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The United States’ And United Kingdom’S Responses To 2016 Russian Election Interference: Through The Lens Of Bureaucratic Politics, Katherine Davidson 2021 Bowdoin College

The United States’ And United Kingdom’S Responses To 2016 Russian Election Interference: Through The Lens Of Bureaucratic Politics, Katherine Davidson

Honors Projects

Russia’s 2016 disinformation campaign during the U.S. elections represented the first large-scale campaign against the United States and was intended to cause American citizens to question the fundamental security and resilience of U.S. democracy. A similar campaign during the 2016 U.K. Brexit referendum supported the campaign to leave the European Union. This paper assesses the policy formation process in the United States and United Kingdom in response to 2016 Russian disinformation using a bureaucratic politics framework. Focusing on the role of sub-state organizations in policy formation, the paper identifies challenges to establishing an effective policy response ...


Education Amid Stabilization: The Varied Effects Of Military Intervention On Public Schooling In Mali, Niger, And Burkina Faso, Arjun S. Mehta 2021 Bowdoin College

Education Amid Stabilization: The Varied Effects Of Military Intervention On Public Schooling In Mali, Niger, And Burkina Faso, Arjun S. Mehta

Honors Projects

At the intersection of international relations, comparative politics, and war consequence studies, this paper seeks to evaluate the effects of supportive foreign military intervention on education provision in three neighboring Central Sahel countries: Mali, Niger, and Burkina Faso. In the wake of a Tuareg insurgency and a 2012 coup d’état in Mali, the proliferation of jihadist violence in the tri-border Liptako-Gourma region has been met by a proliferation of foreign interveners. Does stabilization— the form of intervention in the Central Sahel— improve education provision, as measured by diminishing jihadist attacks on schools and school closures due to violence ...


The Mérida Initiative And The Violence Of Transnational Criminal Organizations In Mexico, Brianna Madison Canning 2021 Bowdoin College

The Mérida Initiative And The Violence Of Transnational Criminal Organizations In Mexico, Brianna Madison Canning

Honors Projects

Organized crime related violence in Mexico remains at unprecedented levels despite decades of effort and billions of dollars spent attempting to weaken Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCOs) through the Mérida Initiative (MI): a bilateral security partnership established in October 2007 between US President George W. Bush and Mexican President Felipe Calderón. The MI sought to combat TCOs (often called cartels), their drug trafficking operations, and their networks of corruption. However, since then TCOs have expanded their businesses beyond drug trafficking, and they have adopted violent practices that target civilians. Extortion, torture, murder, and human trafficking have become common as TCOs ...


The Green Morocco Plan: A Case Study Of The Unintended Consequences Of Sustainable Development Initiatives, Sofiya Asedrem 2021 University of Central Florida

The Green Morocco Plan: A Case Study Of The Unintended Consequences Of Sustainable Development Initiatives, Sofiya Asedrem

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

Morocco is often regarded as a regional leader in addressing climate change. This may not come as a surprise given recent reports that also show that it is particularly vulnerable to adverse effects of climate change, including extreme water shortages. Therefore, what has the state been doing in response to this crisis, and even more, how have state initiatives impacted the country's most vulnerable populations and the environment? This thesis focuses on the Green Morocco Plan (GMP), an agricultural strategy launched in 2008 that intended to address environmental concerns while also increasing modern agricultural productivity and improving the conditions ...


The Public Case For Thorium, Patrick C. Redmond 2021 Iowa State University

The Public Case For Thorium, Patrick C. Redmond

Creative Components

This proposal provides policy guidance on how the federal government would generate Thorium-based nuclear policy. This is necessary to answer the growing threat presented by energy dependence, lack of energy innovation in the nuclear sector, and climate change. Through providing two feasible policy options, and crafting a strong argument for both, this proposal concludes that a prototype Thorium nuclear reactor is the best option for the federal government to pursue to combat energy dependence, lack of energy innovation in the nuclear sector, and climate change. As such, these findings determine that through partnership with local governments, the United States as ...


Robert The Bruce Fights For Scottish Independence Once Again: The Influence Of Nationalism And Myth In Scotland's Modern Pursuit Of Independence, Claire Hintz 2021 Hollins University

Robert The Bruce Fights For Scottish Independence Once Again: The Influence Of Nationalism And Myth In Scotland's Modern Pursuit Of Independence, Claire Hintz

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Robert the Bruce, King of Scots from 1306-1329, led the Scottish to victory in the Wars of Independence against England. Today, the fight for Scottish Independence is alive and being led by the Scottish National Party (SNP) as they push for a second independence referendum. The first, in 2014, failed with 45% of Scots voting YES and 55% voting NO. Since Brexit, however, support for Scottish independence has consistently risen; polls in 2020 showed sustained majority support for Scottish independence for the first time in recent Scottish history. Nationalism, or the constructed ideology that is politically used to uphold a ...


