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1999

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1211

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Integrated Product And Process Development Methodologies For Environmentally Conscious Electronic Products, Pingtao Yan Dec 1999

Integrated Product And Process Development Methodologies For Environmentally Conscious Electronic Products, Pingtao Yan

Dissertations

This research focuses on integrated product and process development (IPPD) methodologies for environmentally conscious electronic products. After a review of current research issues in the field of product and process development, a generic framework for IPPD is proposed which describes most of the concerned issues formally as constrained optimization problems. These problems may include such optimization objectives as cost, benefit, and environmental impact. Based on this framework, an IPPD methodology is proposed as a systems approach to competitive and environmentally conscious product and process development. A case study on personal computer development is performed illustrating how to apply the methodology ...


Experimental Studies And Modeling Of Mechanical Properties And Morphologies Of In Situ Polymer Composites, Zhigang Li Dec 1999

Experimental Studies And Modeling Of Mechanical Properties And Morphologies Of In Situ Polymer Composites, Zhigang Li

Dissertations

In this study, a series of experiments was set up in order to analyze the morphology development and mechanical properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/ liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) blends. Simulations of the injection molded blends at various process conditions were performed using CMOLD. In order to determine the effect of the processing parameters on the deformation of the LCP domains during the injection molding, a new analytical method to analyze the melt flow in the advancing melt front (AMF) region was developed. By combining the simulations of the injection molding and analysis of the melt flow in the AMF ...


Development And Application Of Dynamic Models For Predicting Transit Arrival Times, Yuqing Ding Dec 1999

Development And Application Of Dynamic Models For Predicting Transit Arrival Times, Yuqing Ding

Dissertations

Stochastic variations in traffic conditions and ridership often have a negative impact in transit operations resulting in the deterioration of schedule/headway adherence and lengthening of passenger wait times. Providing accurate information on transit vehicle arrival times is critical to reduce the negative impacts on transit users. In this study, models for dynamically predicting transit arrival times in urban settings are developed, including a basic model, a Kalman filtering model, link-based and stop-based artificial neural networks (ANNs) and Neural/Dynamic (ND) models. The reliability of these models is assessed by enhancing the microscopic simulation program CORSIM which can calculate bus ...


Finite Fraction Method For Tracking Desinfection By-Product Precursors In Water Treatment, Doanh Van Dec 1999

Finite Fraction Method For Tracking Desinfection By-Product Precursors In Water Treatment, Doanh Van

Dissertations

Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) has been the subject of recent regulatory activities and agenda. Among them are the Infonnation Collection Rule (ICR), the Disinfectants/Disinfection By-Product Rule (D/DBPR) and the Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (ESWTR). Both the latter two have provisions to limit the formation of disinfection by-products (DBP) by controlling reactivity and removal of DOM or both. Brief regulatory review of these rules was given.

Although the topic of DBP formation potential and DBP precursor removal have been studied by many researchers since Rooks (1974), the efficacy of methods that have been developed to date has ...


Post-Cracking Tensile Properties Of Advanced Cementitious Materials And Ductility Of High Performance Concrete Beams, Wonsiri Punurai Dec 1999

Post-Cracking Tensile Properties Of Advanced Cementitious Materials And Ductility Of High Performance Concrete Beams, Wonsiri Punurai

Theses

In present direct tension tests, the complete stress-deformation curves, the resulting energy dissipated by damage, and the fracture energy of different types of cementitious composites, namely plain concrete, high strength concrete, normal fibrous concrete, high strength fibrous concrete, are studied and a ductility factor is calculated. It has been found that with the increasing strength of concrete due to the addition of the pozzoians such as silica fume and fly ash and when changing from normal strength to high strength, concrete ductility decreases. However, when fibers are combined with these matrices, concrete ductility increases. It is because of ductile steel ...


Development And Testing Of A Simulated Closed Loop Drug Delivery System For Chf Patients Under Milrinone Administration, Runa Shah Dec 1999

Development And Testing Of A Simulated Closed Loop Drug Delivery System For Chf Patients Under Milrinone Administration, Runa Shah

Theses

The purpose of this thesis project is the development and testing of a simulated closed loop drug delivery (CLDD) system that consists of a pharmacokinetic, physiological, and feedback-controlling model. The focus of this study is on the control of milrinone inflision to maintain cardiac output at desired setpoint range for patients suffering from congestive heart failure (CHF). The simulated CLDD system is written in VisSim dynamic simulation language for an IBM-compatible PC.

Milrinone pharmacokinetics are represented by a three compartment model. The physiological model consists of the cardiovascular system model linked to the pharmacodynamic submodel of milrinone. The feedback-controlling model ...


