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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Chromium Speciation In Water Using Magnetic Polyaniline Nanoparticles Coupled With Microsampling Injection-Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Osman Çaylak Feb 2024

Chromium Speciation In Water Using Magnetic Polyaniline Nanoparticles Coupled With Microsampling Injection-Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Osman Çaylak

Turkish Journal of Chemistry

The chromium speciation procedure was optimized using magnetic polyaniline nanoparticles (Fe3O4@PANI NPs) solid-phase extraction coupled with microsampling injection-flame atomic absorption spectrometry (MIS-FAAS). Chromium speciation was successfully achieved by Fe3O4@PANI NPs at pH 8.0. The recoveries obtained for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were above 95% and under 5%, respectively. Recoveries of over 95% for Cr(III) from 40.0 mL of the sample were obtained using 25 mg Fe3O4@PANI NPs and 500 µL of 0.2% (w/v) thiourea (TU) solution prepared in 2 mol L–1 HCl as eluent. Total chromium as Cr(III) was extracted quantitatively after reducing the Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The linear range, detection …


There Is Life On Mars, Colin M. Johnston, Olivier B. Cohen Feb 2024

There Is Life On Mars, Colin M. Johnston, Olivier B. Cohen

CAFE Symposium 2024

An extensive research project that involved the research of multiple major experiments and discoveries about possible life on the planet Mars. Facts, Data, conspiracies and theories have all been taken into account and provided in this project.


Interactive Water Vortex Exhibit, Simon Way, Emily Laing, Roqaya Naseri, Makenzie Kan Dec 2023

Interactive Water Vortex Exhibit, Simon Way, Emily Laing, Roqaya Naseri, Makenzie Kan

Mechanical Engineering

The San Luis Obispo Children’s Museum requested an interactive water vortex exhibit to both engage and entertain inquisitive guests, ages two to eight. The goal was to design and manufacture an exhibit that would educate its users on the fluid mechanics behind water vortices. They activate the mechanics by spinning a wheel, which is perceived as the catalyst to manipulate the flow of water to successfully create a whirlpool. Our team has created an interactive display that will enlighten young minds, providing the museum with an educational exhibit which shares a concept not currently taught by any other. Our project …


Identifying Untapped Legal Capacity To Promote Multi‑Level And Cross‑Sectoral Coordination Of Natural Resource Governance, Nicola Harvey, Utrecht University, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, University Of Nebraska-Lincoln, Emory University, Craig R. Allen, Anoeska Buijze, Marleen Van Rijswick Nov 2023

Identifying Untapped Legal Capacity To Promote Multi‑Level And Cross‑Sectoral Coordination Of Natural Resource Governance, Nicola Harvey, Utrecht University, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, University Of Nebraska-Lincoln, Emory University, Craig R. Allen, Anoeska Buijze, Marleen Van Rijswick

School of Natural Resources: Faculty Publications

Natural resource governance in the face of climate change represents one of the seminal challenges of the Anthropocene. A number of innovative approaches have been developed in, among others, the fields of ecology, governance, and sustainability sciences for managing uncertainty and scarcity through a coordinated approach to natural resource governance. However, the absence of an enabling legal and regulatory framework has been identified in the literature as one of the primary barriers constraining the formal operationalization of these governance approaches. In this paper, we show how these approaches provide tools for analyzing procedural mandates across governmental levels and sectors in …


Kentucky Karst Dye Trace Database, Sarah M. Arpin, Benjamin W. Tobin, Maaz Fareedi, Adam Link, James C. Currens Nov 2023

Kentucky Karst Dye Trace Database, Sarah M. Arpin, Benjamin W. Tobin, Maaz Fareedi, Adam Link, James C. Currens

Research Data--KGS

This dataset provides the geographical locations of karst groundwater basins, groundwater flowpaths, and dye injection/recovery points in Kentucky. Dye tracing is a common method used for understanding groundwater movement. Dye is poured (or injected) into a sinking stream, well, sinkhole, or body of water, where it is carried down-gradient by flowing water. The locations at which dye is recovered (typically at artesian springs) indicates a connection from injection to recovery site. This connection is refered to as a groundwater flowpath. Conducting multiple dye traces across an area allows for the interpretation of regional groundwater flow by assessing where flowpaths either …


