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How Personally Relevant Cases Of Covid-19 Influence Individuals’ Level Of Concern Towards The Virus, Timothy J. Nicklas 2021 University of Pennsylvania

How Personally Relevant Cases Of Covid-19 Influence Individuals’ Level Of Concern Towards The Virus, Timothy J. Nicklas

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

This paper presents the findings of a statistical analysis exploring the ways in which personally relevant cases of COVID-19 influence an individual's level of concern towards the virus. The analysis makes use of public opinion data collected throughout the pandemic by a market research company called Ipsos. This study conducts an OLS regression analysis using three different samples of data from three distinct periods of time during the pandemic. The paper addresses each component of the study's deductive approach, outlining everything from the initial hypothesis to the conclusions and broader implications. Ultimately, this study does show evidence that ...


Extended Minds: The Externalization And Expansion Of Human Minds Beyond The Body, Dmitri Wolfe 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Extended Minds: The Externalization And Expansion Of Human Minds Beyond The Body, Dmitri Wolfe

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Despite the commonly accepted notion that the mind is inseparable from the body, the extended mind hypothesis claims human minds can become linked with the world around us. Through various avenues such as spoken and written language, humans may use non-biological means to allow the mind to store, access, and communicate information in extended capacities not otherwise possible. Though the extended minds hypothesis may be viewed as a result of advancing technology, it makes up only a small part of the way in which externalization may occur. Everyday life is full of examples of extended minds, from computers and phones ...


Rejecting Ingrid Robeyns’ Defense Of Limitarianism, Timothy J. Nicklas 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Rejecting Ingrid Robeyns’ Defense Of Limitarianism, Timothy J. Nicklas

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

This paper critically evaluates the argument put forth by the philosopher Ingrid Robeyns in her work entitled What, if Anything, is Wrong with Extreme Wealth. Robeyns holds the Chair Ethics of Institutions at Utrecht University, and her academic research focuses on issues pertaining to contemporary political philosophy and applied ethics. In her aforementioned publication, Robeyns defends the political theory called limitarianism, which holds that there should be an upper limit to the amount of income that an individual can hold. Limitarianism, like many other political philosophies, presents a view of how resources ought to be distributed in society based, in ...


Corporate Limitarianism, Karl Meyer 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Corporate Limitarianism, Karl Meyer

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Ingrid Robeyns argues that there is a point at which increasing one’s income no longer increases one’s quality of life. Her argument states that given better uses for this money, namely restoring political equality and meeting urgent needs, it is morally wrong for individuals to have surplus money, which is money beyond that which is needed to live a good life. Therefore, Robeyns argues that surplus money should be taxed at a rate of 100%. The original argument only applies to individuals with excess wealth. However, there is no reason why it should be restricted only to people ...


Child Marriage: Characterization As A Noxious Market And Policy-Based Responses To Economic Motivations, Curtis Newman 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Child Marriage: Characterization As A Noxious Market And Policy-Based Responses To Economic Motivations, Curtis Newman

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Child marriage is a human rights violation according to various international agreements and human rights conventions. In many countries the practice is outlawed, yet it persists with great incidence in both developed and developing societies. Governments must act to eliminate the practice which (1) results in physical and psychological individual harms for child brides; (2) perpetuates societal harms in the form of entrenched gender inequality and limited economic potential for women and for countries as a whole; (3) thrives on the exploitation of economic and agency vulnerabilities of a social class, namely young girls and women; and (4) threatens the ...


Digital Norms And Their Place In A Tech-Based Future, Joseph M. Squillaro 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Digital Norms And Their Place In A Tech-Based Future, Joseph M. Squillaro

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

One impact of the technological revolution has been technology’s effects on social norms and the nudges needed to ensure efficiency and security in today’s “digitally required” world. I define these phenomena as digital norms and they inform interpersonal contact and tech-based choices. This paper looks specifically at norm interactions between Generation X and Generation Z. To test these digital norms and gauge their presence in both generations, this paper outlines a survey experiment of 50 people (25 Gen X and 25 Gen Z) and seeks to extrapolate assumptions on technology while providing policy recommendations. What was found was ...