Space/Time/Frequency Methods In Adaptive Radar, Christopher D. Peckham Dec 1999

Space/Time/Frequency Methods In Adaptive Radar, Christopher D. Peckham

Dissertations

Radar systems may be processed with various space, time and frequency techniques. Advanced radar systems are required to detect targets in the presence of jamming and clutter. This work studies the application of two types of radar systems.

It is well known that targets moving along-track within a Synthetic Aperture Radar field of view are imaged as defocused objects. The SAR stripmap mode is tuned to stationary ground targets and the mismatch between the SAR processing parameters and the target motion parameters causes the energy to spill over to adjacent image pixels, thus hindering target feature extraction and reducing the ...


Experimental Ion Implantation System For Decaborane Ions, Vijay Babaram Dec 1999

Experimental Ion Implantation System For Decaborane Ions, Vijay Babaram

Theses

Future generations of Si technology will require ultra shallow junctions (tens of nm) in the drain and source regions of MOS transistors. Fabrication of such shallow p-type junctions requires implantation of boron at ultra low energies (< 1 keV), below the limits of standard ion implantation technology. A proposed solution involves implantation of B10Hx+ ions in which boron atoms carry less than 10% of the beam energy.

This thesis is a part of the feasibility study of this new technology. An experimental ion implantation system was designed and built at Ion Beam and Thin Film Lab, NJIT. The system was tested and the mass analyzing magnet was calibrated using argon ions. Decaborane ions, of the ...


Multi-User Detection For Multi-Rate Ds/Cdma Systems, Jinwen Ma Dec 1999

Multi-User Detection For Multi-Rate Ds/Cdma Systems, Jinwen Ma

Dissertations

Wireless cellular communication is witnessing a rapid growth in market, technology and range of services. Current and future demands for wireless communication services motivate the need for handling multi-media traffic types. In a multimedia communication system, users with different and even time-varying rates and quality of services (QoS) requirements, such as voice, image and data, must be accommodated. The use of Spread Spectrum modulation with Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology is an attractive approach for economical spectrally efficient and high quality cellular and personal communication services. This dissertation explores the technologies of applying different interference cancellation techniques to multi-rate ...


Performance-Based Seismic Engineering Of Low And Medium-Rise Steel Frames, Saeid Rashidi Dec 1999

Performance-Based Seismic Engineering Of Low And Medium-Rise Steel Frames, Saeid Rashidi

Dissertations

The performance level of low and medium-rise steel frames designed according to the common force/strength approach of the UBC or NEHRP is determined. Several combinations of soil profile type, lateral-force-resisting system, and frame-member proportioning are included in the designs.

To evaluate the expected damage, nonlinear models of the designed frames are subjected to a number of actual and simulated ground motion accelerograms and appropriate structural response parameters such as, interstory drift, ductility demand, and dissipated hysteretic energy are obtained. In addition, a modified form of Park-Ang damage index is calculated for moment-resisting frames. The seismic performance of the steel ...


Reconfiguration And Tool Path Planning Of Hexapod Machine Tools, Zhenqun Li Dec 1999

Reconfiguration And Tool Path Planning Of Hexapod Machine Tools, Zhenqun Li

Dissertations

Hexapod machine tools have the potential to achieve increased accuracy, speed, acceleration and rigidity over conventional machines, and are regarded by many researchers as the machine tools of the next generation. However, their small and complex workspace often limits the range of tasks they can perform, and their parallel structure raises many new issues preventing the direct use of conventional tool path planning methods. This dissertation presents an investigation of new reconfiguration and tool path planning methods for enhancing the ability of hexapods to adapt to workspace changes and assisting them in being integrated into the current manufacturing environments.

A ...


Late Deflation Study : Hemodynamic Effects Of Iab Timing In Humans, Manal Morcos Dec 1999

Late Deflation Study : Hemodynamic Effects Of Iab Timing In Humans, Manal Morcos

Theses

Conventional IABP timing deflates 100% of the balloon volume before the onset of left ventricular ejection and has been well established in the literature as a safe and effective method. Yet, recent studies suggest that deflation of the IAB at or near the onset of systole improve myocardial efficiency (Kern, 1999, 1129). To test whether deflation of the JAB at a later deflation time reduces left ventricular workload and enhances coronary perfusion, four timing methods were evaluated in 20 patients: T1 (100% JAB volume deflated before onset of ejection), T2 (60% IAB volume deflated before and 40% volume ...