Water Efficiency & Sustainability In The Mountain West, 2022, Zachary Billot, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Oct 2023

Water Efficiency & Sustainability In The Mountain West, 2022, Zachary Billot, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Environment

This fact sheet analyzes the effectiveness of state-level policies related to water usage, conservation, and sustainability for the Mountain West states of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah in 2022. The original data are published in the “2022 State Policy Scorecard for Water Efficiency and Sustainability” report written by the Alliance for Water Efficiency.


Water Wise Landscape Practices: A Case Study For The City Of Gering, Christina E. Land Oct 2023

Water Wise Landscape Practices: A Case Study For The City Of Gering, Christina E. Land

Community and Regional Planning Program: Professional Projects

This professional project is founded on my education, experiences, and networks. I have had the opportunity to use what I have learned thus far and be challenged to look at public planning from a different perspective. In partnership with the City of Gering I was able to get knee deep in the facility planning of the city owned property which is home to the Community Ever Green House. The project reviews how the property is integrated into the community and the impact it has. Then, identifies opportunities to improve overall functionality with a closer look at addressing hazard mitigation using …


Limited Accumulation And Persistence Of An Influenza A Virus In Tadpole Snails (Physa Spp.), Paul T. Oesterle, J. Jeffrey Root, Darcy S.O. Mora, Heather Schneider, Alan B. Franklin, Kathryn P. Huyvaert Oct 2023

Limited Accumulation And Persistence Of An Influenza A Virus In Tadpole Snails (Physa Spp.), Paul T. Oesterle, J. Jeffrey Root, Darcy S.O. Mora, Heather Schneider, Alan B. Franklin, Kathryn P. Huyvaert

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Waterfowl infected with avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) shed infectious virus into aquatic environments, providing a mechanism for transmission among waterfowl, while also exposing the entire aquatic ecosystem to the virus. Aquatic invertebrates such as freshwater snails are likely exposed to IAVs in the water column and sediment. Freshwater snails comprise a significant portion of some waterfowl species’ diets, so this trophic interaction may serve as a novel route of IAV transmission. In these experiments, tadpole snails (Physa spp.) were exposed to a low-pathogenicity IAV (H3N8) to determine whether snails can accumulate the virus and, if so, how long virus …


Chlorinated Water As A Source Of Chlorate Contamination In Farm Bulk Milk, Lorna Twomey, Ambrose Furey, Bernadette O'Brien, David Gleeson Sep 2023

Chlorinated Water As A Source Of Chlorate Contamination In Farm Bulk Milk, Lorna Twomey, Ambrose Furey, Bernadette O'Brien, David Gleeson

Physical Sciences Publications

The potential for chlorinated water to cause chlorate contamination of milk was evaluated at both laboratory and field level. It was found that for such contamination to occur, direct contact of water and milk was necessary. To minimise the opportunity for chlorinated water to cause chlorate contamination of milk, it is vital to ensure that milk handling equipment is engineered to provide for proper drainage of water and that all necessary steps are taken to prevent the adulteration of milk with water.


Groundwater Flow Across The Coyote Wash Fault And Cedar Mesa Anticline Near St. Johns, Arizona, Stephanie Lynn Latour Aug 2023

Groundwater Flow Across The Coyote Wash Fault And Cedar Mesa Anticline Near St. Johns, Arizona, Stephanie Lynn Latour

Theses and Dissertations

As the demand for water increases across the southwestern United States, the region's utilization of and dependence on water stored in groundwater aquifers has risen in kind. The Coconino Aquifer (C-aquifer) underlies much of the southwestern Colorado Plateau and is a primary source of groundwater in northeastern Arizona. One of the largest commercial users of water from the C-aquifer in Apache County, Arizona, is Springerville Generating Station, a coal-fired power plant owned and operated by Tucson Electric Power. The area surrounding the power plant, located between the cities of Springerville and St. Johns, Arizona (the Springerville-St. Johns area), is geologically …


Environmental And Socio-Economic Stress In The Mountain West, Ayda Atici, Caitlin J. Saladino, Fatma Nasoz, William E. Brown Jr. Aug 2023

Environmental And Socio-Economic Stress In The Mountain West, Ayda Atici, Caitlin J. Saladino, Fatma Nasoz, William E. Brown Jr.

