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Postoperative Pain: Factors And Tools To Improve Pain Management In Children, Mai M. Makhlouf, Eric Robles Garibay, Brooke N. Jenkins, Zeev N. Kain, Michelle Fortier 2019 University of California, Irvine

Postoperative Pain: Factors And Tools To Improve Pain Management In Children, Mai M. Makhlouf, Eric Robles Garibay, Brooke N. Jenkins, Zeev N. Kain, Michelle Fortier

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Outpatient surgery has made it increasingly common for parents to manage pain in the home setting. Studies have shown that parents often under treat pain, leaving children vulnerable to the negative side effects of suboptimal pain management. Multiple factors affect pain management like child’s age and developmental stage, language, cultural values like stoicism, parental beliefs about medication, biological differences among groups, etc. Understanding all the factors involved can help healthcare providers and parents better understand pain and contribute to optimal pain management. Multiple tools and technological interventions have been created to help create a better understanding of pain and ...


An Integration-To-Bound Model Of Decision-Making That Accounts For The Spectral Properties Of Neural Data, Ramón Guevara Erra, Marco Arbotto, Aaron Schurger 2019 Université Paris Descartes

An Integration-To-Bound Model Of Decision-Making That Accounts For The Spectral Properties Of Neural Data, Ramón Guevara Erra, Marco Arbotto, Aaron Schurger

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Integration-to-bound models are among the most widely used models of perceptual decision-making due to their simplicity and power in accounting for behavioral and neurophysiological data. They involve temporal integration over an input signal (“evidence”) plus Gaussian white noise. However, brain data shows that noise in the brain is long-term correlated, with a spectral density of the form 1/fα (with typically 1 < α < 2), also known as pink noise or ‘1/f’ noise. Surprisingly, the adequacy of the spectral properties of drift-diffusion models to electrophysiological data has received little attention in the literature. Here we propose a model of accumulation of evidence for decision-making that takes into consideration the spectral properties of brain signals. We develop a generalization of the leaky stochastic accumulator model using a Langevin equation whose non-linear noise term allows for varying levels of autocorrelation in the time course of the decision variable. We derive this equation directly from magnetoencephalographic data recorded while subjects performed a spontaneous movement initiation task. We then propose a nonlinear model of accumulation of evidence that accounts for the ‘1/f’ spectral properties of brain signals, and the observed variability in the power spectral properties of brain signals. Furthermore, our model outperforms the standard drift-diffusion model at approximating the empirical waiting time distribution.


Alterations In Cortical Activation Among Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability During Single-Limb Postural Control, Adam B. Rosen, Jennifer M. Yentes, Melanie L. McGrath, Arthur C. Maerlender, Sara A. Myers, Mukul Mukherjee 2019 University of Nebraska, Omaha

Alterations In Cortical Activation Among Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability During Single-Limb Postural Control, Adam B. Rosen, Jennifer M. Yentes, Melanie L. Mcgrath, Arthur C. Maerlender, Sara A. Myers, Mukul Mukherjee

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Context: Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is characterized by repetitive ankle sprains and perceived instability. Whereas the underlying cause of CAI is disputed, alterations in cortical motor functioning may contribute to the perceived dysfunction.

Objective: To assess differences in cortical activity during single-limb stance among control, coper, and CAI groups.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Biomechanics laboratory.

Patients or Other Participants: A total of 31 individuals (10 men, 21 women; age = 22.3 ± 2.4 years, height = 169.6 ± 9.7 cm, mass = 70.6 ± 11.6 kg), who were classified into control (n = 13), coper (n = 7), and CAI (n = 11 ...


Exploring The Impact Of Challenging Behaviors On Treatment Efficacy In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Juliana Hoag 2019 Chapman University

Exploring The Impact Of Challenging Behaviors On Treatment Efficacy In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Juliana Hoag

Computational and Data Sciences (MS) Theses

The focus of this study was to explore the impact of challenging behaviors on Applied Behaviors Analysis treatment in Autism Spectrum Disorder. The prevalence of ASD is on the rise, so it is important that we understand how patients are responding to treatment. In this study, we cluster patients (N=854) based on their eight observed challenging behaviors using k-means, a machine learning algorithm, and then perform a multiple linear regression analysis to find significant differences between average exemplars mastered. The goal of this study was to expand the research in the area of ABA treatment for ASD and to ...


