dynamic Accumulation (DA) method. Arrhenius temperature sensitivity of OTR and polymer Permeability was also determined. Permeability of neat PLA is 4.848 ml mm (STP)/m2 s kPa; hence, 4.84 ml mm (STP)/m2 s kPa, 4.07 ml mm (STP)/m2 s kPa and 5.42 ml mm (STP)/m2 ...


Acrolein As A Novel Therapeutic Target For Spinal Cord Injury Induced Neuropathic Pain, Jonghyuck Park Oct 2014

Acrolein As A Novel Therapeutic Target For Spinal Cord Injury Induced Neuropathic Pain, Jonghyuck Park

Open Access Dissertations

Despite years of research, post-spinal cord injury (SCI) chronic neuropathic pain remains refractory to treatment and drastically impairs quality of life for SCI victims beyond paralysis. Although inflammation and free radicals contribute to neuropathic pain in SCI, the mechanism is not completely clear. We have recently demonstrated that acrolein, a product and catalyst of lipid peroxidation, induces a vicious cycle of oxidative stress, amplifying its effects and perpetuating oxidative stress and inflammation. In the current study, we have confirmed that acrolein is elevated significantly at least two weeks post-SCI which coincides with the emergence of hyperalgesia (mechanical, cold and thermal ...


Understanding Preferred Leg Stiffness And Layered Control Strategies For Locomotion, Zhuohua H. Shen Oct 2014

Understanding Preferred Leg Stiffness And Layered Control Strategies For Locomotion, Zhuohua H. Shen

Open Access Dissertations

Despite advancement in the field of robotics, current legged robots still cannot achieve the kind of locomotion stability animals and humans have. In order to develop legged robots with greater stability, we need to better understand general locomotion dynamics and control principles. Here we demonstrate that a mathematical modeling approach could greatly enable the discovery and understanding of general locomotion principles. ^ It is found that animal leg stiffness when scaled by its weight and leg length falls in a narrow region between 7 and 27. Rarely in biology does such a universal preference exist. It is not known completely why ...


Hierarchical Cell Fluid Extracellular Matrix Interaction In Cell Microenvironment, Soham Ghosh Oct 2014

Hierarchical Cell Fluid Extracellular Matrix Interaction In Cell Microenvironment, Soham Ghosh

Open Access Dissertations

Hierarchical structural interactions between components of cell microenvironment, the extracellular matrix (ECM), cytoplasm, nucleus and fluid, are important phenomena that decide cell level physiological process and tissue engineering applications. One of those tissue engineering modalities is freezing of biomaterials, important in a wide variety of biomedical applications including cryopreservation and cryosurgeries. In order to design these applications, freezing-induced changes of the cells and tissues and corresponding biophysical mechanisms need to be well understood. Although the effects of freezing on cells in suspension have been extensively studied, the intracellular mechanics of cells embedded in the extracellular matrix (ECM) during freezing are ...


Theory For Diffusional Encounters In Heterogeneous Environments And Multivalent Electrolyte Screening Of Charged Interface, Ran Li Oct 2014

Theory For Diffusional Encounters In Heterogeneous Environments And Multivalent Electrolyte Screening Of Charged Interface, Ran Li

Open Access Dissertations

We develop a theory for encounter rates in a three-dimensional system of connected compartments. The model of connected compartments exhibits the length-scale dependent diffusion that is observed in many heterogeneous environments, such as porous catalysts and biological environments. We discovered a dimensionless number that is the dominant scaling variable and obtained, for the first time, an analytical expression for the encounter rate. The new theory generalizes the classic Smoluchowski diffusion limit to the case of heterogeneous environments. The new theory is tested using Brownian dynamics simulations.^ We also experimentally investigated the behavior of multivalent electrolyte near a charged solid-liquid interface ...