The United Nations' Responsibility To Protect (R2p): Policy, Preference, Or Politics, Carl Ruth 2021 Walden University

The United Nations' Responsibility To Protect (R2p): Policy, Preference, Or Politics, Carl Ruth

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) is a three-pillar document that was unanimously approved and adopted at the 2005 World Summit Meeting by members of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) to serve as a guideline for addressing mass atrocity crimes. The research problem concerned the successful implementation of the third pillar, a key fixture of R2P, which allows the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) to use forceful measures, as a last resort to address mass atrocity crimes. However, a climate of division within the UNSC has led to inaction. Using the R2P doctrine as a theoretical framework, the purpose of ...


Violence Against Asians: When Is Racial Hate A Crime?, Anna M. Agathangelou, Kyle Killian 2021 York University

Violence Against Asians: When Is Racial Hate A Crime?, Anna M. Agathangelou, Kyle Killian

Journal of Feminist Scholarship

In this article we focus on the mass shootings of Asian women at Atlanta spas. After the perpetrator killed six Asian women, he told the police that he wanted to eliminate “all Asians” and spoke of the “temptation” of the massage parlors and spas. We ask at what point will these forms of anti-Asian violence first be acknowledged, and then seen as a clear and present danger? To answer these questions we trace the historical roots in US history, and domestic and foreign policies of such violence. We reflect on a history of imperial politics, the means and methods of ...


Anti-Modalities, David E. Pozen, Adam Samaha 2021 Columbia Law School

Anti-Modalities, David E. Pozen, Adam Samaha

Faculty Scholarship

Constitutional argument runs on the rails of “modalities.” These are the accepted categories of reasoning used to make claims about the content of supreme law. Some of the modalities, such as ethical and prudential arguments, seem strikingly open ended at first sight. Their contours come into clearer view, however, when we attend to the kinds of claims that are not made by constitutional interpreters – the analytical and rhetorical moves that are familiar in debates over public policy and political morality but are considered out of bounds in debates over constitutional meaning. In this Article, we seek to identify the “anti-modalities ...


Should We Pool Or Should We Nationalize? A Quantitative Assessment Of The Role Of Sovereignty In Brexit, Alexa K. Urmaza 2021 Colby College

Should We Pool Or Should We Nationalize? A Quantitative Assessment Of The Role Of Sovereignty In Brexit, Alexa K. Urmaza

Honors Theses

The announcement of Brexit on June 23, 2016 shocked Europe as well as the greater global community. Political scientists continue to debate the causes of Brexit, but this paper argues that the debate over sovereignty, particularly the tension between national and pooled sovereignties, played a substantial role in the outcome of the referendum. This paper evaluates the extent to which the Brexit referendum was a rejection of pooled sovereignty and a reprioritization of national sovereignty. This paper conducts a discourse analysis on 4109 sources from the Leave and Remain campaigns, which were all assessed for the use of nineteen terms ...


Community-Based Disaster Risk Management And Covid-19: How Local Ngos In Latin America Adapted To The Pandemic, Emily Pugh 2021 Claremont McKenna College

Community-Based Disaster Risk Management And Covid-19: How Local Ngos In Latin America Adapted To The Pandemic, Emily Pugh

CMC Senior Theses

The global COVID-19 pandemic posed new challenges for communities across Latin America: lack of access to potable water and food, loss of jobs and lack of access to technology now needed for children to attend school. By interviewing different leaders of NGOs throughout the continent, I was able to find out how local NGOs were adapting their typical activities to help their communities face these new and worsening challenges. While the NGOs in this study do not primarily focus on disaster relief, each adapted their initiatives to deal with the current needs of the community they serve. Some were able ...


The Softer Sex? Women Legislating War, Shanil Verjee 2021 Claremont Colleges

The Softer Sex? Women Legislating War, Shanil Verjee

CMC Senior Theses

There is a long-standing assumption in feminist international relations theory that women are more peace-oriented than men, and that, therefore, if more women were put in positions of power, there would be less war. This paper explores whether this assumption holds true in the United States federal legislature by examining the voting and congressional records of women in Congress over time, in both the Republican and Democratic parties, and comparing them to the records of male members of Congress to determine whether women exhibit a significantly different legislative approach to war.


A Europe Of Regionalists: How Has European Integration Impacted Regionalist Political Parties’ Electoral Support?, Brandon N. Piel 2021 Claremont Colleges

A Europe Of Regionalists: How Has European Integration Impacted Regionalist Political Parties’ Electoral Support?, Brandon N. Piel

CMC Senior Theses

This study investigates the question: How has European integration impacted regionalist political parties’ electoral support? European integration and regionalism are theoretically connected by Seth Jolly’s viability theory which explains that supranational organizations, such as the European Union (and precursor organizations), make small countries more viable. Using the regions of Flanders, Corsica, Sardinia, Padania, Galicia, and Catalonia as case studies, this thesis identifies moments of European integration and then examines if regionalist electoral results match the expectations of viability theory. This thesis found support for the idea that European integration is positively affecting regionalist political parties in elections; however, there ...


