# Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons™

Articles 1 - 30 of 2418

## Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

#### Assessing The Effectiveness Of Climate Change Science Communication In An Online Carbon Footprint Assessment, Jack Dimmock

##### Master of Science in Environmental Sciences and Management Projects

Climate change literacy and knowledge are influential in enabling people to take climate change mitigation and adaptation actions. Education about climate change usually takes place through two avenues, formal education and informal institutions, such as museums, television shows, and websites. To help residents reduce their household greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the local impacts of climate change, the San Luis Obispo Climate Coalition is using the carbon footprint website Bright Action (https://resilientslo.org). Bright Action calculates household carbon footprints, suggests ways to reduce carbon footprints, and provides educational material about climate change mitigation and adaptation. This study seeks to assess …

Dec 2022

#### A Cradle-To-Gate Life Cycle Assessment Of American Hops In The Craft Beer Supply Chain, Carson Bristol

##### Master of Science in Environmental Sciences and Management Projects

The hop industry represents a culturally and economically significant industry in the United States due to the product’s significant role in the beer industry, but little is known about the environmental impacts associated with hop production. There exists a significant lack of specific research quantifying the emissions contribution of hop production, and the work that has been done lacks consensus in the scientific community. In an effort to overcome this, this study conducts a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) of aroma hop production broken into four phases, beginning with propagation of seedlings by tissue culture and ending with packaged T-90 …

Wordmuse, John M. Nelson Dec 2022

#### Wordmuse, John M. Nelson

##### Computer Science and Software Engineering

Wordmuse is an application that allows users to enter a song and a list of keywords to create a new song. Built on Spotify's API, this project showcases the fusion of music composition and artificial intelligence. This paper also discusses the motivation, design, and creation of Wordmuse.

Nov 2022

#### Water Quality Assessment For San Luis Obispo Creek And Stenner Creek, Jesse Stewart

##### Master of Science in Environmental Sciences and Management Projects

Water quality was assessed in five stream segments in San Luis Obispo Creek and its tributary Stenner Creek in spring 2022. Two sites were selected along the San Luis Obispo Creek, and three sites along Stenner Creek. The stream segments were evaluated using the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program’s procedures for bioassessment of California streams. This procedure describes the collection of physical, chemical, and biological parameters including streamflow, substrate, flow habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates toward a quantification of a California Stream Condition Index (CSCI). The California Polytechnic State University: San Luis Obispo, Stream Measurements and Water Quality course provided student …

Thermal Degradation Of Erythritol, Sudheendra Gamoji Nov 2022

#### Thermal Degradation Of Erythritol, Sudheendra Gamoji

##### Physics

The Insulated Solar Electric Cooker (ISEC) is a double walled Aluminum pot with a resistive heater directly connected to a solar panel whose goal is to create and disseminate cheap solar cookers in rural areas that primarily rely on biomass for cooking. Phase Change Materials (PCMs) like Erythritol, a sugar substitute, take a tremendous amount of energy to melt, and when they solidify they release the energy. Through the use of PCMs, the ISECs will produce enough heat to cook food even after the sun sets. However, PCMs like Erythritol degrade over repeated heat exposure, so the purpose of this …

#### Vermicompost Versus Traditional Compost Amendments Leads To Different Soil Health Outcomes In A Mediterranean Vineyard, Elizabeth L. Luck

##### Master of Science in Environmental Sciences and Management Projects

Compost application has become a common practice in vineyard management to increase soil and crop health, however, the environmental externalities such as greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from cropping systems that utilize organic fertilizers, such as compost, is uncertain. Vermicompost, which is compost created through the digestion of organic matter by earthworms, and its related ‘extract’ are commonly thought to provide more benefits for soil and crop health compared to standard compost. However, organic fertilizers such as vermicompost, vermicompost extract, and compost have not been compared in their effects on soil health in Mediterranean vineyards. In this two-year study, I assessed …

Developing Positive Thermal Coefficient (Ptc) Heaters For Solar Electric Cooking, Katarina Ivana Brekalo, Andrew Shepherd Sep 2022

#### Developing Positive Thermal Coefficient (Ptc) Heaters For Solar Electric Cooking, Katarina Ivana Brekalo, Andrew Shepherd

##### Physics

Positive Thermal Coefficients, PTCs, are materials that abruptly change in resistance in response to changes in temperature. The purpose of this experiment is to explore the viability of using the switching type ceramic PTC thermistor as a replacement for current resistive heaters. These types of PTCs have a nonlinear change in resistance with increases in temperature. This device will be used as a temperature-controlling heating element intended to power an Insulated Solar Electric Cooker (ISEC). The ISEC is designed to cook meals throughout the day for impacted communities as an alternative cooking method that doesn’t require biofuel as an energy …

#### Impacts Of Fertility On Physiological Stress, Photosynthetic Activity, And Crop Development In Salanova Lettuce, Sarah I. Miller