Structure-Functionality Relationship Of Collagen Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering, Seungman Park Oct 2014

Structure-Functionality Relationship Of Collagen Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering, Seungman Park

Open Access Dissertations

Tissue engineering is a promising technology that enables scientists to create artificial organs or replace damaged tissues using animal cells and other components. For successful tissue regeneration, many factors should be taken into account, however, three components are most crucial: cell, scaffold, and soluble factor(s). In order to check the functionality after regeneration of desired tissues, various approaches have been attempted, depending on the physical, biological, and chemical properties of the tissues. Recently, the importance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) microstructure is being considered to be important in this regard. The ECM is closely associated with various functional properties ...


Intranuclear Strain Measured By Iterative Warping In Cells Under Mechanical And Osmotic Stress, Jonathan T Henderson Oct 2014

Intranuclear Strain Measured By Iterative Warping In Cells Under Mechanical And Osmotic Stress, Jonathan T Henderson

Open Access Dissertations

The nucleus is a membrane bound organelle and regulation center for gene expression in the cell. Mechanical forces transfer to the nucleus directly and indirectly through specific cellular cytoskeletal structures and pathways. There is increasing evidence that the transferred forces to the nucleus orchestrate gene expression activity. Methods to characterize nuclear mechanics typically study isolated cells or cells embedded in 3D gel matrices. Often report only aspect ratio and volume changes, measures that oversimplify the inherent complexity of internal strain patterns. This presents technical challenges to simultaneously observe small scale nuclear mechanics and gene expression levels inside the nuclei of ...


Fieldwork Days In Iowa, Mark Hanna Oct 2014

Fieldwork Days In Iowa, Mark Hanna

Ag Decision Maker Information Files

The number of days available to complete tillage, crop protection, planting, and harvesting is an important consideration in selecting farm machinery. A large set of machinery will complete field work quickly, but will have high depreciation, interest, and other ownership costs. A smaller machinery set will cost less to own, but may not complete the job on time some years, which could lead to crop losses from late planting or harvesting.


Advances In Image Acquisition And Filtering For Mri Neuroimaging At 7 Tesla, Andrew T. Curtis Sep 2014

Advances In Image Acquisition And Filtering For Mri Neuroimaging At 7 Tesla, Andrew T. Curtis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Performing magnetic resonance imaging at high magnetic field strength promises many improvements over low fields that are of direct benefit in functional neuroimaging. This includes the possibility of improved signal-to-noise levels, and increased BOLD functional contrast and spatial specificity. However, human MRI at 7T and above suffers from unique engineering challenges that limit the achievable gains. In this thesis, three technological developments are introduced, all of which address separate issues associated with functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging at very high magnetic field strengths.

First, the image homogeneity problem is addressed by investigating methods of RF shimming — modifying the excitation portion of ...


Deltoid Moment Arms During Abduction: A Subject-Specific Musculoskeletal Modeling Study In Healthy Shoulders And Shoulders With Rtsa, David Walker, Allison Kinney, Aimee Struk, Benjamin J. Fregly, Thomas Wright, Scott Banks Sep 2014

Deltoid Moment Arms During Abduction: A Subject-Specific Musculoskeletal Modeling Study In Healthy Shoulders And Shoulders With Rtsa, David Walker, Allison Kinney, Aimee Struk, Benjamin J. Fregly, Thomas Wright, Scott Banks

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) is increasingly used in the United States since approval by the FDA in 2003. RTSA relieves pain and restores mobility in arthritic rotator cuff deficient shoulders. Though many advantages of RTSA have been demonstrated, there still are a variety of complications (implant loosening, shoulder impingement, infection, frozen shoulder) making apparent much still is to be learned how RTSA modifies normal shoulder function. The goal of this study was to assess how RTSA affects deltoid muscle moment generating capacity post-surgery using a subjectspecific computational model driven by in vivo kinematic data.


