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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Future Colorado River Basin Drought And Surplus, Rama Bedri, Thomas Piechota Dec 2022

Future Colorado River Basin Drought And Surplus, Rama Bedri, Thomas Piechota

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Historical and future drought and surplus periods in the Colorado River basin are evaluated based on eight climate scenarios. Unimpaired streamflow from 17 stations in the Colorado River are evaluated based on U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, and Coupled Modeled Intercomparison Projection 5 downscaled data from 1950–2099. Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 emission scenarios are considered for four climate models (HadGEM2-ES, CNRM-CM5, CanESM2, MI-ROC5). Drought (surplus) quantities, magnitudes, severities, and water year flows are compared for the historical and future periods. Results indicate that there is a significant difference between the historical record and future projections. The …


Decreasing Trash In Local Creeks: A Program Evaluation Of The City Of San Jose’S Direct Discharge Trash Control Program, Lakeisha Bryant Dec 2022

Decreasing Trash In Local Creeks: A Program Evaluation Of The City Of San Jose’S Direct Discharge Trash Control Program, Lakeisha Bryant

Master's Projects

The entire San Francisco Bay was once a navigable waterway in the 1850s during the Gold Rush era. Large amounts of sediment from upstream erosion and mining flowed to the bay resulting in the downsizing of the bay’s square miles (Environmental Protection Agency, 2022). As a result of intense development on the bay shores and adjacent lands, the bay faces several challenges that affect its water quality and threatens aquatic ecosystems. Pesticides, mercury, metals, and pathogens are just a few substances in the bay that cause unhealthy conditions for aquatic life and threaten human health. California’s Water Resources Control Board …


Drought Levels In Nevada Counties, 2022, Julianna Jovillar, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Dec 2022

Drought Levels In Nevada Counties, 2022, Julianna Jovillar, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Environment

This fact sheet synthesizes data on drought levels within Nevada counties from the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) in 2022. The information presented in this document focuses on the breakdown of the number of Nevada residents affected by the droughts within each county and the drought experience in each county.


Phosphorus Transfer To River Water From Grassland Catchments In Ireland, H. Tunney, P. Jordan, G. Kiely, R. Moles, G. Morgan, P. Byrne, W. Menary, K. Daly Nov 2022

Phosphorus Transfer To River Water From Grassland Catchments In Ireland, H. Tunney, P. Jordan, G. Kiely, R. Moles, G. Morgan, P. Byrne, W. Menary, K. Daly

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In Ireland it is estimated that at least half of phosphorus (P) loss to water is from agricultural sources and National and European Union policy and legislation aim at reducing phosphorus (P) loss to water in order to reduce eutrophication. In Ireland, the average soil test P (STP) levels increased ten-fold, from less than 1 to over 8 mg Morgan P per l soil over the past 50 years, reflecting increased P inputs in fertiliser and animal feed. One of the main objectives of this three-year research programme, started in 2001, was to investigate P loss to water in grassland …


A Scarcity Of Biospheric Values In Local And Regional Reporting Of Water Issues: Media Coverage In The Floridan Aquifer Region, Sadie Hundemer, Debbie Treise, Martha Monroe Jul 2022

A Scarcity Of Biospheric Values In Local And Regional Reporting Of Water Issues: Media Coverage In The Floridan Aquifer Region, Sadie Hundemer, Debbie Treise, Martha Monroe

Journal of Applied Communications

The values invoked by journalists in the reporting of water issues influence public support for water policy and the assessment of water tradeoffs. This qualitative framing analysis of water coverage from six newspapers in the Floridan aquifer region from 2010 to 2018 reveals the values used to stimulate reader engagement on a range of water challenges including weather, residential behavior, agriculture, algae, industry, springs, energy, municipalities, and fecal matter. Results reveal a hierarchy of value frames that prioritizes economics and human health, thereby attending primarily to the motivations of egoistic and social-altruistic individuals. The ecosystem implications of deteriorated water conditions, …


Grotthuss Molecular Dynamics Simulations For Modeling Proton Hopping In Electrosprayed Water Droplets., Lars Konermann, Scott Kim Jun 2022

Grotthuss Molecular Dynamics Simulations For Modeling Proton Hopping In Electrosprayed Water Droplets., Lars Konermann, Scott Kim