Environment

This fact sheet examines data on environmental and socio-economic risk metrics including which metrics pose the most risk for Nevada counties.The data are retrieved from “System for the Triage of Risks from Environmental and Socio-Economic Stressors” created by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) joint program on the science and policy of global change.


Phosphorus Transfer To River Water From Grassland Catchments In Ireland, H. Tunney, P. Jordan, G. Kiely, R. Moles, G. Morgan, P. Byrne, W. Menary, K. Daly Aug 2023

Phosphorus Transfer To River Water From Grassland Catchments In Ireland, H. Tunney, P. Jordan, G. Kiely, R. Moles, G. Morgan, P. Byrne, W. Menary, K. Daly

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

In Ireland it is estimated that at least half of phosphorus (P) loss to water is from agricultural sources and National and European Union policy and legislation aim at reducing phosphorus (P) loss to water in order to reduce eutrophication. In Ireland, the average soil test P (STP) levels increased ten-fold, from less than 1 to over 8 mg Morgan P per l soil over the past 50 years, reflecting increased P inputs in fertiliser and animal feed. One of the main objectives of this three-year research programme, started in 2001, was to investigate P loss to water in grassland …


Ultrasonic Study Of Water Adsorbed In Nanoporous Glasses, Jason Ogbebor, John J. Valenza, Peter I. Ravikovitch, Ashoka Karunarathne, Giovanni Muraro, Maxim Lebedev, Boris Gurevich, Alexei F. Khalizov, Gennady Y. Gor Aug 2023

Ultrasonic Study Of Water Adsorbed In Nanoporous Glasses, Jason Ogbebor, John J. Valenza, Peter I. Ravikovitch, Ashoka Karunarathne, Giovanni Muraro, Maxim Lebedev, Boris Gurevich, Alexei F. Khalizov, Gennady Y. Gor

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Thermodynamic properties of fluids confined in nanopores differ from those observed in the bulk. To investigate the effect of nanoconfinement on water compressibility, we perform water sorption experiments on two nanoporous glass samples while concomitantly measuring the speed of longitudinal and shear ultrasonic waves in these samples. These measurements yield the longitudinal and shear moduli of the water-laden nanoporous glass as a function of relative humidity that we utilize in the Gassmann theory to infer the bulk modulus of the confined water. This analysis shows that the bulk modulus (inverse of compressibility) of confined water is noticeably higher than that …


Hydrology Data For Fern Cave, Alabama (2020-2022), Benjamin Tobin, Benjamin V. Miller, Matthew Niemiller, Andrea Erhardt Jul 2023

Hydrology Data For Fern Cave, Alabama (2020-2022), Benjamin Tobin, Benjamin V. Miller, Matthew Niemiller, Andrea Erhardt

Research Data--KGS

Dataset includes water level from four sites within Fern Cave in Jackson County Alabama. Additionally, it includes chemistry of water, sediments and cave-adapted isopods.


Environmental Impact Assessment (Eia) Of As, Se, Sn, And Hg In Water And Sediments From The Egyptian Red Sea Ports, Lamiaa I. Mohamedein, Khalid M. El-Moselhy, Mohamed A. El-Sawy Jun 2023

Environmental Impact Assessment (Eia) Of As, Se, Sn, And Hg In Water And Sediments From The Egyptian Red Sea Ports, Lamiaa I. Mohamedein, Khalid M. El-Moselhy, Mohamed A. El-Sawy

Blue Economy

Background: Pollution monitoring is an important tool to protect the marine ecosystems where ports had been seen as a source of contamination affecting the public wellbeing. Methods: Therefore, in the present study, surface seawater and surficial sediment samples were collected from 19 stations covering six ports of the Egyptian Red Sea during summer 2017 and winter 2018. The concentrations of As, Se, Sn, and Hg were determined using the Hydride system MH10 coupled with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: The obtained data revealed that mean values of AS, Se, Sn and Hg for water samples were ranged between …


Sugar Water Density Activity, Admin Stem For Success Apr 2023

Sugar Water Density Activity, Admin Stem For Success

STEM for Success Showcase

In this activity students learn about density using sugar water. Attached is the activity's lesson plan and a teacher reflection on the activity.