How Sensitive Is The Deltoid Moment Arm To Joint Center Changes With Rtsa?, David Walker, Allison Kinney, Aimee Struk, Benjamin J. Fregly, Thomas Wright, Scott Banks Sep 2014

How Sensitive Is The Deltoid Moment Arm To Joint Center Changes With Rtsa?, David Walker, Allison Kinney, Aimee Struk, Benjamin J. Fregly, Thomas Wright, Scott Banks

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

The goal of this study was to assess the sensitivity of the deltoid muscle moment arms as a function of joint configuration for an existing RTSA subject. High variations were found for all three deltoid components. Variation over the entire abduction arc was greatest in the anterior and lateral deltoid, while the posterior deltoid moment arm was mostly sensitive to joint center changes early in the abduction arc. Moment arm changes of 10-16mm represent a significant amount of the total deltoid moment arm. This means there is an opportunity to dramatically change the deltoid moments arms through surgical placement of ...


A Novel Approach To Estimation Of Patient-Specific Muscle Strength, David Walker, Allison Kinney, Benjamin J. Fregly, Thomas Wright, Scott Banks Sep 2014

A Novel Approach To Estimation Of Patient-Specific Muscle Strength, David Walker, Allison Kinney, Benjamin J. Fregly, Thomas Wright, Scott Banks

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Current modeling techniques have been used to model the Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty (RTSA) to account for the geometric changes implemented after RTSA. Though these models have provided insight into the effects of geometric changes from RTSA these is still a limitation of understanding muscle function after RTSA on a patient-specific basis. The goal of this study sought to overcome this limitation by developing an approach to calibrate patient-specific muscle strength for an RTSA subject.


Virus-Host Mucosal Interactions During Early Siv Rectal Transmission, Wuxun Lu, Fangrui Ma, Alexander Churbanov, Yanmin Wan, Yue Li, Guobin Kang, Zhe Yuan, Dong Wang, Chi Zhang, Jianqing Xu, Mark Lewis, Qingsheng Li Sep 2014

Virus-Host Mucosal Interactions During Early Siv Rectal Transmission, Wuxun Lu, Fangrui Ma, Alexander Churbanov, Yanmin Wan, Yue Li, Guobin Kang, Zhe Yuan, Dong Wang, Chi Zhang, Jianqing Xu, Mark Lewis, Qingsheng Li

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

To deepen our understanding of early rectal transmission of HIV-1, we studied virus-host interactions in the rectal mucosa using simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-Indian rhesus macaque model and mRNA deep sequencing. We found that rectal mucosa actively responded to SIV as early as 3 days post-rectal inoculation (dpi) and mobilized more robust responses at 6 and 10 dpi. Our results suggests that the failure of the host to contain virus replication at the portal of entry is attributable to both a high-level expression of lymphocyte chemoattractant, proinflammatory and immune activation genes, which can recruit and activate viral susceptible target cells ...


Tissue Engineering: Applications In Developmental Toxicology, Stephanie N. Thiede, Nimisha Bajaj, Kevin Buno, Sherry L. Voytik-Harbin Aug 2014

Tissue Engineering: Applications In Developmental Toxicology, Stephanie N. Thiede, Nimisha Bajaj, Kevin Buno, Sherry L. Voytik-Harbin

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In vivo toxicology assays are expensive, low-throughput, and often not predictive of a human response. Three-dimensional in vitro human cell-based tissue systems incorporating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions have promise to provide high-throughput, physiologically-relevant information on the mechanism of the toxin and a more accurate assessment of the toxicity of a chemical before progression to human trials. Quantification of the disruption of vasculogenesis, the de novo formation of blood vessels from endothelial progenitor cells, can serve as an appropriate indicator of developmental toxicity since vasculogenesis is critical to the early development of the circulatory system. The current routinely used in vitro ...


Construction Of 3d Biomimetic Tissue Niches For Directing Pancreatic Lineage Differentiation Of Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Weiwei Wang Aug 2014

Construction Of 3d Biomimetic Tissue Niches For Directing Pancreatic Lineage Differentiation Of Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Weiwei Wang

Theses and Dissertations

The potential of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to differentiate into insulin producing beta cells offers great hope for cell-based therapy for diabetes treatment. However, in vitro pancreatic differentiation of hESCs remains challenging. In the past decade, most protocols for differentiating pancreatic cells have been focused on the use of signaling molecule cocktails on 2D substrates. Studies on embryonic development biology strongly suggest that extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a critical role on hESCs behavior. In this work, we first established a 3D collagen scaffold culture system for hESCs differentiating into definitive endoderm (DE), which is the first and most important ...