A Study Of Sound Attenuation Using Sonic Energy Focussed At An Artificial Soil Fracture, Minhaz Bootwala Dec 1999

A Study Of Sound Attenuation Using Sonic Energy Focussed At An Artificial Soil Fracture, Minhaz Bootwala

Theses

Several laws have been passed over the past two decades to control contamination and to remediate already existing contaminated sites. There are a large number of these sites and several ex-situ and in-situ techniques have been developed to decontaminate these sites. These techniques can be quite expensive, especially the ex-situ clean-up operations, and there has always been a need for cheap, quick remediation methods.

This study investigates the attenuation of sound used in the in situ remediation technique coupling Sonic Energy with Pneumatic Fracturing and Vapor Extraction. Preliminary attenuation studies were performed in the laboratory with a microphone made at ...


Editing Mpeg2 Video In Compressed Domain, Ren Egawa Dec 1999

Editing Mpeg2 Video In Compressed Domain, Ren Egawa

Theses

As MPEG2 becomes the heart of most digital video applications, the need to edit an MPEG2 bitstream video in compressed domain has increased. To realize this need, two major technical issues must be resolved: decoder buffer and segment extraction.

In the decoder buffer issue, the edited stream must ensure that the buffer would not overflow or underfiow as the result of the editing. This thesis invented a mathematical model that could describe the editing task and predict the editing effect on the buffer. Based on this model, the thesis then built a method to edit a stream safely. This method ...


A Study Of Factors Affecting Cardiovascular Reactivity, Andrew Gill Ventura Dec 1999

A Study Of Factors Affecting Cardiovascular Reactivity, Andrew Gill Ventura

Theses

This pilot study was conducted to determine what affects the cardiovascular reactivity of different people. Variables such as the order of stress-inducing and relaxing activities, performing multiple tasks on different days, personality, familial history of diseases, and general health were investigated as to their effects, if any, on cardiovascular reactivity.

Ten healthy, normal male subjects, aged 18 - 33 years, volunteered to be subjected to studies on three experimental days, the first one being for gathering information. On the second and third days, the subjects performed the following activities: mental arithmetic, numeric repetition, 10 breaths-per-minute (bpm) paced-breathing, and normal breathing, with ...


Measurement Of Microcarrier Weighted Floc Using The Environmental Electron Microscope, Viriya Vithayaveroj Dec 1999

Measurement Of Microcarrier Weighted Floc Using The Environmental Electron Microscope, Viriya Vithayaveroj

Theses

Utilizing the concept of coagulation in conjunction with the sediment enhancement by microcarrier, the microcarrier process has been demonstrated in a laboratory investigation as an effective and economic operation in removing colloidal particles in an aquatic system. The microcarrier, an inert aluminum silicate particulate (Ottawa Sand) of 53 to 75 micrometers in diameter was used in this study. The interaction between the flocs and the microcarriers plays an important role in the mixing process. The principal objective of this study is to examine the structural interaction between the flocs and the microcarrier.

The study was designed into two stages, the ...


Segregation And Flow Characterization In Vibrated Hopper, Thottiam P. Ravichandran Dec 1999

Segregation And Flow Characterization In Vibrated Hopper, Thottiam P. Ravichandran

Theses

Experiments and numerical simulation studies were carried. out on vertically vibrated wedge-type hoppers containing binary mixtures for the present research. The studies focussed on segregation analysis of the hopper discharge and the characterization of flow pattern of the binary mixtures in sealed hoppers, over wide ranges of frequency and amplitude of acceleration to determine the effect of these parameters.

The results of segregation study show that vibration promotes segregation of the binary mixtures. However, increase in frequency was found to make the contents of segregated discharge more uniform. Also, increase in wedge angle seemed to help in reducing segregation.

The ...


Investigation Of The Relevance Of Heart Rate Variability Changes After Heart Transplantation, Sheeba Arnold Dec 1999

Investigation Of The Relevance Of Heart Rate Variability Changes After Heart Transplantation, Sheeba Arnold

Theses

Heart transplantation has become an established treatment for end-stage heart disease. However, the shortage of donor organs is a major problem and long-term results are limited by allograft rejection. Heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as a popular noninvasive research tool in cardiology. Analysis of HRV is regarded as a valid technique to assess the sympathovagal balance of the heart. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the relevance of heart rate variability changes after heart transplantation. It was found that spectral analysis of HRV is useful in detecting rejection episodes. Heart transplantation leaves the donor heart denervated ...