Impact Of Disclosure Of Military Service History On Diagnosis Of Ptsd, Crystal Shelton 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Impact Of Disclosure Of Military Service History On Diagnosis Of Ptsd, Crystal Shelton

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Objective Variability in how clinicians diagnose PTSD has been studied across treatment settings. Research shows several factors impact diagnostic variability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which disclosure of military service leads to an increase in diagnosis of PTSD when considering an otherwise vague symptom profile. We hypothesize veteran status will increase the likelihood of a PTSD diagnosis than status as a teacher. Methods Clinician were recruited online through professional message boards and listservs. Participants were randomly assigned a vignette (veteran or teacher status) and subsequently asked to make diagnostic judgments. Two vignettes, identical with ...


A Literature Review Of Nature-Based Expressive Arts Therapy For Bereaved Children, Wendy Dalton 2019 Lesley University

A Literature Review Of Nature-Based Expressive Arts Therapy For Bereaved Children, Wendy Dalton

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

There is a need for increased visibility of child bereavement to expand research in and accessibility of developmentally appropriate supports, which views the child holistically and within their biopsychosocial context. Worden’s (1996) formative work with child bereavement resulting in the "tasks" of child bereavement was the first and most recent study of its scale and kind. This marked an affirming of grief as normative response to death and occurring throughout the developmental lifespan. This work also highlights the need for additional inquiry to expand and deepen understanding of child bereavement. A growing body of research suggests that ecotherapy and ...


Expressive Mindfulness: A Trauma-Sensitive Expressive Arts Therapy Group Method, Meghan Daly 2019 Lesley University

Expressive Mindfulness: A Trauma-Sensitive Expressive Arts Therapy Group Method, Meghan Daly

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Mindfulness and expressive arts therapy are both supportive of directing attention in a manner that promotes integration and function of a person. In this paper, a trauma-sensitive method was created for use in a day treatment setting for adults with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI). This method utilized expressive movement, visual art making with three different materials, and creative writing to encourage mindful, non-judgmental acceptance of the present moment; a sense of relaxation; and an overall increase in quality of life. During development of the method arts-based research informed the choice of materials, music, and structure of the group ...


A Meta-Analytic Review Of Cognitive Functioning In Negative And Positive Symptoms Of Schizophrenia, Tiffany Forsythe 2019 Abilene Christian University

A Meta-Analytic Review Of Cognitive Functioning In Negative And Positive Symptoms Of Schizophrenia, Tiffany Forsythe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to conduct two meta-analytic reviews examining cognitive functioning and schizophrenia. The first review examined the literature comparing the cognitive functioning of schizophrenic patients to healthy controls. A second review examined the cognitive functioning within schizophrenic patients, examining the differences between individuals with primarily positive symptomatology and those with primarily negative symptomatology. The first meta-analysis included 19 studies which assessed 861 schizophrenic patients and 858 healthy volunteers overall. The second meta-analysis included 10 studies comparing the cognitive functioning of 1,263 schizophrenics across positive and negative symptoms. Results of the first review indicated that healthy ...


The Unfolding Argument: Why Iit And Other Causal Structure Theories Cannot Explain Consciousness, Adrian Doerig, Aaron Schurger, Kathryn Hess, Michael H. Herzog 2019 EPFL – École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne

The Unfolding Argument: Why Iit And Other Causal Structure Theories Cannot Explain Consciousness, Adrian Doerig, Aaron Schurger, Kathryn Hess, Michael H. Herzog

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

How can we explain consciousness? This question has become a vibrant topic of neuroscience research in recent decades. A large body of empirical results has been accumulated, and many theories have been proposed. Certain theories suggest that consciousness should be explained in terms of brain functions, such as accessing information in a global workspace, applying higher order to lower order representations, or predictive coding. These functions could be realized by a variety of patterns of brain connectivity. Other theories, such as Information Integration Theory (IIT) and Recurrent Processing Theory (RPT), identify causal structure with consciousness. For example, according to these ...


Prevalence Of Moral Injury In Canadian Forces Members Deployed To Afghanistan, Kevin T. Hansen 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Prevalence Of Moral Injury In Canadian Forces Members Deployed To Afghanistan, Kevin T. Hansen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Moral injury is a relatively new area of study within military mental health care, as such, prevalence estimates for both moral injury and exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIE; a moral injury precursor) are unknown for many of the world’s militaries. PMIE is commonly defined as the perpetrating, failing to prevent, witnessing, or learning about acts or events that transgress an individual’s deeply held moral belief(s). The primary purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of PMIE in a population of Canadian Armed Forces (CF) members who served in support of the recent mission ...