Chemistry Publications

Excess protons in water exhibit unique transport properties because they can rapidly hop along H-bonded water wires. Considerable progress has been made in unraveling this Grotthuss diffusion mechanism using quantum mechanical-based computational techniques. Unfortunately, high computational cost tends to restrict those techniques to small systems and short times. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can be applied to much larger systems and longer time windows. However, standard MD methods do not permit the dissociation/formation of covalent bonds, such that Grotthuss diffusion cannot be captured. Here, we bridge this gap by combining atomistic MD simulations (using Gromacs and TIP4P/2005 water) with proton hopping. …


Photocatalytic Degradation Of Organic Contaminants By Titania Particles Produced By Flame Spray Pyrolysis, Noah Babik May 2022

Photocatalytic Degradation Of Organic Contaminants By Titania Particles Produced By Flame Spray Pyrolysis, Noah Babik

Theses and Dissertations

Advanced oxidation of organic pollutants with TiO2 photocatalysts is limited due to the wide bandgap of TiO2, 3.2 eV, which requires ultraviolet (UV) radiation. When nanosized TiO2 is modified by carbon doping, charge recombination is inhibited and the bandgap is narrowed, allowing for efficient photodegradation under visible light. Here, we propose a flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) technique to create TiO2. The facile process of FSP has been successful in preparing highly crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles. Using the same procedure to deposit TiO2 onto biochar, the photocatalyst was doped by the carbonaceous material. The morphology, crystalline and electronic structure of the FSP …


Point Of Use Technologies To Increase Access To Clean Water In Rural Communities, Elena Arroway May 2022

Point Of Use Technologies To Increase Access To Clean Water In Rural Communities, Elena Arroway

Undergraduate Theses, Capstones, and Recitals

Access to clean water is an issue that many communities around the world struggle with. While large-scale efforts such as piping infrastructure have been successful, these are less effective at reaching small, rural communities. To supplement these efforts, point of use (POU) methods for water treatment can be implemented. These include boiling, chemical treatment, filters, and several additional technologies. These have all shown effectiveness in a lab setting, but their implementation in the real world, specifically in rural communities, has not been nearly as effective. In this paper, several different POU methods are evaluated for their effectiveness on a small-scale, …


Identifying The Isotopic Signature Of Lake-Effect Precipitation In Shallow Groundwater, Andrew Brown May 2022

Identifying The Isotopic Signature Of Lake-Effect Precipitation In Shallow Groundwater, Andrew Brown

Honors Projects

Three different stable isotopes of water occur in nature, with the majority of water on Earth containing the oxygen isotope 16O. These isotopes have slightly differing physical and chemical properties. H2O with heavier oxygen isotopes should theoretically precipitate earlier than lighter isotope H2O, meaning this natural process should allow for the observation of the magnitude of effects of lake-effect precipitation on the basis of water isotope differences. Furthermore, it may allow for better understanding of the significance lake-effect precipitation plays in recharging shallow aquifers. In this study, patterns of lake-effect precipitation from Lake Michigan were observed in a collection of …


Assessing Potential Of Dual Use Solar Development In New Jersey Preserved Farmlands, Gary Ryan Chapman May 2022

Assessing Potential Of Dual Use Solar Development In New Jersey Preserved Farmlands, Gary Ryan Chapman

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

The dual use of farmland and the incorporation of solar energy has the potential to maximize the net returns per acre and utilization capabilities. Land is one of the most vital and nonrenewable resources that is often solely used for one purpose. This study focuses on analyzing three objectives: 1) To explore the potential of Agrivoltaic Farming (dual use) on preserved farmland in New Jersey. 2) To estimate the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of New Jersey’s dual use potential. 3) To generate sensitivity analyses of dual use solar and farm production in New Jersey. This study analyzed New Jersey’s …


Generating The Power Of Microbes How Microbial Metabolism May Solve Water And Energy Shortages, Anna Vietmeier Mar 2022

Generating The Power Of Microbes How Microbial Metabolism May Solve Water And Energy Shortages, Anna Vietmeier

D.U.Quark

No abstract provided.


