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The Effect Of Rapid Chilling Of Pork Carcasses During The Early Postmortem Period On Fresh Pork Quality, Aaron Blakely, Kenneth J. Prusa, Christine A. Fedler, Grant B. Sherrard, Edward M. Steadham, Kenneth J. Stalder, Carol L. Lorenzen, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Steven M. Lonergan 2019 Iowa State University

The Effect Of Rapid Chilling Of Pork Carcasses During The Early Postmortem Period On Fresh Pork Quality, Aaron Blakely, Kenneth J. Prusa, Christine A. Fedler, Grant B. Sherrard, Edward M. Steadham, Kenneth J. Stalder, Carol L. Lorenzen, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Steven M. Lonergan

Animal Science Publications

The objective was to investigate the effects of blast chilling on pork quality in cuts from the Longissimus thoracic et lumborum (LM), Psoas major (PM), Semimembranosus (SM; both superficial [SMS] and deep [SMD] portions) and the Triceps brachii (TB). Forty carcasses (10 carcasses per replication) were split and sides were assigned to either blast chill (BC, –32°C for 90 min, followed by spray chill at 2°C for 22.5 h) or conventional chill (CC, spray chilled at 2°C for 24 h) regimens. The LM from BC sides had lower (P < 0.05) temperature at 2 h postmortem (CC 21.8°C, BC 9.7°C), 4 h (CC 13.3°C, 3.8°C BC), 22 h (CC 4.2°C, BC 1.4°C), and 30 h (CC 0.4°C, BC –0.2°C). The LM pH in BC sides was higher at 4 h (CC 6.09, BC 6.34), 22 h (CC 5.81, BC 5.89), and 30 h (CC 5.68, BC 5.74) postmortem. The BC resulted in higher (P < 0.05) 30 h postmortem pH in the SM compared to the CC regime (CC 5.68, BC 5.74). The BC sides had increased (P < 0.05) purge in the PM (CC 0.48%, BC 0.74%) and increased (P < 0.05) cook loss in chops from the LM (CC 22.37%, BC 24.24%). The PM from BC sides were more juicy (CC 7.50, BC 8.30), less chewy (CC 2.80, BC 2.10), and more tender (CC 7.90, BC 8.60). Chops from the LM of BC sides had greater Warner-Bratzler shear force (CC 2.00, BC 2.30). Color was affected in the SM with BC sides showing darker color score (CC 3.00, BC 3.20) and redder Hunter a value (CC 16.35, BC 16.02). Chilling treatment did not affect sarcomere length in the LM. Treatment did not affect postmortem proteolysis in any cut. The response to chilling regimen is different across different muscles which may be caused by location, rate of chilling, and fiber type.


Development And Optimization Of Ph-Responsive Plga-Chitosan Nanoparticles For Triggered Release Of Antimicrobials, Cicero C. Pola, Allan R.F. Moraes, Eber A.A. Medeiros, Reinaldo F. Teófilo, Nilda F.F. Soares, Carmen L. Gomes 2019 Iowa State University and Federal University of Viçosa

Development And Optimization Of Ph-Responsive Plga-Chitosan Nanoparticles For Triggered Release Of Antimicrobials, Cicero C. Pola, Allan R.F. Moraes, Eber A.A. Medeiros, Reinaldo F. Teófilo, Nilda F.F. Soares, Carmen L. Gomes

Mechanical Engineering Publications

The aim of this work was to develop and optimize a pH-responsive nanoparticle based on poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and chitosan (CHIT) for delivery of natural antimicrobial using trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCIN) as a model compound. The optimization was performed using a central composite design and the desirability function approach. The optimized levels of variables considering all significant responses were 4% (w/w) of TCIN and 6.75% (w/w) of CHIT. After, optimized nanoparticles were produced and characterized according to their physicochemical properties and their antimicrobial activity against SalmonellaTyphimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. Optimized nanoparticles characterization indicated a satisfactory TCIN ...


