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The Effect Of Breathing Patterns Common To Competitive Swimming On Gas Exchange And Muscle Deoxygenation During Heavy-Intensity Fartlek Exercise, Kevin J. Grossman 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of Breathing Patterns Common To Competitive Swimming On Gas Exchange And Muscle Deoxygenation During Heavy-Intensity Fartlek Exercise, Kevin J. Grossman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to compare the respiratory and muscle deoxygenation (HHb) responses of regulated breathing versus free-breathing, during continuous exercise (CONLD) and intermittent 5s breath holds (BH) (CONLD-BH), intermittent 5s sprint (FLK) and combined 5s BH and sprint (FLK-BH) followed by 25s of free-breathing. Oxygen uptake(V̇O2)was unchanged between CONLD (2.12±0.35L/min) and CONLD-BH (2.15±0.42L/min; p=0.116), and FLK (2.24±0.40L/min) and FLK-BH (2.20±0.45L/min; p=0.861). Δ[Hbtot]: CONLD (3.3±1.6µM) > CONLD-BH (-2.5±1 ...


Cross-Modal Perception Of Identity By Sound And Taste In Bottlenose Dolphins, Jason N. Bruck, Sam F. Walmsley, Vincent M. Janik 2022 Stephen F Austin State University

Cross-Modal Perception Of Identity By Sound And Taste In Bottlenose Dolphins, Jason N. Bruck, Sam F. Walmsley, Vincent M. Janik

Faculty Publications

While studies have demonstrated concept formation in animals, only humans are known to label concepts to use them in mental simulations or predictions. To investigate whether other animals use labels comparably, we studied cross-modal, individual recognition in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that use signature whistles as labels for conspecifics in their own communication. First, we tested whether dolphins could use gustatory stimuli and found that they could distinguish between water and urine samples, as well as between urine from familiar and unfamiliar individuals. Then, we paired playbacks of signature whistles of known animals with urine samples from either the same ...


Determining The Distribution Of Elemental Compounds And Oxidative Potential Across Fine Particulate Matter (Pm2.5) Filters, Allie Michelle Sidwell 2022 The University of Mississippi

Determining The Distribution Of Elemental Compounds And Oxidative Potential Across Fine Particulate Matter (Pm2.5) Filters, Allie Michelle Sidwell

Honors Theses

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a complex mixture of particles and sorbed chemicals that poses serious, adverse effects on human health such as increasing cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. There is ongoing research into the impacts of PM2.5 of differing chemical compositions, sampling location, and the mechanisms for the observed health effects. To conduct these analytical and toxicology studies of PM2.5, researchers often split filters into sections. This process allows multiple, often destructive, assays to be performed. Our previous research showed chemical composition differences across PM2.5 filters. The goal of our ...


Isolation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Plants Homozygous For An Insertional Inactivation Mutation Within Atprp4., Sydney Raitz, Timothy D. Trott 2022 Southern Adventist University

Isolation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Plants Homozygous For An Insertional Inactivation Mutation Within Atprp4., Sydney Raitz, Timothy D. Trott

Faculty Works

The AtPRP4 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana has been shown to function in several specific parts of the plant’s cell wall. It is shown to be expressed in the seeds, radicles, roots, leaves, inflorescences, and embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana. These patterns have suggested unique functions for ATPRP4 in determining cell-type-specific wall structure during the development of a plant as well as contributing to defense reactions against physical damage to the plant and pathogen infection within the plant. In this study, a simple DNA prep was performed on the true leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Subsequent PCR reactions were performed using AtPRP4F ...


Fish Community Assembly At Multiple Spatial Scales In East Texas Streams, Jake R. Swanson 2022 Stephen F Austin State University

Fish Community Assembly At Multiple Spatial Scales In East Texas Streams, Jake R. Swanson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Stream communities are structured by environmental processes that vary in strength across different spatiotemporal scales. Therefore, revealing how stream fish communities are influenced by environmental gradients may clarify how communities respond to disturbance associated with anthropogenic change. I investigated the relative role environmental variables play in the processes that structure the taxonomic and functional diversity of stream fish communities, as well as historical trends in occurrence and local habitat associated with a species of greatest conservation need within east Texas. The results of this study indicate that stream sites with more habitat complexity and stability support a more taxonomically and ...


