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Effects Of Verbal Vs Graphical Weather Information On A Pilot’S Decision Making During Preflight, Warren Pittorie, Meredith Carroll, Deborah Carstens 2019 Wright State University

Effects Of Verbal Vs Graphical Weather Information On A Pilot’S Decision Making During Preflight, Warren Pittorie, Meredith Carroll, Deborah Carstens

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

Advancements in technology has made obtaining a graphical/textual preflight weather briefing easier than a traditional verbal briefing. This study compared weather briefings delivered in a verbal format (i.e., written narrative) to those delivered in a graphical format (i,e., radar map plus textual data) in a within-subjects study that altered the order in which participants received each format. Thirty-six pilot participants read and responded to weather briefings for two flight scenarios that when put together, created a simulated multi-leg flight. Each pilot’s decision making and confidence in their decision was captured via Likert-scale and open-ended questions following ...


The Use Of 3d Modeling Software To Enhance Rotorcraft Maintenance Training, Celeste D. Torrez, Brian J. Kozak 2019 Wright State University

The Use Of 3d Modeling Software To Enhance Rotorcraft Maintenance Training, Celeste D. Torrez, Brian J. Kozak

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

In order to obtain an airframe and powerplant (A&P) certificate, students must receive a minimum of 1,900 hours of instruction from an FAA approved 14 CFR Part 147 School. Within Part 147, students are only required to learn about helicopters at a level 1 proficiency, which requires only classroom lectures. In order to fill this possible gap in knowledge, the authors created a training exercise at the sophomore level. A helicopter tail rotor was simulated using CATIA to model common stresses on helicopter components. Additionally, helicopter accident reports were used to increase the understanding of proper maintenance, and ...


A New Hmi Evaluation Method (Meria) Based On Pilot's Mental Representations, Théodore Letouze, Lisa Creno, Jamie Diaz, Sylvian Hourlier, Jean-Marc Andre 2019 Wright State University

A New Hmi Evaluation Method (Meria) Based On Pilot's Mental Representations, Théodore Letouze, Lisa Creno, Jamie Diaz, Sylvian Hourlier, Jean-Marc Andre

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

Continuous evolution of HMIs is necessary to keep operators in an optimal situation. In this context, we consider mental representations (MR) mobilized by operators as key elements for decisionmaking. Capturing and analysing these representations is not easy with existing tools. We propose a specific method (i.e. "MERIA" for Mental Representation Impact Analysis). Our case study focuses on a group of first officer (Airbus A320) in a dynamic situation with high time pressure. We are interested in cases where the HMI generates MRs that are inconsistent with the situation, resulting in a discrepancy between the prescribed activity and the actual ...


Testing The Applicability Of A Checklist-Based Startle Management Method In The Simulator, Annemarie Landman, Sophie H. van Middelaar, Eric L. Groen, M M. van Paassen, Adelbert W. Bronkhorst, Max Mulder 2019 Wright State University

Testing The Applicability Of A Checklist-Based Startle Management Method In The Simulator, Annemarie Landman, Sophie H. Van Middelaar, Eric L. Groen, M M. Van Paassen, Adelbert W. Bronkhorst, Max Mulder

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

Several checklist-based methods have been proposed to help pilots manage startle in unexpected situations. In the current experiment, we tested how pilots reacted to using such a method, which featured the mnemonic COOL: Calm down – Observe – Outline – Lead. Using a motion-based simulator outfitted with a non-linear aerodynamic model of a small twin-propeller aircraft, twelve pilots practiced using the COOL method before performing four test scenarios involving startling events. Application of the full method in the test scenarios was high (90-100%), and pilots rated the method on average as useful (4 on a 1-5 point Likert scale). The first two steps ...


Aviation English Listening And Repeating Task For Native English Speaker And Non-Native English Speaker Pilots, Julia Trippe 2019 Wright State University

Aviation English Listening And Repeating Task For Native English Speaker And Non-Native English Speaker Pilots, Julia Trippe

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

Aviation English, based on a coded jargon from World War II, is a mandatory form of communication for pilots and controllers in international airspace. The International Civil Aviation Organization also requires proficiency in Conversational English, for use in non-standard communication. However, our past research indicates that Aviation English and Conversational English are distinct varieties of English, suggesting that assumptions about native English speaker proficiency and additive learning for non-native English speakers may be false. To establish how different these language varieties are, we present a study of Aviation English intelligibility for non-native and native English speaking pilots. Results suggest that ...