Towards A Global Sustainable Development Agenda Built On Social–Ecological Resilience, Murray W. Scown, Robin K. Craig, Craig R. Allen, Lance Gunderson, David G. Angeler, Jorge H. Garcia, Ahjond Garmestani Apr 2023

Towards A Global Sustainable Development Agenda Built On Social–Ecological Resilience, Murray W. Scown, Robin K. Craig, Craig R. Allen, Lance Gunderson, David G. Angeler, Jorge H. Garcia, Ahjond Garmestani

School of Natural Resources: Faculty Publications

Non-technical summary. The United Nations’ sustainable development goals (SDGs) articulate societal aspirations for people and our planet. Many scientists have criticised the SDGs and some have suggested that a better understanding of the complex interactions between society and the environment should underpin the next global development agenda. We further this discussion through the theory of social–ecological resilience, which emphasises the ability of systems to absorb, adapt, and transform in the face of change. We determine the strengths of the current SDGs, which should form a basis for the next agenda, and identify key gaps that should be filled.

Technical …


The Role Of Citizen Science In Ecosystem Management: A Case Study Of The Middle Rio Grande Bosque Ecosystem Monitoring Program, Miller Hannah Apr 2023

The Role Of Citizen Science In Ecosystem Management: A Case Study Of The Middle Rio Grande Bosque Ecosystem Monitoring Program, Miller Hannah

Water Resources Professional Project Reports

Rapid advances in technology, especially smart phones, have changed citizen science around the world. Citizen science-generated data are growing exponentially, so there is increasing interest about what is happening with all this data. Some research suggests that governmental agencies are not using citizen science data to make ecosystem management decisions, although other studies contradict this finding. Regionally, the Middle Rio Grande bosque ecosystem extends for 162 miles along the Rio Grande in New Mexico. The Bosque Ecosystem Monitoring Program, or BEMP, was founded in 1996 following the efforts of the Bosque Initiative and the development of the Bosque Biological Management …


Mapping Per- And Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (Pfas) In South Carolina Surface Waters: Are There Hotspots?, Thomas C. Geiger Apr 2023

Mapping Per- And Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (Pfas) In South Carolina Surface Waters: Are There Hotspots?, Thomas C. Geiger

Senior Theses

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are synthetic chemicals used in consumer products for their unique chemical properties. PFAS compounds are resistant to water, oil, heat, and grease, making them useful for a wide variety of everyday items such as non-stick cooking pans, food packaging, electronics, carpets, upholstery, paints, adhesives, and personal care products.1 The resilient nature of PFAS has made these compounds immensely popular with consumers but has since been considered a potential environmental and public health hazard for their ability to bioaccumulate and for their stability in the environment. More than 6000 PFAS have been discovered in the …


Ultrasound-Assisted Air-Jet Spinning Of Silk Fibroin-Soy Protein Nanofiber Composite Biomaterials., Futian Yang, Fang Wang, Janine Mazahreh, Xiao Hu Feb 2023

Ultrasound-Assisted Air-Jet Spinning Of Silk Fibroin-Soy Protein Nanofiber Composite Biomaterials., Futian Yang, Fang Wang, Janine Mazahreh, Xiao Hu

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

Ultrasound utilizes a non-radiation technology that can meet modern standards to gain access to cheap, reliable and sustainable modern energy. Ultrasound technology can be implemented in the field of biomaterials for its exceptional potential in controlling the shape of nanomaterials. This study presents the first example of the production of soy and silk fibroin protein composite nanofibers in various ratios via combining ultrasonic technology with air-spray spinning. Characterization of ultrasonic spun nanofibers was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, water contact angle, water retention, enzymatic …