Fluctuating Parasite Prevalence Is Not Linked To Patterns Of Mhc Class Ii-ß Diversity In An Island Endemic Reptile, Gina Zwicky 2022 University of New Orleans

Fluctuating Parasite Prevalence Is Not Linked To Patterns Of Mhc Class Ii-ß Diversity In An Island Endemic Reptile, Gina Zwicky

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Few studies have explored the evolutionary mechanisms that maintain adaptive immunogenetic diversity in nature. We took advantage of museum samples to test for evidence of parasite-mediated fluctuating selection at MHC Class II-ß loci in an endemic island reptile. The Saban anole Anolis sabanus is commonly infected with three species of malaria (Plasmodium). Proportions of each parasite species detected in anole blood samples fluctuated over space and time, suggesting competitive interactions between parasites or differences in vector ecology. Our analyses of parasite prevalence and MHC Class II-ß allelic variation found that malaria infection was not associated with patterns of host immunogenetic ...


Supertertiary Structural Dynamics Modulate Function In Postsynaptic Density Protein 95, George L. Hamilton III 2022 Clemson University

Supertertiary Structural Dynamics Modulate Function In Postsynaptic Density Protein 95, George L. Hamilton Iii

All Dissertations

Proteins, RNA, and DNA serve as the primary sub-cellular machinery that give rise to the necessary functions of life. The long-standing paradigm has been that the structures of biomolecules, or the arrangement of the subunits that make up a biomolecule, determine biological function. However, biomolecules are not static objects. Instead, they often undergo structural rearrangements that are crucial to enabling and regulating their functions. In my thesis I present several studies of the interplay between the structures, dynamics, and functions of biomolecules that combine experimental fluorescence spectroscopy and computational methods to probe these systems at the single-molecule level. In particular ...


Use Of Intramodal Odor Cues In Shelter Recognition By An Amblypygid, Nathan Bostelman 2022 Bowling Green State University

Use Of Intramodal Odor Cues In Shelter Recognition By An Amblypygid, Nathan Bostelman

Honors Projects

Amblypygids are nocturnal arthropods which live in cluttered habitats and possess the ability to navigate home after displacements of up to ten meters. Homing amblypygids rely on olfactory and tactile information gathered by their antenniform legs to navigate successfully. Given that odor signals encountered in nature are complex and dynamic, navigation via olfaction presents unique challenges related to signal uncertainty. To understand how amblypygids perceive perceive complex odors and what they learn from them, individuals of the subtropical amblypygid P. marginemaculatus were trained to associate a blend of two odors with a shelter and tested on three treatments: the reinforced ...


Laurier Biology Departmental Seminars Poster Colouring Book (Vol 1), Tristan A.F. Long 2022 Wilfrid Laurier University

Laurier Biology Departmental Seminars Poster Colouring Book (Vol 1), Tristan A.F. Long

Biology Faculty Publications

Departmental seminar posters are largely utilitarian affairs – who is talking?, when are they speaking?, where is the seminar? (and maybe will there will be refreshments served?). While functional, they often fail to capture the beauty and excitement of their subject matter, and may fail to engage a wider audience. As the organizer of the Wilfrid Laurier University Department of Biology seminar series in 2014, on a lark, I started drawing posters that tried to illustrate our speaker’s research in a non-conventional manner, and hopefully appeal to those that might otherwise find attending a departmental seminar intimidating. Little did I ...


New Ant In The Big City: Known Natural History Of Lasius Cf. Emarginatus In Its Native Range And Potential Impacts Of Recent Us Introduction, Samantha M. Kennett, Clint A. Penick 2022 Kennesaw State University

New Ant In The Big City: Known Natural History Of Lasius Cf. Emarginatus In Its Native Range And Potential Impacts Of Recent Us Introduction, Samantha M. Kennett, Clint A. Penick

Symposium of Student Scholars

New York City has been the site of introduction for some of North America’s most damaging invasive pests, from chestnut blight to the Asian long-horned beetle. Despite these cautionary examples, there has been no formal tracking of a newly introduced ant species, Lasius cf. emarginatus, which has quickly become among the most common species in the city. Sometime between the first ant diversity survey of New York City in 2006 and the second in 2011,L. cf. emarginatus was introduced and quickly became established in the most urban habitats with the highest human contact. In contrast to other urban ...


Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Evades Predation By Myxococcus Xanthus, Sarah Joie Beauvais 2022 Kennesaw State University

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Evades Predation By Myxococcus Xanthus, Sarah Joie Beauvais

Symposium of Student Scholars

Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes an estimated 32,600 hospital-acquired-infections and 2,700 estimated deaths in the US in 2017(CDC). Myxococcus xanthus is a strain of myxobacteria that preys on Pseudomonas sp, through the production of antibiotics and digestive enzymes. In previous experiments, P. aeruginosa evaded predation, through an unknown mechanism. Using confocal microscopy, this research investigates if quorum sensing, a cell density-dependent signaling pathway, could be a factor in motility and evasion of M. xanthus. Liquid suspensions of log-phase PA01 were dyed with two fluorescent dyes: SYTO 9 for marking live cells and Propidium iodide (PI) for marking dead ...