Human-Autonomy Teaming - An Evolving Interaction Paradigm: A Cognitive Engineering Approach To Hat, Axel Schulte, Diana Donath 2019 Wright State University

Human-Autonomy Teaming - An Evolving Interaction Paradigm: A Cognitive Engineering Approach To Hat, Axel Schulte, Diana Donath

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

This contribution outlines a cognitive engineering approach to structure, describe and depict configurations for highly automated human-machine systems using a common language. These systems involve cognitive agents, for autonomous vehicle guidance and mission management. The method focusses on the systematic top-down deduction of requirements for human-autonomy work share and interaction in the work process. Therefore, this contribution outlines a procedure to follow to design and describe such human-autonomy teaming systems, related user and system requirements, and top-level system designs. This contribution primarily aims at the application field of military, highly automated manned/unmanned vehicle systems.


If We’D Only Listen! What Research Can Tell Us About Aircrew Fatigue., Christina Ruudin-Brown, Ari Rosberg, Danielle Krukowski 2019 Wright State University

If We’D Only Listen! What Research Can Tell Us About Aircrew Fatigue., Christina Ruudin-Brown, Ari Rosberg, Danielle Krukowski

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

Performance decrements associated with fatigue are significant risk factors of occupational, motor vehicle, and aviation accidents. The substantial number of recent aviation occurrences involving aircrew fatigue and the slow progress of related rulemaking prompted the TSB to include fatigue management on its 2018 Watchlist of key safety issues. At the same time, a finding of aircrew fatigue in a 2017 NTSB investigation into a near-taxiway landing prompted some journalists to argue that there are few, if any, research studies showing how fatigue affects flying ability, and that current efforts in fatigue management may not be effective. This paper explores research ...


How Personality, Intelligence, And Working Memory Predict Situation Awareness And Flight Performance, Andrew R. Dattel, Andrey K. Babin, Simona Teodorovic, John Brooks, Saralee Pruksaritanon, Priyanka Shetty 2019 Wright State University

How Personality, Intelligence, And Working Memory Predict Situation Awareness And Flight Performance, Andrew R. Dattel, Andrey K. Babin, Simona Teodorovic, John Brooks, Saralee Pruksaritanon, Priyanka Shetty

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

Situation awareness (SA) and flight performance may be intrinsically connected. Good SA can lead to good aeronautical decision making, and consequently better flight performance. Forty-three pilots participated in the study. Participants completed personality tests, a test of fluid intelligence, and a test for working memory. Participants flew a 15-minute flight scenario in an Elite PI-135 BATD, where participants received six SA questions. Airspeed, altitude, and heading were the flight performance variables. Participants also completed a version of Letter Factory (LF), a generic test used as part of the air traffic controller selection test. Good SA for LF, openness, agreeableness, and ...


Machine Awareness, Steven D. Harbour, Jeffery D. Clark, William D. Mitchell, Krishnamurthy V. Vemuru 2019 Wright State University

Machine Awareness, Steven D. Harbour, Jeffery D. Clark, William D. Mitchell, Krishnamurthy V. Vemuru

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

Current and future research that embodies a pathway to achieving machine common sense (MCS), including Capsule Neural Networks, Hebbian Plasticity Theory, Dual Process Theory, and machine awareness (MA). The final frontier may well involve a framework that is capable of machine curiosity, exploration, automatic selfdirection and adaptation. The artificial intelligence (AI) system of the future will possess an innate curiosity and explore its own environment to gain knowledge, exhibiting a basic element of human cognition and awareness. The resulting MA system will possess inherent self-driven curiosity and related entropy in the decision space as it explores the environment in much ...


Which Ocular Dominance Should Be Considered For Monocular Augmented Reality Devices?, Elodie Bayle, Estelle Guilbaud, Sylvain Hourlier, Sylvie Lelandais, Laure Leroy, Justin Plantier, Pascaline Neveu 2019 Wright State University

Which Ocular Dominance Should Be Considered For Monocular Augmented Reality Devices?, Elodie Bayle, Estelle Guilbaud, Sylvain Hourlier, Sylvie Lelandais, Laure Leroy, Justin Plantier, Pascaline Neveu

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

A monocular augmented reality device allows the user to see information that is superimposed on the environment. As it does not stimulate both eyes in the same way, it creates a phenomenon known as binocular rivalry. The question therefore arises as to whether monocular information should be displayed to a particular eye and if an ocular dominance test can determine it. This paper contributes to give a better understanding of ocular dominance by comparing nine tests. Our results suggest that ocular dominance can be divided into sighting and sensorial dominance. However, different sensorial dominance tests give different results, suggesting that ...