Formation Of Low Density And Free-Flowing Hollow Microparticles From Non-Hydrogenated Oils And Preparation Of Pastries With Shortening Fat Composed Of The Microparticles, Joshua Gudeman 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Formation Of Low Density And Free-Flowing Hollow Microparticles From Non-Hydrogenated Oils And Preparation Of Pastries With Shortening Fat Composed Of The Microparticles, Joshua Gudeman

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Solid fats provide critical functionality in the structuring, shortening, and stabilizing of many foods. However, their use as an ingredient is foods can present a number of challenges. The physical properties of solid fat can make them difficult to apply to or incorporate into foods consistently. On an industrial food production scale, handling of solid fats can difficult because they are often packed in heavy cubes or totes, and production delays and inefficiencies may be caused by the need to remelt the oils before use. Oils as a macronutrient also contribute a relatively high number of calories at 9 calories ...


Effects Of Poor Sanitation Procedures On Cross-Contamination Of Animal Species In Ground Meat Products, Sunjung Chung, Rosalee S. Hellberg 2019 Chapman University

Effects Of Poor Sanitation Procedures On Cross-Contamination Of Animal Species In Ground Meat Products, Sunjung Chung, Rosalee S. Hellberg

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

The presence of <1% of an undeclared species in ground meat is generally thought to be indicative of cross-contamination as opposed to intentional mislabeling; however, this has not been experimentally tested. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of poor sanitation on the cross-contamination of animal species in ground meat products, with the example of undeclared pork in ground beef. Cross-contamination was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three different sanitation treatments were tested with a commercial grinder (“no cleaning”, “partial cleaning”, or “complete cleaning”) in between grinding of pork and beef samples (13.6 kg each). A 100-g sample was collected for each 0.91 kg (2 lb) of beef processed with the grinder and each sanitation treatment was tested twice. For the “no cleaning” treatment, the first 100-g sample of ground beef run through the grinder contained 24.42 ± 10.41% pork, while subsequent samples (n = 14) contained <0.2% pork. With “partial cleaning,” the first sample of ground beef contained 4.60 ± 0.3% pork and subsequent samples contained <0.2% pork. Pork was not detected in ground beef following “complete cleaning.” These results indicate that incomplete cleaning of grinding equipment leads to species cross-contamination at levels of <1% in most cases. Proper sanitation procedures must be followed when grinding multiple species in order to prevent cross-contamination and product mislabeling.


Development Of A Dna Mini-Barcoding Protocol Targeting Coi For The Identification Of Elasmobranch Species In Shark Cartilage Pills, Rowena J. Zahn, Anthony J. Silva, Rosalee S. Hellberg 2019 Chapman University

Development Of A Dna Mini-Barcoding Protocol Targeting Coi For The Identification Of Elasmobranch Species In Shark Cartilage Pills, Rowena J. Zahn, Anthony J. Silva, Rosalee S. Hellberg

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

Many elasmobranch (shark and ray) species are considered threatened and their identification in processed products is important for conservation and authentication purposes. However, identification of elasmobranch species in shark cartilage pills has proven difficult using existing methodologies. The objective of this study was to develop a DNA mini-barcoding protocol using a ~130 bp region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for species identification in shark cartilage pills. A total of 22 shark cartilage products underwent DNA extraction in duplicate using the DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit (Qiagen). The effectiveness of a clean-up step following DNA extraction was ...


Non-Linear Behavior Of Protein And Tannin In Wine Produced By Cofermentation Of An Interspecific Hybrid (Vitis Spp.) And Vinifera Cultivar, Erin L. Norton, Gavin L. Sacks, Joey N. Talbert 2019 Iowa State University

Non-Linear Behavior Of Protein And Tannin In Wine Produced By Cofermentation Of An Interspecific Hybrid (Vitis Spp.) And Vinifera Cultivar, Erin L. Norton, Gavin L. Sacks, Joey N. Talbert

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Wines produced from red interspecific hybrid grape cultivars (Vitis spp.) typically have lower tannin than wines produced from vinifera cultivars, which can be attributed to the lower concentration of tannins and higher concentration of tannin binding proteins of interspecific cultivars. Tannin in wines produced from hybrid cultivars could potentially be increased by blending hybrids with vinifera. We hypothesized that blending of grapes prior to fermentation (cofermentation) should result in final wine tannin concentrations lower than wine tannin concentrations predicted from the individual components due to protein-tannin binding, but that this effect should be absent from monovarietal wines blended post-fermentation. To ...