From Individuals To Communities: The Effect Of Climate Change On Ectothermic Predators, Matthew Lawrence Meehan 2022 The University of Western Ontario

From Individuals To Communities: The Effect Of Climate Change On Ectothermic Predators, Matthew Lawrence Meehan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The living components of ecological systems exist within a nested hierarchy, consisting of individuals, populations, and communities. Because of this nestedness, climate change can greatly impact ecological systems, as whole-organism metabolic and physiological demands change for ectotherms under warming, the effects of which may compound with every succeeding level. Therefore, a multi-level approach can better isolate how climate change will reshape ecological systems. In my doctoral research, I used feeding and mesocosm experiments to examine how climate change affects ectothermic predators at the individual-, population-, and community-level, using mesostigmatic mites (Arachnida: Parasitiformes) as my model predator. My research objectives were ...


Salicylic Acid And N-Hydroxypipecolic Acid At The Fulcrum Of The Plant Immunity-Growth Equilibrium, Alyssa Shields, Vanessa Shivnauth, Christian Danve M. Castroverde 2022 Wilfrid Laurier University

Salicylic Acid And N-Hydroxypipecolic Acid At The Fulcrum Of The Plant Immunity-Growth Equilibrium, Alyssa Shields, Vanessa Shivnauth, Christian Danve M. Castroverde

Biology Faculty Publications

Salicylic acid (SA) and N-hydroxypipecolic acid (NHP) are two central plant immune signals involved in both resistance at local sites of pathogen infection (basal resistance) and at distal uninfected sites after primary infection (systemic acquired resistance). Major discoveries and advances have led to deeper understanding of their biosynthesis and signaling during plant defense responses. In addition to their well-defined roles in immunity, recent research is emerging on their direct mechanistic impacts on plant growth and development. In this review, we will first provide an overview of how SA and NHP regulate local and systemic immune responses in plants. We ...


Phylogenomic Discordance Suggests Polytomies Along The Backbone Of The Large Genus Solanum, Edeline Gagnon, Rebeccca Hilgenhof, Andrés Orejuela, Angela J. McDonnell, Gaurav Sablok, Xavier Aubriot, Leandro Giacomin, Yuri Gouvêa, Thamyris Bragionis, João Renato Stehmann, Lynn Bohs, Steven Dodsworth, Christopher T. Martine, Péter Poczai, Sandra Knapp, Tiina Särkinen 2022 Chicago Botanic Garden

Phylogenomic Discordance Suggests Polytomies Along The Backbone Of The Large Genus Solanum, Edeline Gagnon, Rebeccca Hilgenhof, Andrés Orejuela, Angela J. Mcdonnell, Gaurav Sablok, Xavier Aubriot, Leandro Giacomin, Yuri Gouvêa, Thamyris Bragionis, João Renato Stehmann, Lynn Bohs, Steven Dodsworth, Christopher T. Martine, Péter Poczai, Sandra Knapp, Tiina Särkinen

Faculty Journal Articles

Premise of the study

Evolutionary studies require solid phylogenetic frameworks, but increased volumes of phylogenomic data have revealed incongruent topologies among gene trees in many organisms both between and within genomes. Some of these incongruences indicate polytomies that may remain impossible to resolve. Here we investigate the degree of gene-tree discordance in Solanum, one of the largest flowering plant genera that includes the cultivated potato, tomato, and eggplant, as well as 24 minor crop plants.

Methods

A densely sampled species-level phylogeny of Solanum is built using unpublished and publicly available Sanger sequences comprising 60% of all accepted species (742 spp ...


Factorbook: An Updated Catalog Of Transcription Factor Motifs And Candidate Regulatory Motif Sites, Henry E. Pratt, Gregory Andrews, Nishigandha Phalke, Michael J. Purcaro, Arjan van der Velde, Jill E. Moore, Zhiping Weng 2022 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Factorbook: An Updated Catalog Of Transcription Factor Motifs And Candidate Regulatory Motif Sites, Henry E. Pratt, Gregory Andrews, Nishigandha Phalke, Michael J. Purcaro, Arjan Van Der Velde, Jill E. Moore, Zhiping Weng

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

The human genome contains approximately 2000 transcriptional regulatory proteins, including approximately 1600 DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) recognizing characteristic sequence motifs to exert regulatory effects on gene expression. The binding specificities of these factors have been profiled both in vitro, using techniques such as HT-SELEX, and in vivo, using techniques including ChIP-seq. We previously developed Factorbook, a TF-centric database of annotations, motifs, and integrative analyses based on ChIP-seq data from Phase II of the ENCODE Project. Here we present an update to Factorbook which significantly expands the breadth of cell type and TF coverage. The update includes an expanded motif catalog ...