Pilot Information Needs For Electronic Data-Driven Charts, Joseph M. Jaworksi, Michelle Yeh, Cathy Swider 2019 Wright State University

Pilot Information Needs For Electronic Data-Driven Charts, Joseph M. Jaworksi, Michelle Yeh, Cathy Swider

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

Electronic charting technology is evolving from “fixed” raster-based charts to data-driven charts, in which information elements shown on the chart can be reconfigured during flight. Specifically, we were interested in identifying a set of minimum information requirements for a concept in which pilots brief with a fixed chart showing all information elements but then fly with an electronic chart, which may or may not include all the information elements that were briefed. Two hundred twenty-nine pilots rated the importance of information elements shown on four different types of aeronautical charts. We analyzed the data using one-way chi-square tests to identify ...


Mission-Ready Adaptive Decision Aids: The New Performance Model For Crew Station Design, Kevin M. Smith 2019 Wright State University

Mission-Ready Adaptive Decision Aids: The New Performance Model For Crew Station Design, Kevin M. Smith

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

Discussed are three theories: 1) Baysian probability theory, 2) signal detection theory, and 3) operational decision theory. To combine the three is to come to an understanding of how one can operate effectively in complex environments. Complex environments present unique challenges from a human performance perspective. They require applying uncommon skill sets to allow for optimization of performance. Applying analytic methods to clarify and respond to mission critical events is most urgent. The analytics of uncertainty is presented. Three mission critical decisions are discussed: to continue or abandon the mission, to perform the approach go-around maneuver, and to determine the ...


Human Factors Electronic Kneeboard Design Guidelines For Military Tactical Aviation, Robert Bridgeman, Kelly J. Neville, Lauren Massey, Curtis Krauskopf, Ali Mizan, John Mooney, Dylan Schmorrow 2019 Wright State University

Human Factors Electronic Kneeboard Design Guidelines For Military Tactical Aviation, Robert Bridgeman, Kelly J. Neville, Lauren Massey, Curtis Krauskopf, Ali Mizan, John Mooney, Dylan Schmorrow

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

Great strides have been made in reducing the reams of paper-based materials that pilots were once required to bring into the cockpit. Much of that paper-based information is now available to pilots on electronic devices known as electronic kneeboards (EKBs). The main goal of this paper is to describe a design strategy we are using that integrates interdisciplinary perspectives and engages users in the design process. We describe the use of this design strategy to specify and design EKB applications (i.e., apps) that are uniquely supportive of the work demands faced by tactical pilots. As a result of the ...


Towards A Meta-Model To Specify And Design Human-Agent Teams, Michael F. Schneider, Michael E. Miller, John M. McGuirl 2019 Wright State University

Towards A Meta-Model To Specify And Design Human-Agent Teams, Michael F. Schneider, Michael E. Miller, John M. Mcguirl

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

This paper describes work towards developing a meta-model useful in the design and specification of Human-Agent Teams. The meta-model adapts components from the cognitive systems, human factors, software and systems engineering literature to form a model and language which can be applied early in the system design process. The resulting model provides a description of desired system behavior. More importantly, the model produces artifacts useful in deriving requirements for both the human and the artificial agents, as well as for the software/hardware human interface. Insight is also provided for manpower, training, and personnel requirements; as well as, requirements for ...


Communicating Data-Driven Risk Information To Pilots, Nicoletta Fala, Karen Marais 2019 Wright State University

Communicating Data-Driven Risk Information To Pilots, Nicoletta Fala, Karen Marais

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

General Aviation safety is a pressing concern. In this research, we consider the factor that appears most often in accidents: the pilot. Newly-licensed pilots can fly without their instructor, potentially as the only or most experienced pilot in the aircraft. Commercial debrief products use technology in the flight deck to collect data and provide post-flight visualizations for performance reviews, but do not discuss flight safety. To manage risk, though, pilots need to perceive the risk associated with a situation before deciding whether they are willing to accept it. Safety-driven post-flight feedback may help address performance. However, it is not clear ...