Impedance Biosensors For The Rapid Detection Of Viral And Bacterial Pathogens Using Avian Influenza Virus Subtypes H5n1 And H7n2 And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 As Model Targets, Jacob David Lum Aug 2014

Impedance Biosensors For The Rapid Detection Of Viral And Bacterial Pathogens Using Avian Influenza Virus Subtypes H5n1 And H7n2 And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 As Model Targets, Jacob David Lum

Theses and Dissertations

This research investigated impedance biosensors for the rapid detection of viral and bacterial pathogens using avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5N1 and H7N2 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 as the model targets, which were chosen due to their impact on the agricultural and food industries. For the detection of AIV H7N2, a single stranded DNA aptamer was selected using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). The selected aptamer and a previously selected aptamer against AIV H5N1 were used in a microfluidics chip with an embedded interdigitated array microelectrode to fabricate an impedance biosensor for specific detection of AIV ...


Cellular Contractility And Extracellular Matrix Stiffness Regulate Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity In Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Amanda Haage, Ian C. Schneider Aug 2014

Cellular Contractility And Extracellular Matrix Stiffness Regulate Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity In Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Amanda Haage, Ian C. Schneider

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The pathogenesis of cancer is often driven by local invasion and metastasis. Recently, mechanical properties of the tumor microenvironment have been identified as potent regulators of invasion and metastasis, while matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are classically known as significant enhancers of cancer cell migration and invasion. Here we have been able to sensitively measure MMP activity changes in response to specific extracellular matrix (ECM) environments and cell contractility states. A pancreatic cancer cell line, Panc-1 cells, up-regulate MMP activities between 3- and 10- fold with increased cell contractility. Conversely, they down-regulate MMP activities when contractility is blocked to levels seen with ...


Rapid Prototyping Amphiphilic Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds With Hydration-Induced Self-Fixation Behavior, Artem B. Kutikov, Anvesh Gurijala, Jie Song Jul 2014

Rapid Prototyping Amphiphilic Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds With Hydration-Induced Self-Fixation Behavior, Artem B. Kutikov, Anvesh Gurijala, Jie Song

GSBS Student Publications

Two major factors hampering the broad use of rapid prototyped biomaterials for tissue engineering applications are the requirement for custom-designed or expensive research-grade three-dimensional (3-D) printers and the limited selection of suitable thermoplastic biomaterials exhibiting physical characteristics desired for facile surgical handling and biological properties encouraging tissue integration. Properly designed thermoplastic biodegradable amphiphilic polymers can exhibit hydration-dependent hydrophilicity changes and stiffening behavior, which may be exploited to facilitate the surgical delivery/self-fixation of the scaffold within a physiological tissue environment. Compared to conventional hydrophobic polyesters, they also present significant advantages in blending with hydrophilic osteoconductive minerals with improved interfacial adhesion ...


Human Metaphase Chromosome Analysis Using Image Processing, Akila M.S Subasinghe Arachchige Jul 2014

Human Metaphase Chromosome Analysis Using Image Processing, Akila M.S Subasinghe Arachchige

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Development of an effective human metaphase chromosome analysis algorithm can optimize expert time usage by increasing the efficiency of many clinical diagnosis processes. Although many methods exist in the literature, they are only applicable for limited morphological variations and are specific to the staining method used during cell preparation. They are also highly influenced by irregular chromosome boundaries as well as the presence of artifacts such as premature sister chromatid separation.

Therefore an algorithm is proposed in this research which can operate with any morphological variation of the chromosome across images from multiple staining methods. The proposed algorithm is capable ...