General Parallel-Leg Mechanism : Position Analysis, Hans Buus Gangwar Dec 1999

General Parallel-Leg Mechanism : Position Analysis, Hans Buus Gangwar

Theses

This thesis proposes to analytically express the positions of the legs (each leg has a length and two spin orientations) for a parallel leg mechanism in terms of a single variable. The only limitations imposed are the leg bases are all on the same reference plane and the tool orientation is normal to the mobile upper plate. This is done for a parallel leg mechanism having any number of legs. The variable chosen is the first leg's vertex position on the upper plate.

The state space is the space the configuration can occupy. By looking at a planar slice ...


Intelligent Process For Uasb Reactors, Sita Mohan Dec 1999

Intelligent Process For Uasb Reactors, Sita Mohan

Theses

The Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor is widely used for the anaerobic treatment of concentrated municipal / industrial wastewaters and sludges. Ability to handle high organic loading rates and cost effectiveness are often the most cited merits of the UASB process. Numerous mathematical models have been developed to describe the process and mechanistic phenomena in these systems. However, evidence in the literature of these models having been applied, either as control or diagnostic tools is limited. The use of intelligent process control mechanisms can greatly ease problems associated with operating these reactor systems.

The objective of this study is to ...


Behavior Of Gamma Tial Subjected To Impact Damage And Elevated Temperature Fatigue, Trevor S. Harding, J. Wayne Jones Dec 1999

Behavior Of Gamma Tial Subjected To Impact Damage And Elevated Temperature Fatigue, Trevor S. Harding, J. Wayne Jones

Materials Engineering

Gamma titanium aluminide has received significant attention in recent years as a candidate material for use in aerospace and industrial gas turbine engine applications. In particular, these materials offer significant weight reductions (densities are less than half that of nickel-based superalloys), high specific strength retention at elevated temperature and high specific stiffness which is particularly important in vibrating components such as blades. This combination of weight savings and good mechanical properties has led to the possibility that γ-TiAl may be a suitable replacement for nickel-based alloys, such as Inconel 718, in low pressure turbine blades without significant redesign of the ...


Utilization Of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash In Cement Mortars, Manaskorn Rachakornkij Dec 1999

Utilization Of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash In Cement Mortars, Manaskorn Rachakornkij

Dissertations

Disposal of municipal solid waste has become a major problem in many countries around the world. With the benefits of substantial weight and volume reduction and potential energy recovery, incineration has become a promising municipal solid waste (MSW) management option. Despite the fact that incineration reduces volume and mass of the wastes by as much as 80%, there are still residues to be properly managed. This research is aimed at evaluating the potential of different types of MSWI fly ash from an incineration facility to be used in cement mortars by using existing standard test methods for cement and coal ...


The Influence Of High Performance Matrices On Fracture Behavior Of Concrete, Pusit Lertwattanaruk Dec 1999

The Influence Of High Performance Matrices On Fracture Behavior Of Concrete, Pusit Lertwattanaruk

Dissertations

Modification of cement matrices by the addition of micro particle pozzolanic materials such as silica fume and fly ash is known to improve the strength of concrete, but its contributions to fracture behavior remains unclear. In this study, the influence of replacing cement by silica fume and fly ash on the cement matrix-coarse aggregate interfacial bond, compressive stress-strain behavior and fracture behavior of concrete is investigated.

While the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) concept is not appropriate for concrete, a nonlinear fracture model based on the load vs. load-line deflection and the load vs. crack-mouthopening displacement (CMOD) responses of the ...


In-Line Measurement Of Solibility Of Physical Blowing Agents In Thermoplastic Melts As Related To Extrusion Foaming, Qiang Zhang Dec 1999

In-Line Measurement Of Solibility Of Physical Blowing Agents In Thermoplastic Melts As Related To Extrusion Foaming, Qiang Zhang

Dissertations

A novel in-line method for measuring physical blowing agent solubility in thermoplastic melts in extrusion foaming equipment has been developed in this study. This method uses video microscopy in connection with a foaming extruder (single or twin-screw) to generate solubility data by observing the onset of gas bubble formation/dissolution. This method offers a number of advantages over the existing conventional methods. It can be easily used to obtain solubility data for many foamable thermoplastic-physical blowing agent systems at high pressure and temperature near actual foaming conditions. Data generated using this method could be directly used to characterize and control ...