Six-Year Follow-Up Of Intensive, Simulator-Based Pilot Training, Maxine Lubner, Andrew R. Dattel, Emerson Allen, Deb Henneberry, Sharon DeVivo 2019 Wright State University

Six-Year Follow-Up Of Intensive, Simulator-Based Pilot Training, Maxine Lubner, Andrew R. Dattel, Emerson Allen, Deb Henneberry, Sharon Devivo

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

In 2012, Vaughn College of Aeronautics and Technology initiated an intensive, simulator based, flight training program. Three cohorts, totaling 16 students, completed flight training with fewer flight hours than the United States average (ISAP, 2013). The students earned Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Private Pilot certificates within 5 weeks, Instrument ratings in 3-4 weeks, Commercial certificates in an average of 20 weeks and Certificated Flight Instructor ratings in an average of 40 weeks. All participants met selection criteria, including completing their FAA Class III medical certificates, FAA Private Pilot Knowledge exams, a demonstration flight, financial counseling, having a grade point average ...


A System For Assessing Cervical Readiness Using Analytics And Non-Invasive Evaluation (Crane), Zachary A. Kiehl, Deepak Sathyanarayan, Kent C. Halverson, Michael E. Zabala, Sean Gallager, Brian Farrell 2019 Wright State University

A System For Assessing Cervical Readiness Using Analytics And Non-Invasive Evaluation (Crane), Zachary A. Kiehl, Deepak Sathyanarayan, Kent C. Halverson, Michael E. Zabala, Sean Gallager, Brian Farrell

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

Current cervical spine assessment methodologies focus solely on subjective measures, such as pain reports, and range-of-motion (ROM) testing that only measures maximum head excursion and reach (i.e., not dynamic motion). Due to report bias and the potential for negative outcomes of self-reported pain, current clinical assessment methods fail to provide valid, reliable data for medical practitioners to effectively manage long-term cervical health. Furthermore, commercial systems capable of quantitative assessment of cervical spine function are generally sparse and often immature. This paper highlights both the need and a path towards a clinical tool for objective measurement of cervical spine health ...


Hazardous Attitudes In Us Part 121 Airline Accidents, Bryan Nuñez, Carlos López, Jonathan Velazquez, Oswart A. Mora, Kevin Román 2019 Wright State University

Hazardous Attitudes In Us Part 121 Airline Accidents, Bryan Nuñez, Carlos López, Jonathan Velazquez, Oswart A. Mora, Kevin Román

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

The greater part of aviation accidents is often attributed to human error, with flight crew performance accounting for the majority of these mishaps. In 2016, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) published a rule to address pilot professionalism and to increase the likelihood that aviators adhere to standard procedures and prevent behavior that could lead to pilot errors in the airline domain. The FAA has identified 5 Hazardous Attitudes that afflict pilots: macho, impulsivity, resignation, invulnerability, and anti-authority. This study examined the FAA-defined Hazardous Attitudes and the regularity with which they occurred in the U.S. air carrier flight crew related ...


Reinforcement Learning In Aviation, Either Unmanned Or Manned, With An Injection Of Ai, Krishnamurthy V. Vemuru, Steven D. Harbour, Jeffery D. Clark 2019 Wright State University

Reinforcement Learning In Aviation, Either Unmanned Or Manned, With An Injection Of Ai, Krishnamurthy V. Vemuru, Steven D. Harbour, Jeffery D. Clark

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

We propose a novel theme of aviation with the injection of AI in the form of a reinforcement learning (RL) agent that learns flying skills by observing the pilot’s psychological reaction and flight path in a simulator. The pilot and the RL agent learn flying skills simultaneously, forming a symbiotic relationship. The episodes for training the reinforcement learning agent can be simulated by a pilot flying in a simulator, or unmanned using a game on a computer. In a typical episode, the reinforcement learning agent provides a sequence of actions for the pilot to follow. These instructions produce one ...


Operational Alerting On Modern Commercial Flight Decks, J P. Reitsma, M M. van Paassen, M Mulder 2019 Wright State University

Operational Alerting On Modern Commercial Flight Decks, J P. Reitsma, M M. Van Paassen, M Mulder

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

The glass cockpit and EFB enable new ways of information presentation and interaction on the flight deck of modern commercial jets. This information supports crews in flight plan management, which essentially entails evaluating the plan against (ever-changing) flight constraints and, if necessary, modifying it. Flight constraints emerge from the interaction between the system and its operational environment. Understanding the constraints, and checking the flight plan against these constraints, requires selection and combination of information from many sources. Operational alerting can support this process, by prioritizing and formatting information to match the operational context. A number of modern flight deck systems ...