3d Bioprinted Structures From Cells Of Non-Epithelial Mesodermal And Endodermal Lineage Using A Custom Accessible 3d Bioprinting Platform, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Annette Berkin, Patrick C. Sachs, Robert D. Bruno 2022 Old Dominion University

3d Bioprinted Structures From Cells Of Non-Epithelial Mesodermal And Endodermal Lineage Using A Custom Accessible 3d Bioprinting Platform, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Annette Berkin, Patrick C. Sachs, Robert D. Bruno

College of Engineering & Technology (Batten) Posters

Prior work within our lab has demonstrated the ability to print both murine and human mammary organoids and tumoroids in vitro that can also be reliably transplanted into a murine host for translational studies. Peripherally, this bioprinting system has also been used for 3D printing neurons, stem cells, cancer cells, and a primary cell line rich with fibroblasts, but each of these efforts were with cells of ectodermal lineage. Thus, the system's capacity for use on cells of other origins had been untested. To address this, we have now developed protocols for cells of endodermal and non-epithelial mesodermal/mesenchymal ...


Sex And Starvation Influences Latrotoxin Expression In The Brown Widow Spider, Mattie Harris 2022 Georgia Southern University

Sex And Starvation Influences Latrotoxin Expression In The Brown Widow Spider, Mattie Harris

Honors College Theses

Widow spiders (genus Latrodectus) are well-known for their potent venom. Seven latrotoxin proteins constitute the main components of widow spider venom. The vertebrate specific (α-latrotoxin) and insect specific (α-latroinsectotoxin) latrotoxins have been well-characterized with respect to structure and function. Regulation of latrotoxin gene expression is not well understood but sex and feeding could be factors influencing production. In this study, I used quantitative qPCR to (1) characterize the expression patterns of both the insect and vertebrate specific latrotoxins in male and female brown widow spiders (Latrodectus geometricus) to characterize sex-biased expression and to (2) study expression patterns when female spiders ...


Physiological And Biochemical Thermal Stress Conditions Of The Ribbed Mussel, Geukensia Demissa, From Exposed And Less Exposed Areas In The Intertidal Salt Marsh On Tybee Island, Georgia., Jody E. Erber 2022 Georgia Southern University

Physiological And Biochemical Thermal Stress Conditions Of The Ribbed Mussel, Geukensia Demissa, From Exposed And Less Exposed Areas In The Intertidal Salt Marsh On Tybee Island, Georgia., Jody E. Erber

Honors College Theses

Geukensia demissa, the ribbed mussel, is a keystone species of Georgia’s coastline that is at risk of experiencing detrimental thermal stress due to climate change. G. demissa interacts positively with a species of salt marsh cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora. Mussels form aggregates beneath salt marsh cordgrass stems where they are shaded and less exposed to sun rays. However, some mussels end up in areas which lack cordgrass and are directly exposed to sun rays. Body temperatures of mussels from exposed areas were found to be higher than mussels from less exposed areas. Thermal stress levels of mussels can be indicated ...


Understanding The Effects Of Embryonic Hyperglycemia On Retinal Development And Maintenance, Kayla Titialii-Torres 2022 University of Kentucky

Understanding The Effects Of Embryonic Hyperglycemia On Retinal Development And Maintenance, Kayla Titialii-Torres

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Hundreds of millions of people are affected by diabetes worldwide. Whether they are diagnosed with prediabetes or Type I or II diabetes, there are a variety of mechanisms in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Diabetes is a disease which consists of recurring states of hyperglycemia that can be difficult to manage due to either lack of insulin production or improper utilization of insulin. While these mechanisms of action differ, complications induced by diabetes occur in both poorly regulated Type I and II. Common complications of diabetes include nerve damage, kidney damage, and eye damage. Eye damage specifically is called diabetic retinopathy ...


Activity Patterns Of The Del Norte Salamander (Plethodon Elongatus): Monitoring Plethodontid Behavior Using Pit Tag Surveys, Sabrina Horrack 2022 Cal Poly Humboldt

Activity Patterns Of The Del Norte Salamander (Plethodon Elongatus): Monitoring Plethodontid Behavior Using Pit Tag Surveys, Sabrina Horrack

Cal Poly Humboldt theses and projects

Semi-fossorial plethodontid salamanders exhibit behavioral plasticity to avoid desiccation, retreating underground to shelter from adverse conditions such as low precipitation and high temperatures. In this study, I used passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag surveys to monitor this behavior in the Del Norte salamander (Plethodon elongatus), a small plethodontid native to northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. Within its range, a climatic gradient exists in which coastal areas experience milder temperatures and high precipitation, while inland areas tend to have colder winters, hotter summers, and lower precipitation. By monitoring the activity patterns of this species in inland and coastal areas, I aimed ...


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