A Letter From The Editor, Andrew Liu 2021 University of Pennsylvania

A Letter From The Editor, Andrew Liu

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Letter from the Editor regarding the Spring 2021 edition


Responsiveness, Representation, And Democracy: A Critical Conceptual Analysis And Its Implications For Political Science, Joshua Beck 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Responsiveness, Representation, And Democracy: A Critical Conceptual Analysis And Its Implications For Political Science, Joshua Beck

Masters Theses

Over forty years ago, Hanna Pitkin expressed concern that social scientists were failing to give concepts the attention which they needed (Pitkin 1972, 277). This thesis takes up the same theme, asking how the concept of responsiveness is treated by political scientists. The goal to reveal confusion that surrounds widely used concepts such as responsiveness. The analysis offered in this thesis has significance for the discipline of political science in three ways. First, it highlights confusion surrounding the concept of responsiveness itself. Responsiveness is a widely utilized concept employed throughout the social sciences; however, as this thesis shows, there is ...


Fixing A Hole: Contemporary Security Issues In Africa, Zachary Hadley 2021 American Graduate School

Fixing A Hole: Contemporary Security Issues In Africa, Zachary Hadley

The Journal of International Relations, Peace Studies, and Development

In the twenty-first century, complex and dynamic challenges within Africa are often borderless. With the ability to scale exponentially, localized conflicts can quickly destabilize regions. Since the early 2000s, scholarly efforts to explicate transnational challenges has led to a growing body of literature dedicated to the African continent. While promising, the corpora of secondary literatures often lack conceptual rigor and depth — requiring students, researchers and scholars to thread coherent narratives across diverse sets of government records, media reports, and firsthand accounts.

Contemporary Security Issues in Africa by William A. Taylor attempts to fill this void by serving as a primer ...


A Crisis Of Globalization: A Review Essay, Matthew Rochat 2021 University of California, Santa Barbara

A Crisis Of Globalization: A Review Essay, Matthew Rochat

The Journal of International Relations, Peace Studies, and Development

Ian Bremmer's book Us vs. Them: The Failure of Globalism focuses on the discontents of globalization and draws a link between economic insecurity and tides of political polarization that have swept across states, splintering segments of the population and leaving deep social fractures in their wake. In this review essay, I expand on Bremmer’s argument by incorporating two other recent works of global political economy that shed light on the current state of globalization, The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy by Dani Rodrik and Global Capitalism and the Crisis of Humanity by William ...


The Journal Of International Relations, Peace And Development Studies 6th Edition Introduction, Patrick Clairzier 2021 American Graduate School

The Journal Of International Relations, Peace And Development Studies 6th Edition Introduction, Patrick Clairzier

The Journal of International Relations, Peace Studies, and Development

The Journal of International Relations, Peace and Development Studies 6th Edition Introduction


Strategic Litigation And The Evolution Of Regional Human Rights Norms: Cases From Germany And The Netherlands, Cole Kovarik 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Strategic Litigation And The Evolution Of Regional Human Rights Norms: Cases From Germany And The Netherlands, Cole Kovarik

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

This study seeks to fill gaps in our understanding of how private actors participate in international human rights politics by examining civil society involvement in European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) cases against long-standing democracies. Descriptive analysis of an exhaustive data set of instances of civil society organization (CSO) participation in ECtHR cases against Germany and The Netherlands is complemented by a comparative case study analysis of networks of organizations that mobilized around German and Dutch cases concerning Articles 8 (right to privacy) and 10 (freedom of expression). The data suggest that civil society organizations not only appear before the ...


Investigating Bilateral And Regional Agreements To Accommodate Climate-Induced Migration, Rachel Steinig 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Investigating Bilateral And Regional Agreements To Accommodate Climate-Induced Migration, Rachel Steinig

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Climate change has already begun causing displacement. This isn’t a new problem: since 2008, an average of 24 million people have been displaced each year by catastrophic weather disasters. There are currently 70.1 million forcibly displaced people worldwide - this is the highest level on record ever. However, climate migrants are not considered refugees under international law, according to the definition of a refugee adopted in the 1951 Convention on Refugees, and thus lack legal protections. In my thesis I investigated the role of bilateral and regional agreements to provide protection and asylum for climate refugees. My research question ...


How Support For Authoritarian Regimes Like Saudi Arabia Has Undermined American Soft Power, JD Daniels 2021 Grand Valley State University

How Support For Authoritarian Regimes Like Saudi Arabia Has Undermined American Soft Power, Jd Daniels

Honors Projects

The controversial state of Saudi Arabia lies at the forefront of American foreign policy debate. This article examines how and why the United States supports a country that frequently abuses human rights, and how power is involved in that decision. The most frequent reasons used are that Saudi Arabia affords the United States economic hard power (i.e. the ability to coerce others) as a trading partner, and that it acts as a strategic counterbalance to Iranian influence in the Middle East. I find that while this is likely true, it also implicates the United States in almost every violation ...