Grasslands For Production And The Environment, David R. Kemp, David L. Michalk Mar 2022

Grasslands For Production And The Environment, David R. Kemp, David L. Michalk

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Key points

1. To manage grasslands for production and enhanced environmental values requires a redefinition of the frameworks within which management decisions are made, and a tailoring of practices to suit the ways that farmers operate.

2. Improving the perenniality and permanence of grasslands usually leads to better environmental and production outcomes.

3. There is a case for a more conservative approach to utilising grasslands in order to sustain the functioning of local ecosystems and to improve water quality, nutrient and energy cycling and biodiversity.

4. A landscape rather than paddock focus is more appropriate for meeting current grassland management …


Nebraska Statewide Groundwater-Level Monitoring Report 2021, Aaron R. Young, Mark E. Burbach, Leslie M. Howard, Sue Olafsen Lackey, Robert Matthew Joeckel Mar 2022

Nebraska Statewide Groundwater-Level Monitoring Report 2021, Aaron R. Young, Mark E. Burbach, Leslie M. Howard, Sue Olafsen Lackey, Robert Matthew Joeckel

Conservation and Survey Division

This report is a synthesis of groundwater-level monitoring programs in Nebraska. It is a continuation of the series of annual reports and maps produced by the Conservation and Survey Division (CSD) of the University of Nebraska in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the 1950s. Groundwater-level monitoring began in Nebraska in 1930 in an effort to survey the state’s groundwater resources and to observe changes in its availability on a continuing basis. The CSD and USGS cooperatively developed, maintained, and operated an observation-well network throughout the state. These two agencies were responsible for collecting and archiving this information, …


Women And Water: Lessons Learned From A Humanitarian Intervention At Igusi Clinic, Matabeleland, Zimbabwe, Rachel C. Svetanoff, Ifeoma Ilobodo Feb 2022

Women And Water: Lessons Learned From A Humanitarian Intervention At Igusi Clinic, Matabeleland, Zimbabwe, Rachel C. Svetanoff, Ifeoma Ilobodo

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

This article highlights the disproportionate impact of water scarcity on women and girls in Matabeleland, Zimbabwe. We emphasize one Zimbabwean woman's efforts to implement a sustainable water solution for a community of 20,000 citizens. Lumbie Mlambo, Founder and President of the nonprofit JB Dondolo, Inc., took action following reports that people in the community her father was aiding were falling ill, mothers could not carry their pregnancy to full terms, and infant mortality rates were rising. Before Lumbie's intervention, the only water available was contaminated by polluted soil. Moreover, the climate change-induced droughts and floods made the potable water hard …


Water-Based Lead Generation, Brian Olson Feb 2022

Water-Based Lead Generation, Brian Olson

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Water-based Lead Generation. The opioid epidemic and the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are current serious challenges whose devastating effects could be assuaged through the development of new drugs. Opioids that are functional painkillers, that are less likely to cause overdose, and small molecule drugs that could inhibit the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 would be useful. The work herein investigated the use of water molecules for lead generation in drug development against opioid receptors and SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. In opioid receptor binding sites, purported bridging waters were obtained from crystal waters or from molecular dynamics simulations, as Hydration Site Analysis was used to …


Essays On Strategic Choices Over Impaired Water Quality, Angela Gunn Jan 2022

Essays On Strategic Choices Over Impaired Water Quality, Angela Gunn

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation studies the strategic choices made by both governments and private citizens in relation to impairment of water quality over both surface and drinking water in the United States. In the first chapter, I investigate whether delegating responsibility for surface water quality management to state governments generates negative externalities against downstream neighboring states. To separate the effect of state-level policy from other sources of water quality variation, I rely on the staggered roll-out of state water management programs under the Clean Water Act to conduct a difference-in-difference analysis. I find that water quality declines in downstream states in response …


Strength In Numbers: Avian Influenza A Virus Transmission To Poultry From A Flocking Passerine, J. Jeffrey Root, Jeremy W. Ellis, Susan A. Shriner Jan 2022

Strength In Numbers: Avian Influenza A Virus Transmission To Poultry From A Flocking Passerine, J. Jeffrey Root, Jeremy W. Ellis, Susan A. Shriner