Seaweeds As Nutraceuticals For Health And Nutrition, Emer Shannon, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam 2019 Technological University Dublin

Seaweeds As Nutraceuticals For Health And Nutrition, Emer Shannon, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

Throughout human history, seaweeds have been used as food, folk remedies, dyes, and as mineral-rich fertilisers. Seaweeds as nutraceuticals or functional foods with dietary benefits beyond their fundamental macronutrient content are now a major research and industrial development concept. The occurrence of dietary and lifestyle related diseases, notably type 2 diabetes, obesity, cancer, and metabolic syndrome has become a health epidemic in developed countries. Global epidemiological studies have shown that countries where seaweed is consumed on a regular basis have significantly fewer instances of obesity and dietary-related disease. This review outlines recent developments in seaweed applications for human health from ...


"Evaluation Of Chilling Efficiency, Meat Tenderness, And Microbial Analysis Of Broiler Carcasses Using Sub-Zero Saline Solutions", Samira Viliani, Samira Viliani 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

"Evaluation Of Chilling Efficiency, Meat Tenderness, And Microbial Analysis Of Broiler Carcasses Using Sub-Zero Saline Solutions", Samira Viliani, Samira Viliani

Master's Theses

The poultry industry is seeking an advanced chilling system that can improve chilling efficiency, microbial safety, and water consumption without compromising meat quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sub-zero saline chilling methods on chilling efficiency, breast fillet tenderness and microbial reduction of broiler carcasses. Following evisceration and rinsing, broiler carcasses were randomly assigned to one of three chilling solutions: 1) 0% salt or ice water control (0% NaCl/0.5oC), 2) 3% salt (3% NaCl/-1.8oC), and 3) 4% salt (4% NaCl/-2.41oC) solutions. Broiler carcasses ...


Influence Of Postmortem Aging And Post-Aging Freezing On Pork Loin Quality Attributes, Matthew D. Schulte, Logan G. Johnson, Elizabeth A. Zuber, Brian M. Patterson, Amanda C. Outhouse, Christine A. Fedler, Edward M. Steadham, David A. King, Kenneth J. Prusa, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Steven M. Lonergan 2019 Iowa State University

Influence Of Postmortem Aging And Post-Aging Freezing On Pork Loin Quality Attributes, Matthew D. Schulte, Logan G. Johnson, Elizabeth A. Zuber, Brian M. Patterson, Amanda C. Outhouse, Christine A. Fedler, Edward M. Steadham, David A. King, Kenneth J. Prusa, Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Steven M. Lonergan

Animal Science Publications

The objectives were to determine 1) the interaction between aging duration and post-aging freezing on pork loin quality attributes and 2) the relationship between pork loin star probe (SP) and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Loins from 20 carcasses were collected 1 d postmortem. Chops (n = 9; 2.54-cm thick) were fabricated from each loin and vacuum packaged. Four chops from each loin were aged at 4°C for 1, 8, 14, and 21 d and immediately evaluated (Fresh). Four adjacent chops were aged (1, 8, 14, and 21 d), frozen for 14 d, and thawed for evaluation (Frozen). An additional ...


Socio-Ecological Barriers To Dry Grain Pulse Consumption Among Low-Income Women: A Mixed Methods Approach, Shelly M. Palmer, Donna M. Winham, Ann M. Oberhauser, Ruth E. Litchfield 2019 Iowa State University

Socio-Ecological Barriers To Dry Grain Pulse Consumption Among Low-Income Women: A Mixed Methods Approach, Shelly M. Palmer, Donna M. Winham, Ann M. Oberhauser, Ruth E. Litchfield

Ann Oberhauser

The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-ecological influences on dry grain pulse consumption (beans, peas, lentils, chickpeas) among low-socioeconomic women in Iowa. Seven focus groups were conducted, with 36 women who qualified for income-based federal assistance. Data were collected from October 2017 to January 2018. Participants completed a survey that gathered individual demographics, assessed perceptions of dry grain pulses, and level of food security. Fifty-eight percent of the women were non-Hispanic white, and 39% were African American, all with an average age of 34.7 years. Thirty-three percent of the women consumed pulses less than once per ...