Optimum Design And Machining Parameters Of A Permanent Magnet Brushless Dc Linear Motor As A Cnc Feed Drive, William Tereshkovich Dec 1999

Optimum Design And Machining Parameters Of A Permanent Magnet Brushless Dc Linear Motor As A Cnc Feed Drive, William Tereshkovich

Dissertations

A new heuristic has been developed to determine optimal operating parameters applied to a permanent magnet brushless DC linear motor (PMBDCLM) as a CNC feed drive. An FEA model has been developed utilizing an -electromagnetic postprocessor to provide performance output of a PMBDCLM and DC servomotor. Based on the developed FEA models, velocity results have been utilized to provide feedrate levels for design of experiments (DOE). DOE has been conducted to provide force, tolerance, and surface finish data necessary for the performance comparison of a DC servo motor/ballscrew equipped CNC vertical milling machine and a PMBDCLM equipped CNC vertical ...


Data Hiding In Multimedia - Theory And Applications, Mahalingam Ramkumar Dec 1999

Data Hiding In Multimedia - Theory And Applications, Mahalingam Ramkumar

Dissertations

Multimedia data hiding or steganography is a means of communication using subliminal channels. The resource for the subliminal communication scheme is the distortion of the original content that can be tolerated. This thesis addresses two main issues of steganographic communication schemes:

1. How does one maximize the distortion introduced without affecting fidelity of the content?

2. How does one efficiently utilize the resource (the distortion introduced) for communicating as many bits of information as possible? In other words, what is a good signaling strategy for the subliminal communication scheme?

Close to optimal solutions for both issues are analyzed. Many techniques ...


Method And System For Gas Metal Arc Welding, Yuming Zhang, Liguo E Dec 1999

Method And System For Gas Metal Arc Welding, Yuming Zhang, Liguo E

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Patents

An improved method of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is disclosed. The method includes utilizing a pulsed current having a variable waveform to ensure the detachment of one-droplet-per-pulse of current. During the welding process, the current is sufficient to produce a droplet at the end of a consumable electrode wire. After the droplet reaches a desired size, the current is lowered to induce an oscillation in the droplet. The current is then increased which, in combination with the momentum created by the oscillation, effects droplet detachment. The oscillation may be monitored by observing the arc voltage to determine a preferred ...


Lead-Free Interconnection For Electronic Devices, Ravi F. Saraf Dec 1999

Lead-Free Interconnection For Electronic Devices, Ravi F. Saraf

Patents Held by Members of the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

An electronic device that is equipped with a plurality of bonding pads positioned on the device for making electrical interconnections and electrically conductive composite bumps adhered to the bonding pads wherein the bumps are formed of a composite material consisting of a thermoplastic polymer and at least about 30 volume percent of conductive metal particles based on the total volume of the metal particles and the thermoplastic polymer. The present invention is also directed to a method of making electrical interconnections to an electronic device by pressing a plurality of composite bumps of a polymeric based material against a substrate ...


Near-Band-Gap Cupt-Order-Induced Birefringence In Al0.48Ga0.52Inp2, Mathias Schubert, Tino Hofmann, Bernd Rheinlander, Ines Pietzonka, Torsten Sass, Volker Gottschalch, John A. Woollam Dec 1999

Near-Band-Gap Cupt-Order-Induced Birefringence In Al0.48Ga0.52Inp2, Mathias Schubert, Tino Hofmann, Bernd Rheinlander, Ines Pietzonka, Torsten Sass, Volker Gottschalch, John A. Woollam

Faculty Publications from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

The order-induced birefringence in the near-band-gap spectral range (0.75 to 2.5 eV), and its dependence on the degree of ordering η is reported for Al0.48Ga0.52InP2. Transmission and reflection generalized variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, dark-field spectroscopy, and cross-polarized reflectance difference spectroscopy (CRDS) are used to determine precisely the room-temperature dielectric functions for polarization parallel and perpendicular to the ordering direction of a series of spontaneously CuPt-ordered samples grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. The CRDS technique is introduced as an approach to sense extremely weak anisotropy at oblique angles of incidence. The observed ...


Quasicrystalline Nature Of Quasicrystal Surfaces: A Photoemission Study, D. Naumović, P. Aebi, :L. Schlapbach, C. Beeli, Thomas A. Lograsso, Dwight W. Delaney Dec 1999

Quasicrystalline Nature Of Quasicrystal Surfaces: A Photoemission Study, D. Naumović, P. Aebi, :L. Schlapbach, C. Beeli, Thomas A. Lograsso, Dwight W. Delaney

Ames Laboratory Publications

Differently prepared surfaces of quasicrystalline i-Al-Pd-Mn are analyzed using angle-resolved photoemission in the x-ray andultraviolet range of photon energies. Depending on the preparation, we find both surfaces with crystalline structure and metallic character, and surfaces with quasicrystalline structural fingerprints and a suppressed density of states at the Fermi level, compatible with a pseudogap.