Molecular Dynamics Simulation Data: Mw And Mlmw Water Model Ice Nucleation On A Hydrophilic Substrate With Negative Pressure, Will Cantrell, Tianshu Li, Issei Nakamura, Elise Rosky, Raymond Shaw Feb 2023

Molecular Dynamics Simulation Data: Mw And Mlmw Water Model Ice Nucleation On A Hydrophilic Substrate With Negative Pressure, Will Cantrell, Tianshu Li, Issei Nakamura, Elise Rosky, Raymond Shaw

Michigan Tech Research Data

This dataset contains the data supporting Figures in the study by Rosky et al., "Molecular simulations reveal that heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs at higher temperatures in water under capillary tension", submitted for publication in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics in February 2023. Input files for reproducing the molecular dynamics simulations are included.

The abstract from the paper reads: Using a molecular model of water freezing on a hydrophilic substrate, it is found that heterogeneous ice nucleation rates occur at higher temperatures in water that is under tension, in other words under negative pressure. For pressures ranging from from 1 atm to …


Grasslands1 For Production And The Environment, David R. Kemp, David L. Michalk Jan 2023

Grasslands1 For Production And The Environment, David R. Kemp, David L. Michalk

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

  1. To manage grasslands for production and enhanced environmental values requires a redefinition of the frameworks within which management decisions are made, and a tailoring of practices to suit the ways that farmers operate.
  2. Improving the perenniality and permanence of grasslands usually leads to better environmental and production outcomes.
  3. There is a case for a more conservative approach to utilising grasslands in order to sustain the functioning of local ecosystems and to improve water quality, nutrient and energy cycling and biodiversity.
  4. A landscape rather than paddock focus is more appropriate for meeting current grassland management objectives. Grasslands can be triaged to …


Water And Agriculture In The San Diego Region, Olivia Frigyes, Darbi Berry, A-Bel Gong Jan 2023

Water And Agriculture In The San Diego Region, Olivia Frigyes, Darbi Berry, A-Bel Gong

San Diego Regional Climate Collaborative

The San Diego region is susceptible to drought with little annual precipitation. The rising temperature and changing precipitation is expected to affect the agriculture economy. Classified as having a mediterranean climate, San Diego has hot, dry summers and cooler, wet winters. In this blog, learn about how San Diego's climate shapes its agricultural communities' reliance on water supply.


Understanding Binational Water Scarcity, Avery Aquino, Darbi Berry Jan 2023

Understanding Binational Water Scarcity, Avery Aquino, Darbi Berry

San Diego Regional Climate Collaborative

Water scarcity has become a growing concern in many regions around the world, including the San Diego, CA and Tijuana, MX border region Water is a valuable resource that sustains all life on earth, and the San Diego/Tijuana border region is no exception. With increasing population growth, urbanization, and changing climate patterns on both sides of the border, the demand for water resources has significantly outstripped its availability in this region. As a result, it has become essential tounderstand the extent and impacts of water scarcity, and to develop innovative and sustainable solutions that can mitigate its effects.


Windblown Snow Bedforms And Their Effects On Snow Water Content Wenatchee Range, Washington, Ryan Hampton Jan 2023

Windblown Snow Bedforms And Their Effects On Snow Water Content Wenatchee Range, Washington, Ryan Hampton

All Master's Theses

ABSTRACT

WINDBLOWN SNOW BEDFORMS AND THEIR

EFFECTS ON SNOW WATER CONTENT

WENATCHEE RANGE, WASHINGTON

by

Ryan C. Hampton

June 2023

Windblown snow bedforms (WBSBF) are formations of distinct sizes, shapes, and patterns, resulting from the interaction of wind and snow particles. Due to the extreme nature of the formation of WBSBF, which occur in remote high elevation mountain environments during severe weather events, it makes it difficult to not only study these dramatic formations in real time but also predict their occurrence with any regularity. The purpose of this research was to 1) establish a method to actively monitor WBSBF …


Certainty Is Wild And Weaving: Analyzing The Clouds Of Venus, Grace Sanger-Johnson Jan 2023