Viral Jihad: A Genealogy Of Al-Qaeda And Isis' Propaganda, Renee Perper 2021 Claremont Colleges

Viral Jihad: A Genealogy Of Al-Qaeda And Isis' Propaganda, Renee Perper

CMC Senior Theses

For the past twenty years, the United States has been at war. Yet, while invocations of war often evoke images of soldiers on the battlefield, the war the U.S. has been fighting looks far different. In the past two decades, the U.S. has attempted to curb the impact of terrorist organizations’ media usage. This paper explores the genealogy of that media battle through a case study of al-Qaeda and ISIS’ media apparatuses. It argues that, often overlooked, is the role that media plays as a foundational element in both groups’ organizational structures. Moreover, this paper will demonstrate how ...


Stronger As One? Examining Us-Saudi Relations Since 9/11, Caroline Jenkins 2021 Claremont McKenna College

Stronger As One? Examining Us-Saudi Relations Since 9/11, Caroline Jenkins

CMC Senior Theses

In the first several years following the attacks on September 11, 2001, many in both the American political elite and general public questioned the merits of the US’s strong alliance with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as fifteen of the nineteen hijackers, as well as Osama bin Laden, were Saudi citizens. The Kingdom was known for its lax regulations surrounding terrorist financing, which played a role in al Qaeda’s ability to carry out the 9/11 attacks. Due to this, many called for the US to end its historic partnership with the Saudis.

However, under further examination, it ...


Making The Connections: Gender Quotas, Representation, And Critical Mass In Latin America, Katherine O'Neill 2021 Claremont McKenna College

Making The Connections: Gender Quotas, Representation, And Critical Mass In Latin America, Katherine O'Neill

CMC Senior Theses

Using Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico as case studies, this paper examines how women’s collaboration influences the effects of gender quotas on women’s representation. The efficacy of gender quotas in increasing the numerical representation of women and improving gender equality outcomes is well-researched, but questions remain about the precise linkages between the numerical representation of women and the substantive representation of women. This thesis analyzes previously identified linkages alongside actions by women’s organizations in national legislatures and civil society to better understand women’s roles as critical actors in making gender quotas successful. The findings suggest that ...


Comparative Analysis Of Racist Implications Of The Welfare State In The U.S. Vs. U.K. Through Child Benefits, Furaha Njoroge 2021 Claremont Colleges

Comparative Analysis Of Racist Implications Of The Welfare State In The U.S. Vs. U.K. Through Child Benefits, Furaha Njoroge

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis explores America’s narratives surrounding safety net, varying history of child benefits and welfare between the U.S and U.K., newfound research regarding England’s programs, implicit bias, and interviews and scholarly reports of relevant experts. By comparing the welfare states of both the U.S and the U.K, it is proven how racism is both deeply rooted in how citizens of both countries perceive safety nets, and has thus led to the exclusion of racial minorities in both welfare systems. Specifically, looking at child benefits, we can determine these negative impacts and policies erected which ...


The Sri Lanka-China-India Triangle: A Regional Power Transition, Nandeeni Patel 2021 Claremont McKenna College

The Sri Lanka-China-India Triangle: A Regional Power Transition, Nandeeni Patel

CMC Senior Theses

In 2016, China became the largest importer of Sri Lanka goods and services, surpassing India. Since then, the Chinese government has signed significant trade, development, and security deals with the island nation. This thesis argues that Sri Lanka's domestic politics, centered around its decades-long civil war and consequent human rights concerns, have served as the crux of its triangular relations with two regional powers: India and China. The human rights issue, in tandem with Sri Lanka's agency as a small state, has drawn Sri Lanka to China. The China-Sri Lanka relationship and has now expanded to developing security ...


Red Scare Or Red Herring: How The “China Initiative” Strategy For Non-Traditional Collectors Is Stifling Innovation In The United States, Bianca Tillman 2020 Seattle University School of Law

Red Scare Or Red Herring: How The “China Initiative” Strategy For Non-Traditional Collectors Is Stifling Innovation In The United States, Bianca Tillman

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

In 2018, the U.S. Department of Justice launched the “China Initiative” in response to the growing economic and national security threat posed by China. The China Initiative is a sweeping federal plan designed, in part, to protect the United States’ status as a leader in global innovation and scientific discourse. The U.S. is justified in its concern over China’s unfair practices to achieve military, technological, and economic prominence. While U.S. and Chinese intelligence agencies have spied on each other for decades, China has increased both the scope and the sophistication of its efforts to steal secrets ...


Environmental Protection, The Military, And Preserving The Balance: “Why It Matters, In War And Peace”, Kurt Smith 2020 Sam Houston State University

Environmental Protection, The Military, And Preserving The Balance: “Why It Matters, In War And Peace”, Kurt Smith

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

International military operations around the world are major actors on the world stage of global pollution. The United States military remains subject to federal, state, and local environmental laws. However, many exemptions exist to assist the military despite its status as a global polluter. Many environmental policies have incrementally developed over the last one-hundred years largely as a reaction to the most extreme circumstances. Scientific knowledge continues to increase our awareness of the lasting impacts of policy decisions relating to the environment, giving rise to the precautionary principle, that notion that we should do no lasting harm, in our care ...


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