Sheet‐Extruded Films From Blends Of Hydroxypropylated And Native Corn Starches, And Their Characterization, Hee-Young Kim, Buddhi P. Lamsal, Jay-lin Jane, David A. Grewell 2019 Iowa State University

Sheet‐Extruded Films From Blends Of Hydroxypropylated And Native Corn Starches, And Their Characterization, Hee-Young Kim, Buddhi P. Lamsal, Jay-Lin Jane, David A. Grewell

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Sheet‐extruded films from the blends of hydroxypropylated normal corn starch (HP) and native normal corn starch (NS) at weight ratios of 100:0, 90:10, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 0:100 were prepared and characterized. Glycerol and water were added as plasticizers at 11 and 27% starch weight, respectively. The highest tensile strength (TS) and longest elongation to break (EB) for dry films were observed at 70:30 HP: NS ratio, which was 25.76 MPa, and 3.97%, respectively. However, TS and EB of this 70:30 blend extruded starch film exhibited low resistance upon ...


Cassava Starch Films Reinforced With Lignocellulose Nanofibers From Cassava Bagasse, Ana P. Travalini, Buddhi P. Lamsal, Washington L. Esteves Magalhaes, Ivo M. Demiate 2019 Ponta Grossa State University

Cassava Starch Films Reinforced With Lignocellulose Nanofibers From Cassava Bagasse, Ana P. Travalini, Buddhi P. Lamsal, Washington L. Esteves Magalhaes, Ivo M. Demiate

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Cassava bagasse, a high-fiber coproduct of cassava starch processing, was used to produce lignocellulose nanofibers (LCNF) to apply as reinforcement in cassava starch films. LCNF-reinforced cast starch films were evaluated for changes in structural, thermal and mechanical properties and compared with control films reinforced with commercial grade nanoclay (Nclay). Five different types of cassava starch cast-films were produced: no-reinforcement control, two LCNF-reinforced, and two Nclay-reinforced, each at 0.65 and 1.3% w w−1. The LCNF morphology showed the characteristic microscopic structure of lignocellulose nanofibers, with an aspect ratio > 85 and average diameter of 4.5 nm. All reinforced ...


Multi-Instrument Evaluation Of A Real-Time Pcr Assay For Identification Of Atlantic Salmon: A Case Study On The Use Of A Pre-Packaged Kit For Rapid Seafood Species Identification, Amanda A. Naaum, Rosalee S. Hellberg, Tara A. Okuma, Robert H. Hanner 2019 University of Guelph

Multi-Instrument Evaluation Of A Real-Time Pcr Assay For Identification Of Atlantic Salmon: A Case Study On The Use Of A Pre-Packaged Kit For Rapid Seafood Species Identification, Amanda A. Naaum, Rosalee S. Hellberg, Tara A. Okuma, Robert H. Hanner

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

Protecting the seafood supply chain from species substitution is critical for economic, health, and conservation reasons. DNA-based methods represent an effective means to detect species substitution, but current methods can be time consuming or costly, and require specialized instruments and operators. Real-time PCR provides an alternative that can be performed quickly, and in some cases even on-site. The use of commercial kits reduces the expertise required by the operator and therefore increases accessibility to testing. This potentially increases the likelihood of adoption into the supply chain, but only if the kits are robust across multiple operators, instruments, and samples. In ...


Effects Of Germination Conditions Of Brown Rice In Relation To Flour Physicochemical Properties And Bread Qualities, Wipada Wunthunyarat 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Germination Conditions Of Brown Rice In Relation To Flour Physicochemical Properties And Bread Qualities, Wipada Wunthunyarat

Theses and Dissertations

Gluten-free products from rice are gaining popularity among consumers because of its hypoallergenic characteristic. The absence of gluten results in inferior bread qualities such as hard texture, reduced volume and shorter shelf-life, which can be improved by the addition of external hydrolytic enzymes. Hydrolytic enzymes are activated during germination to stimulate plant growth, and hence these enzymes may function similarly to the external enzymes to improve gluten-free bread from brown rice. Therefore, the objective of this work was to investigate the activities of amylases and protease in germinated brown rice (GBR) from long-grain and short-grain rices under different germination conditions ...


Impacts Of Size Fractionation And Processing On Functional Characteristics Of Broken Rice Kernels, Rebecca Mawusi Bruce 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Impacts Of Size Fractionation And Processing On Functional Characteristics Of Broken Rice Kernels, Rebecca Mawusi Bruce

Theses and Dissertations

Rice flour generated from broken rice (brokens) has inconsistencies in functional properties. This may be due to differences in size and composition of brokens used for the flour. It is postulated that size classification of brokens can improve flour functionality. This study sought to investigate the effect of size fractionation of brokens on the functional or pasting properties of resulting rice flour. Broken rice was generated from six cultivars of freshly harvested rough rice that were dried at 25◦C in the laboratory. The brokens were classified into large, medium and small, using US sieve size 10, 12 and 20 ...