A Tablet-Computer App Displaying Runway Winds, William R. Knecht 2019 Wright State University

A Tablet-Computer App Displaying Runway Winds, William R. Knecht

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

We tested variants of a mobile meteorological tablet-computer application designed to help general aviation (GA) pilots land aircraft more safely under windy conditions. This “app” compared METAR runway wind information in several graphical and textual formats. Study 1 tested 25 GA pilots on 18 runway wind scenarios. Graphical METARs depicted the runway with a large arrow at 90°, representing the crosswind speed component, and a second arrow parallel to the runway, representing the headwind/tailwind component. We hypothesized that eliminating the need for complex mental calculation of wind components would increase speed and/or accuracy of information processing. Study 2 ...


Pilot Evaluations Of A Non-Verbal Startle And Surprise Management Method, Tested During Airline Recurrent Simulator Training, Annemarie Landman, Eric L. Groen, Marc Frank, Gunnar Steinhardt, M M. van Paassen, Adelbert W. Bronkhorst, Max Mulder 2019 Wright State University

Pilot Evaluations Of A Non-Verbal Startle And Surprise Management Method, Tested During Airline Recurrent Simulator Training, Annemarie Landman, Eric L. Groen, Marc Frank, Gunnar Steinhardt, M M. Van Paassen, Adelbert W. Bronkhorst, Max Mulder

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

Aviation safety organizations have recommended that airline pilots are trained for startle and surprise. However, little information is available on useful training interventions. Therefore, a training intervention trial was executed during airline recurrent simulator training. The method consisted of a slow visual scan from the side-window, over the instruments, ending with facing the other pilot. Following a recorded video instruction, 38 airline pilots in two-pilot crews performed a training scenario in which they could apply the method. Data on application and evaluation of the method were obtained from each pilot. Few pilots actually applied the method (18.4%), and many ...


Data-Driven Improvement Of Flight Training Safety At Purdue University, Matthew C. Chow, Shantanu Gupta, Celeste D. Torrez, Suvarna Veeravalli, John H. Holt, Jack J. Green, Nikolas A. Sambado 2019 Wright State University

Data-Driven Improvement Of Flight Training Safety At Purdue University, Matthew C. Chow, Shantanu Gupta, Celeste D. Torrez, Suvarna Veeravalli, John H. Holt, Jack J. Green, Nikolas A. Sambado

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

The School of Aviation and Transportation Technology at Purdue University utilizes a wide range of resources to train aspiring pilots, technicians, and managers. Aircraft operate in one of four practice areas located within a 30 nautical mile radius of the Purdue University Airport. Due to factors such as poor weather conditions, inexperience of student pilots, and proximity misjudgment, one aircraft could operate in close proximity to another in the same practice area, compromising the safety of both aircraft and causing a Near Midair Collision (NMAC) event due to miscommunication, misinterpretation, or failure to act on the part of the pilots ...


Impact Of Atco Training And Expertise On Dynamic Spatial Abilities, Nadine Matton, Jean-Baptiste Gotteland, Géraud Granger, Nicolas Durand 2019 Wright State University

Impact Of Atco Training And Expertise On Dynamic Spatial Abilities, Nadine Matton, Jean-Baptiste Gotteland, Géraud Granger, Nicolas Durand

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

Dynamic spatial ability is supposed to be involved in a critical process of air traffic controllers, namely conflict detection. The present paper aims at testing whether dynamic spatial ability improves with air traffic control training and/or experience. We designed a laboratory task to assess the performance in predicting if two moving disks would collide or not. We conducted a crosssectional study with four groups of participants : ATCO trainees at the beginning (N=129), middle (N=80) or end of training (N=66) and experienced ATCOs (N=14). Results suggested on one hand that air traffic control training leads to ...


Scd: A 3 States Startle Copying Display To Manage Deleterious Effects Of Extreme Emergency Situation., Christophe Bey, Sylvian Hourlier, Jean-Marc Andre 2019 Wright State University

Scd: A 3 States Startle Copying Display To Manage Deleterious Effects Of Extreme Emergency Situation., Christophe Bey, Sylvian Hourlier, Jean-Marc Andre

International Symposium on Aviation Psychology - 2019

The management of cognitive resources are central in the case of a decision-making process by pilots. We undertake a study involving Airbus 400M pilots and allowing to understand these mechanisms and to propose recommendations for the design of a tool to assist in the management of their cognitive resources. We find that in the most critical cases and under strong temporal pressure, the maintenance of control of the situation corresponds to a survival type behavior which alone can allow a return to the metarules (back to basics). Our display management proposal allows the pilot to maintain control of the situation ...


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