Certainty Is Wild And Weaving: Analyzing The Clouds Of Venus, Grace Sanger-Johnson

Senior Projects Spring 2023

Supposed detection of phosphine as a biosigature in the clouds of Venus has resulted in a flurry of interest in studying the potential habitability of Venus and other Venus-like exoplanets. However, there are still many unanswered questions about the planet's atmosphere. In this senior project, use spectroscopy to better understand the molecular composition and atmospheric dynamics of Venus. To do this, I analyzed partly-processed spectra from a previously unstudied infrared wavelength obtained at NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility in July 2021. I developed multiple systems of analysis to extract information from the partly processed data and understand the consequences of this …


Analysis Of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Response To Restoration Flows And Scour In The Trinity River, Northern California, Sarah Gutierrez, Julie Avina Jan 2023

Analysis Of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Response To Restoration Flows And Scour In The Trinity River, Northern California, Sarah Gutierrez, Julie Avina

Cal Poly Humboldt Capstone Honor Roll

This study investigates the ecological impact of restoration flows and scouring events on benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) communities within the Trinity River, an ecosystem historically impacted by anthropogenic activities. Central to this study is the examination of how hydrologic alterations, especially the construction of the Lewiston Dam, have influenced these vital ecological indicators. Using data collected earlier in 2023 from a current study by Benjamin King, we analyzed BMI samples from three river sites (Junction City, Pear Tree, and Lorenz Gulch), both prior to and following a major scouring event in January 2023. This paper utilizes statistical analyses, including ANOVA and …


Negotiating Infrastructural Citizenship Beyond The State: Philanthropy, Non-Profit Organizations, And The Flint Water Crisis, Melissa Heil Jan 2023

Negotiating Infrastructural Citizenship Beyond The State: Philanthropy, Non-Profit Organizations, And The Flint Water Crisis, Melissa Heil

Faculty Publications-- Geography, Geology, and the Environment

The urban infrastructure literature has explored how infrastructure is tied to the politics of citizenship: states’ use of infrastructure to include/exclude populations and marginalized populations’ use of infrastructure to claim fuller citizenship. Often, this literature focuses on the relationship between governments and city dwellers, neglecting the role of other actors, like NGOs and philanthropic organizations, that influence infrastructural citizenship. A hallmark of neoliberalism in the Global North has been the transfer of responsibilities from the state to the non-profit sector, increasing these organizations’ power to shape urban citizenship. This paper examines how non-profit organizations participate in the politics of infrastructural …


Future Colorado River Basin Drought And Surplus, Rama Bedri, Thomas Piechota Dec 2022

Future Colorado River Basin Drought And Surplus, Rama Bedri, Thomas Piechota

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Historical and future drought and surplus periods in the Colorado River basin are evaluated based on eight climate scenarios. Unimpaired streamflow from 17 stations in the Colorado River are evaluated based on U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, and Coupled Modeled Intercomparison Projection 5 downscaled data from 1950–2099. Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 emission scenarios are considered for four climate models (HadGEM2-ES, CNRM-CM5, CanESM2, MI-ROC5). Drought (surplus) quantities, magnitudes, severities, and water year flows are compared for the historical and future periods. Results indicate that there is a significant difference between the historical record and future projections. The …


Decreasing Trash In Local Creeks: A Program Evaluation Of The City Of San Jose’S Direct Discharge Trash Control Program, Lakeisha Bryant Dec 2022

Decreasing Trash In Local Creeks: A Program Evaluation Of The City Of San Jose’S Direct Discharge Trash Control Program, Lakeisha Bryant

Master's Projects

The entire San Francisco Bay was once a navigable waterway in the 1850s during the Gold Rush era. Large amounts of sediment from upstream erosion and mining flowed to the bay resulting in the downsizing of the bay’s square miles (Environmental Protection Agency, 2022). As a result of intense development on the bay shores and adjacent lands, the bay faces several challenges that affect its water quality and threatens aquatic ecosystems. Pesticides, mercury, metals, and pathogens are just a few substances in the bay that cause unhealthy conditions for aquatic life and threaten human health. California’s Water Resources Control Board …