Impact Of Sanitizers On Salmonella Enterica Contamination And Microbial Populations Of Poultry Processing Reuse Water, Andrew Micciche 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Impact Of Sanitizers On Salmonella Enterica Contamination And Microbial Populations Of Poultry Processing Reuse Water, Andrew Micciche

Theses and Dissertations

As human populations increase in numbers, access to clean, fresh water is becoming increasingly difficult to balance between agricultural and municipal demands. Water scarcity is a limiting factor of food production in many countries, whether they are emerging or established economies. In conventional poultry processing systems, access to water is particularly critical for the maintenance and disinfection of processing areas, as well as in processing operations such as scalding, chilling, and carcass washing. The need for sustainable alternatives to single-use water supplies is becoming increasingly more urgent, and as a result, the implementation of water reuse in poultry processing plants ...


Potential Antimicrobials For Controlling Listeria Monocytogenes In Frankfurters, Aaron Rashad Bodie 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Potential Antimicrobials For Controlling Listeria Monocytogenes In Frankfurters, Aaron Rashad Bodie

Theses and Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic microorganism that causes Listeriosis. Listeriosis is a highly mortal disease with approximately 20% mortality rate. Listeria is psychrophilic, therefore it is able to survive in the refrigerator. This affects foods at cool storage such as fresh produce and RTE meats. To ensure the safety of RTE meat, post processing treatments are used such as vacuum packing, edible films, dip and treatment. One-way RTE can be treated is with the use of antimicrobials. However, in the past chemical substances were used. Currently, consumers want more natural and organic preservatives to combat health problems from toxic components ...


A Simulation Tool For Evaluating The Environmental Impacts Of Management Scenarios For Modern Broiler Production Systems, Martin Andrew Christie 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Simulation Tool For Evaluating The Environmental Impacts Of Management Scenarios For Modern Broiler Production Systems, Martin Andrew Christie

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this work is to provide a simulation tool that allows broiler production practitioners and researchers to simulate the effects of farm design and management practices on resource consumption and environmental impacts. This tool allows the user to design unique farms and simulates on farm processes required to raise broiler chicks to a marketable age. The use can input data such as farm location, broiler breed, flock size, ration type, barn dimensions, and climate control equipment specifications. The algorithms used to simulate broiler breed specific feed intake, broiler weight gain, and other on farm processes such as heating ...


Efficacy Of Alternative Sanitization Methods On Wild Blueberries And Fresh Cut Cantaloupe, Selena Callahan 2019 University of Maine

Efficacy Of Alternative Sanitization Methods On Wild Blueberries And Fresh Cut Cantaloupe, Selena Callahan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the last decade, outbreaks linked to the consumption of contaminated fresh produce have increased mitigation efforts to minimize the risks associated with these products. Due to the lack of a kill step during processing of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, good manufacturing practices (GMP’s), and sanitization are the key prevention areas most commonly used to control these risks. Many factors must be considered by processors for successful intervention such as sanitizer type, method of application, duration of application, and concentration. Additionally, product considerations such as water content, pH, and bacterial harborage sites can contribute greatly to how effective an applied ...


The Influence Of Different Packaging Materials And Atmospheric Conditions On The Properties Of Pork Rinds, Kristi Kõrge, Katrin Laos 2019 TalTech (Tallinn University of Technology)

The Influence Of Different Packaging Materials And Atmospheric Conditions On The Properties Of Pork Rinds, Kristi Kõrge, Katrin Laos

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Rancidity development in high fat content products is a common off-flavor flaw in snack foods. Packaging is often used to avoid spoilage and extend shelf-life. The properties of pork rinds packaged in four different packaging materials with and without nitrogen were studied during 120 days of storage (22 °C, RH 60%, absence of light). The influence of different packaging materials and atmospheric conditions on pork rinds’ water activity, hardness, crispness and rancidity development was determined. The PET/PE packaging material had lower barrier properties for the product in both atmospheric conditions compared with PP/metPP (40 and 50 μm) and ...


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