The Power To Define A People: Race And Immigration In Argentine National Identity, Willow Fortunoff 2021 Macalester College

The Power To Define A People: Race And Immigration In Argentine National Identity, Willow Fortunoff

Political Science Honors Projects

Argentina is known as a “country of immigrants” yet simultaneously grapples with entrenched xenophobia. My research untangles this apparent contradiction by revealing how both facets of national identity are rooted in racialized colonial ideology. Following independence in 1816, Argentine elites used immigration policies to justify the exploitation of Afro-descendant and Indigenous communities and subsequent European repopulation. Elites converted non-Europeans into cultural “foreigners” by erasing them from the country’s national identity, and I use foreign policy frameworks to demonstrate how leaders have consistently wielded immigration as a political tool to further their own objectives. I argue that the lack of ...


Re-Spatializing Gangs In The United States: An Analysis Of Macro- And Micro-Level Network Structures, Ryan J. Roberts 2021 Old Dominion University

Re-Spatializing Gangs In The United States: An Analysis Of Macro- And Micro-Level Network Structures, Ryan J. Roberts

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Despite the significant contributions from location-based gang studies, the network structure of gangs beyond localized settings remains a neglected but important area of research to better understand the national security implications of gang interconnectivity. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the network structure of gangs at the macro- and micro-level using social network analysis. At the macro-level, some gangs have formed national alliances in perpetuity with their goals and objectives. In order to study gangs at the macro-level, this research uses open-source data to construct an adjacency matrix of gang alliances and rivalries to map the relationships between ...


Effects Of U.S. Migration Policies On Migration Policies In Latin America, Katherine Graybill 2021 Bridgewater College

Effects Of U.S. Migration Policies On Migration Policies In Latin America, Katherine Graybill

Honors Projects

All countries deal with migration a little differently from one another, however, the way immigration is dealt with in some Latin American countries is based off of policies applied in the United States. The U.S. is a much stronger country than some of the Latin American countries they are relatively close to, and it therefore has the power to influence other countries to create policies that will help the U.S. achieve their goals. The U.S. has been largely anti-immigration in recent years and has consequently pressured Latin American Countries such as Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador ...


Nation-Building And Cultural Heritage: A Study Of Turkey And Its Greek Orthodox Community, Sophia E. Kyrou 2021 Trinity College

Nation-Building And Cultural Heritage: A Study Of Turkey And Its Greek Orthodox Community, Sophia E. Kyrou

Senior Theses and Projects

This thesis is an exploration of the intersection between nationalist ideology and cultural heritage policy. This thesis answers how and why states utilize cultural heritage policy to build exclusivist forms of nationalism and, more specifically, models of nationalism that exclude ethno-religious minorities. In my work, I employ a case study of Turkey and its treatment of the Greek Orthodox minority population, and examine two specific periods in Turkish history: the Atatürk period (1920 to 1938) and the Erdoğan period (2001 to present). I answer the case-specific question: How and why has the Turkish state utilized policy dealing with tangible and ...


Cybersecurity Legislation And Ransomware Attacks In The United States, 2015-2019, Joseph Skertic 2021 Old Dominion University

Cybersecurity Legislation And Ransomware Attacks In The United States, 2015-2019, Joseph Skertic

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Ransomware has rapidly emerged as a cyber threat which costs the global economy billions of dollars a year. Since 2015, ransomware criminals have increasingly targeted state and local government institutions. These institutions provide critical infrastructure – e.g., emergency services, water, and tax collection – yet they often operate using outdated technology due to limited budgets. This vulnerability makes state and local institutions prime targets for ransomware attacks. Many states have begun to realize the growing threat from ransomware and other cyber threats and have responded through legislative action. When and how is this legislation effective in preventing ransomware attacks? This dissertation ...


Environmentally Related Urbanization And Violence Potential, Christina Bagaglio Slentz 2021 Old Dominion University

Environmentally Related Urbanization And Violence Potential, Christina Bagaglio Slentz

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

In contrast to historical examples in which urban increase is accompanied by the pull factors of wealth and development, post-industrialized sub-Saharan African urbanization patterns are characterized by a lack of economic growth, confounding experts. Simultaneously, African conflict scholars have observed a major geographical shift in African conflict onset, moving out of rural regions and into urban centers. Recognizing the effects of increasing climate variability and threatened agricultural livelihoods, this study hypothesizes perceived economic advantage in cities induces human movement with potential for over-urbanization dynamics that exacerbate civil unrest.

To investigate, a Panarchy theoretical framework of nested adaptive cycles is used ...


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