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

The effects of flock size of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) was experimentally manipulated to assess the potential of influenza A virus (IAV; H4N6) transmission from a flocking passerine to bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) through shared food and water resources to mimic starling intrusions into free-range and backyard poultry operations. Of the three starling flock sizes tested (n = 30, n = 20 and n = 10), all successfully transmitted the virus to all or most of the quail in each animal room (6/6, 6/6 and 5/6) by the end of the experimental period, as determined by seroconversion and/or viral RNAshedding. …


Supramolecular Solvent-Based Microextraction For The Preconcentration Of Pb2+ Andcd2+ Prior To Spectrophotometric Detection, Huma Zafar, Faheem Shah, Rafaqat Ali Khan, Asad Muhammad Khan, Jan Nisar, Bushra Ismail Jan 2022

Supramolecular Solvent-Based Microextraction For The Preconcentration Of Pb2+ Andcd2+ Prior To Spectrophotometric Detection, Huma Zafar, Faheem Shah, Rafaqat Ali Khan, Asad Muhammad Khan, Jan Nisar, Bushra Ismail

Turkish Journal of Chemistry

Supramolecular solvent-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique has been developed as a preconcentration tool for the determination of trace level of Pb2+ and Cd2+. Dodecanol dispersed in tetrahydrofuran has been utilized as a supramolecular-solvent system for the extraction of analytes prior to their quantitative determination with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Both Pb2+ and Cd2+, which were efficiently extracted by supramolecular solvent system, were complexed with dithizone followed by the addition of supramolecular solvent. The experimental variables that could possibly influence the extraction efficiency, i.e. pH value, temperature, sample volume, centrifugation time, rate of centrifugation, ionic strength, etc. were subjected to …


Schiff Base Functionalized Silica Gel For Simultaneous Separation And Preconcentration Of Cu(Ii), Ni(Ii), And Cd(Ii) In Pharmaceuticals And Water Samples, Feyzullah Tokay, Sema Bağdat Jan 2022

Schiff Base Functionalized Silica Gel For Simultaneous Separation And Preconcentration Of Cu(Ii), Ni(Ii), And Cd(Ii) In Pharmaceuticals And Water Samples, Feyzullah Tokay, Sema Bağdat

Turkish Journal of Chemistry

A method for separation and preconcentration of Cu(II), Ni(II), and Cd(II) using N-N'-bis(5-methoxsalicylidene)-2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediamine modified silica gel was improved for aqueous samples and pharmaceuticals. Determination of the analytes was achieved by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry. The experimental conditions including pH value, sample volume, eluent type and volume, sorbent mass, sample, and eluent flow rates were optimized with univariate and multivariate optimization tools. The relative standard deviations of the method were 2.9% for Cu(II), 3.0% for Ni(II), and 3.3% for Cd(II) with recovery values between 98.8 ± 3.2-101.5 ± 3.0%. The limits of detection were found to be 62.4, 39.5, …


Scale-Up Of Flow-Electrode Capacitive Deionization Method For Hard Water Softening, Noah Henry Jan 2022

Scale-Up Of Flow-Electrode Capacitive Deionization Method For Hard Water Softening, Noah Henry

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This study’s purpose is to further document a capacitive deionization design that could be capable of purifying H2O at a household scale where clean water is otherwise unobtainable in applicable regions of the world. The hypothesis behind this study was continuously larger scaled electrochemical cell-units would increase their water softening capabilities in sustainable fashion. The trend at which performance will scale is currently unknown. The units studied were constructed using graphite plates, anion exchange membranes, cation exchange membranes, and Teflon channels. Three streams, two being CaCl2 solutions in DI H2O (one being concentrated with CaCl …


Present And Future Thermal Regimes Of Intertidal Groundwater Springs In A Threatened Coastal Ecosystem, Jason J. Karrisallen, Aaron A. Mohammed, Joseph Tamborski, Rob C. Jamieson, Serban Danielescu, Barret L. Kurylyk Jan 2022

Present And Future Thermal Regimes Of Intertidal Groundwater Springs In A Threatened Coastal Ecosystem, Jason J. Karrisallen, Aaron A. Mohammed, Joseph Tamborski, Rob C. Jamieson, Serban Danielescu, Barret L. Kurylyk