Helmet Mounted Display Format And Spatial Audio Cueing Flight Test, Thomas Schnell, Eric Geiselman, Brian Simpson, Henry Williams 2019 Wright State University

Helmet Mounted Display Format And Spatial Audio Cueing Flight Test, Thomas Schnell, Eric Geiselman, Brian Simpson, Henry Williams

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

Historically, the objective of new technology development has been to enhance pilot performance (such as situation awareness) without causing problems such as Spatial Disorientation (SD). However, when improperly designed or poorly integrated, such technologies may actually reduce performance and increase the likelihood of unintended consequences. SD continues to be a serious problem in the military flight domain and it is critical that both the potential to cause problems as well as support effective defensive mitigation strategies be considered early in the development of new technologies. Past research has shown that new technologies can change operator behaviors. For example, the availability ...


Operational Alerting Concept For Commercial Single Pilot Operations Systems, J P. Reitsma, M M. van Paassen, M Mulder 2019 Wright State University

Operational Alerting Concept For Commercial Single Pilot Operations Systems, J P. Reitsma, M M. Van Paassen, M Mulder

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

Reducing high workload levels are a major challenge to enable single pilot operations. Where the pilot is currently supported with many automated systems, the role of mission planner is relatively unsupported, i.e., the flight crew is required to integrate and combine information from various sources to extract the implications on the missions’ high-level goals to determine if the mission can still be completed safely and successfully. An operational alerting display is developed to provide the pilot with a clear overview of the current and future operational flight constraints. This enables the pilot to determine if the initial plan is ...


Haptic Support For Avoiding Static And Dynamic Obstacles In Uav Tele-Operation, Tomasz Piessens, Rene van Paassen, Max Mulder 2019 Wright State University

Haptic Support For Avoiding Static And Dynamic Obstacles In Uav Tele-Operation, Tomasz Piessens, Rene Van Paassen, Max Mulder

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

Impoverished sensory input makes tele-operation of Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles a difficult task. Automation support can provide assistance to the operator, but may also produce automation surprise and a risk of loss of situation awareness, when the human operator fails to notice the actions of automation in high-workload situations. Previous work applied haptic feedback based on an artificial risk field to assist in avoidance of static obstacles with a small helicopter UAV. An off-line analysis of that solution shows that it would not be sufficiently effective for the avoidance of dynamic, moving obstacles. A new haptic assist algorithm, based on velocity ...


Effect Of Pain And Task Load On Flying Performance, Kellen Probert, Brian P. Dyre, Justin G. Hollands, Tristan Beaudoin, Elaine Maceda 2019 Wright State University

Effect Of Pain And Task Load On Flying Performance, Kellen Probert, Brian P. Dyre, Justin G. Hollands, Tristan Beaudoin, Elaine Maceda

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

An operationally-significant number of Griffon aircrew in the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) develop chronic neck pain; however, it is unclear how this chronic pain affects their ability to accomplish their missions. Extant literature on pain and human performance has found that pain can negatively affect tasks constrained by short-term memory and attention switching. We sought to test whether pain has similar effects on personnel piloting helicopters in simulation. Twenty-three RCAF personnel flew a simulated Griffon helicopter through waypoints along a target path. We were particularly interested in the effects of three variables: a) the presence or absence of induced ...


Development Of An Integrated Unmanned Aerial Systems Validation Center, Austin G. Decker, John H. Mott, Robert J. Connor, Ayman Habib, Darcy M. Bullock 2019 Wright State University

Development Of An Integrated Unmanned Aerial Systems Validation Center, Austin G. Decker, John H. Mott, Robert J. Connor, Ayman Habib, Darcy M. Bullock

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have the potential to drastically change how civil infrastructure is inspected, monitored, and managed. Deployment of UAS in areas such as bridge inspection and accident reconstruction will likely have far-reaching impacts and evolve over time, with new uses and users emerging as technology matures. However, with any new technology, limitations exist until new protocols are established, and industry must move forward with an appropriate level of caution. For example, statements regarding the ability of a UAS to replace a human bridge inspector are frequently observed in trade magazines, presentations, and in the literature, though no objective ...


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