OES Faculty Publications

In inland settings, groundwater discharge thermally modulates receiving surface water bodies and provides localized thermal refuges; however, the thermal influence of intertidal springs on coastal waters and their thermal sensitivity to climate change are not well studied. We addressed this knowledge gap with a field- and model-based study of a threatened coastal lagoon ecosystem in southeastern Canada. We paired analyses of drone-based thermal imagery with in situ thermal and hydrologic monitoring to estimate discharge to the lagoon from intertidal springs and groundwater-dominated streams in summer 2020. Results, which were generally supported by independent radon-based groundwater discharge estimates, revealed that combined …


Drought Tolerant Landscaping Trends In Claremont, California, Serena Myjer Jan 2022

Drought Tolerant Landscaping Trends In Claremont, California, Serena Myjer

CMC Senior Theses

The environmental impacts of turf grass lawns are particularly important to consider in California, because of its unique Mediterranean climate and ongoing problems with chronic drought. While California is ideal for agriculture, recreation, and year-round living, the occurrence of drought is natural and not uncommon, evident in historical human and paleoclimate records. Drought impacts humans and wildlife including water scarcity, crop failure, water quality, reduced streamflow, and wetland availability. Diverting water from these critical sources for growing turf grass lawns is inappropriate and harmful. This project is the first analysis of landscaping patterns, trends, and changes in Claremont, California using …


California Drought Outlooks Based On Climate Change Models’ Effects On Water Availability, Lauren Lynam, Thomas Piechota Nov 2021

California Drought Outlooks Based On Climate Change Models’ Effects On Water Availability, Lauren Lynam, Thomas Piechota

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Future streamflow in California is evaluated based on eight climate projections models and the effects on water availability. The unimpaired projected streamflow for eleven California rivers, collected from Cal-Adapt, are compared with unimpaired historical flows (1950–2015) using eight climate model projections (2020–2099) identified as representative as possible future scenarios; Warm Dry RCP 4.5, Average RCP 4.5, Cool Wet RCP 4.5, Other RCP 4.5, Warm Dry RCP 8.5, Average RCP 8.5, Cool Wet RCP 8.5, and Other RCP 8.5. Projected drought deficits (or magnitudes), durations, and intensities are statistically tested against historical values to determine significance of differences between past streamflow …


Ultrasound Regulated Flexible Protein Materials: Fabrication, Structure And Physical-Biological Properties., Bowen Cai, Hanling Gu, Fang Wang, Kyle Printon, Zhenggui Gu, Xiao Hu Nov 2021

Ultrasound Regulated Flexible Protein Materials: Fabrication, Structure And Physical-Biological Properties., Bowen Cai, Hanling Gu, Fang Wang, Kyle Printon, Zhenggui Gu, Xiao Hu

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

Ultrasound can be used in the biomaterial field due to its high efficiency, easy operation, no chemical treatment, repeatability and high level of control. In this work, we demonstrated that ultrasound is able to quickly regulate protein structure at the solution assembly stage to obtain the designed properties of protein-based materials. Silk fibroin proteins dissolved in a formic acid-CaCl solution system were treated in an ultrasound with varying times and powers. By altering these variables, the silks physical properties and structures can be fine-tuned and the results were investigated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron …


Physical And Chemical Properties Of Soil, Water And Air Around Ukawu Pb-Zn Mine, Southeastern Nigeria, Nwachukwu Arthur Nwachukwu, Sikakwe Gregory Udie, Eluwa Ndidiamaka Nchedo, Uwa Clementina Ukamaka, Oluwatoyin Oluwatosin Olaosebikan Jun 2021

Physical And Chemical Properties Of Soil, Water And Air Around Ukawu Pb-Zn Mine, Southeastern Nigeria, Nwachukwu Arthur Nwachukwu, Sikakwe Gregory Udie, Eluwa Ndidiamaka Nchedo, Uwa Clementina Ukamaka, Oluwatoyin Oluwatosin Olaosebikan

Makara Journal of Science

In this study, analysis of water, and soil samples, air quality, and noise levels in Ukawu Pb-Zn mine were examined. The pH of the water samples, at 6.7, exceeded permissible levels for potable water established by the National Environmental Standard Regulatory Agency (NESREA), European Union, and World Health Organization (i.e., 7.0-8.5). The soil pH was 5.2, which indicates acidity due to acid mine drainage. Low soil pH is evidence of acid mine drainage. All cations detected in water and soil were below standard limits considered harmful by the NESREA. Measurements of precursor gases, such as O3, NO2 …


A Theoretical Study Of Synchronous Proton Transfer In (Hf)N, (H2O) N, And (Hcl) N Where N = 3, 4, 5, Johnny Yang May 2021

A Theoretical Study Of Synchronous Proton Transfer In (Hf)N, (H2O) N, And (Hcl) N Where N = 3, 4, 5, Johnny Yang

Honors Theses

For (HF)n, (H2O)n, and (HCl)n (n = 3 − 5), we have rigorously characterized the structures for the minima and transition states for synchronous proton transfer (SPT) with the CCSD(T) method and aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. The electronic barrier heights (∆E) associated with these transition states have also been computed with the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12 method and the aug-cc-pVQZ-F12 basis set (abbreviated aQZ-F12). (HCl)n (n = 3 − 5) SPT transition states have not been previously identified to the best of our knowledge, and they have been found …


Terra Dispositions: A Lithospheric Investigation Of Wet-Matter, Alec Rovensky May 2021

Terra Dispositions: A Lithospheric Investigation Of Wet-Matter, Alec Rovensky

Architecture Senior Theses

Human intervention of the landscape by damming, filling wetlands and over-extracting is resulting in the rapid perversion of water bodies through the desertification or flooding of terrain and the ensuing contamination of reservoirs. In turn, these changes are disrupting ecosystems, reshaping geological borders, and causing irreversible damage that poses a threat to clean water supplies. As humans exert agency over local hydrology, there is scarce consideration of the ensuing ecological consequences. This thesis aims to expose the ecological transformations of territories laced with human agency by examining the residues left by water in order to deviate from the misplaced nostalgia …


Informing Drought Mitigation Policy By Estimating The Value Of Water For Crop Production, Renata Rimsaite, Justin Gibson, Nicholas Brozovic Apr 2021

Informing Drought Mitigation Policy By Estimating The Value Of Water For Crop Production, Renata Rimsaite, Justin Gibson, Nicholas Brozovic

Papers in Natural Resources

Farmers use irrigation to mitigate drought risk and reduce yield uncertainty. A clear understanding of the monetary value of irrigation water and how it varies across time and space can help to inform farmers and policymakers about the potential impacts of water shortages and reduce uncertainty in decision making. Here, we introduce a framework for understanding the economic value of water used to produce corn in the central High Plains region during the period 2010–2017. Our analysis uses publicly available data for corn price and for irrigated and non-irrigated yields and incorporates irrigation requirement adjustments to account for the hydrologic …


Can CP Be Less Than CV?, Yingbin Ge, Samuel L. Montgomery, Gabriel L. Borrello Apr 2021

Can CP Be Less Than CV?, Yingbin Ge, Samuel L. Montgomery, Gabriel L. Borrello

All Faculty Scholarship for the College of the Sciences

Can CP be less than CV? This is a fundamental question in physics, chemistry, chemical engineering, and mechanical engineering. This question hangs in the minds of many students, instructors, and researchers. The first instinct is to answer “Yes, for water between 0 and 4 °C” if one knows that water expands as temperature decreases in this temperature range. The same question is asked in several Physical Chemistry and Physics textbooks. Students are supposed to answer that water contracts when heated at below 4 °C in an isobaric process. Because work is done to the contracting water, less …


Carbonatite Metasomatism And Water Systematics Of Peridotite Xenoliths From Lanzarote, Canaries, Sierra N. Patterson Apr 2021

Carbonatite Metasomatism And Water Systematics Of Peridotite Xenoliths From Lanzarote, Canaries, Sierra N. Patterson

Theses and Dissertations

Water in Earth’s mantle, present as structurally bound hydrogen in minerals, influences large scale processes like mantle deformation, plate tectonics, and melting. To better understand the processes controlling water concentrations in the Earth’s upper mantle, we analyzed hydrogen (calculated as ppm wt. H2O), major, and trace element concentrations in minerals from peridotite mantle xenoliths of Lanzarote, Canaries. The Canaries Islands are thought to be the surface expression of a deep-seated mantle plume erupting through the Atlantic Ocean lithosphere. Carbonatite magmas have erupted in the Canaries and previous studies have shown evidence for carbonatite metasomatism in Lanzarote peridotites. Thus, …