##### Master of Science in Environmental Sciences and Management Projects

The agricultural industry is one of the main drivers of soil degradation due to conventional crop production methods and overuse of soil which results in accelerated erosion, loss of soil fertility, acidification, and salinization (Lal, 2015). Loss of soil fertility from degradation can be detrimental to crop production as plants grown under nutrient limited conditions show signs of physiological stress and reduced photosynthetic rates leading to reduced yields (Zangani et al., 2021). Organic crop production and fertilizers are viable alternatives to conventional methods as they improve soil fertility and the physiological and biological properties of soil (Ilahi et al., 2021). …

Environmental Justice Mapping In The U.S. Pacific Island Territory Of Guam, Sina Schwenk-Mueller Sep 2022

#### Environmental Justice Mapping In The U.S. Pacific Island Territory Of Guam, Sina Schwenk-Mueller

##### Master of Science in Environmental Sciences and Management Projects

Academics, regulators, and the public currently use geospatial analysis tools to identify locations that may be candidates for further environmental justice review in the continental United States (U.S.). However, current environmental justice geospatial analysis tools overlook a small but significant portion of the U.S. - the U.S. Pacific Islands. This study analyzes environmental justice within the U.S. Territory of Guam using existing geospatial analysis methods and publicly available environmental, climate, and socio-economic data. This research aims to: (1) spatially map relevant demographic, environmental, and climate data and (2) determine the correlation, if any, between the exposure to environmental hazards, climate …

Sep 2022

#### Environmental Justice Mapping In The U.S. Pacific Island Territory Of Guam, Ben Rocha

##### Master of Science in Environmental Sciences and Management Projects

Academics, regulators, and the public currently use geospatial analysis tools to identify locations that may be candidates for further environmental justice review in the continental United States (U.S.). However, current environmental justice geospatial analysis tools overlook a small but significant portion of the U.S. - the U.S. Pacific Islands. This study analyzes environmental justice within the U.S. Territory of Guam using existing geospatial analysis methods and publicly available environmental, climate, and socio-economic data to: (1) Spatially map relevant demographic and environmental data and (2) determine the correlation, if any, between the exposure to environmental hazards and the socio-economic status of …

Barriers And Motivations To Residential Pro-Environmental Actions In San Luis Obispo, Dalis Rae De La Mora Sep 2022

#### Barriers And Motivations To Residential Pro-Environmental Actions In San Luis Obispo, Dalis Rae De La Mora

##### Master of Science in Environmental Sciences and Management Projects

Carbon neutrality has become an important focus for many municipalities, with the inclusion of mitigation measures targeted at the residential sector becoming increasingly prominent for the implementation of climate action plans (CAPs). However, many analyses fall short in identifying the barriers and motivations faced by residents to adopting pro-environmental actions in their daily lives, focusing instead on the available actions themselves. This research aims to identify both the barriers and motivations to adopting pro-environmental behaviors and assess their relationship(s) to key demographic variables, along with climate change perceptions. Using the city of San Luis Obispo (SLO) as a case study, …

#### An Inexpensive Maximum Power Point Tracking System For An Insulated Solar Electric Cooker Using An Off-The-Shelf Buck Converter, Andrew A. Perez

##### Physics

A specialized control circuit using an off-the-shelf buck converter is built for an Insulated Solar Electric Cooker (ISEC). Cost and efficient power delivery are the focus. An ISEC is synonymous to a direct load heat resistor, allowing a specific maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm and fewer components. Only a microcontroller, voltage sensor, and digital-to-analog converter are used with the buck converter to maximize the power delivered by a 100W solar panel for the 3.3Ω load.

Aug 2022

#### Deep Learning For Detecting Trees In The Urban Environment From Lidar, Julian R. Rice

##### Master's Theses

Cataloguing and classifying trees in the urban environment is a crucial step in urban and environmental planning. However, manual collection and maintenance of this data is expensive and time-consuming. Algorithmic approaches that rely on remote sensing data have been developed for tree detection in forests, though they generally struggle in the more varied urban environment. This work proposes a novel method for the detection of trees in the urban environment that applies deep learning to remote sensing data. Specifically, we train a PointNet-based neural network to predict tree locations directly from LIDAR data augmented with multi-spectral imaging. We compare this …

Biomass Estimation Of Marine Biofilms On Plastic Surfaces, Kian Banihashemi, Fernando Javier Gil Jun 2022

#### Biomass Estimation Of Marine Biofilms On Plastic Surfaces, Kian Banihashemi, Fernando Javier Gil

##### Biological Sciences

Plastics have become a major source of marine pollution, which threatens food safety and quality, human health, and marine ecosystems. Due to the drastic negative effects of plastics in a marine environment, alternative biodegradable plastics are being generated that are more eco-friendly and have less environmental impact. Though some of these plastics are known to biodegrade, the process of degradation for bioplastics has not been heavily studied in a marine environment. This pilot project sought to both quantify the process of biodegradation and compare across different methods for effectiveness of biomass estimation, which serves as an indicator of biodegradation. Plastics …

Developing A Miniature Smart Boat For Marine Research, Michael Isaac Eirinberg Jun 2022

#### Developing A Miniature Smart Boat For Marine Research, Michael Isaac Eirinberg

##### Computer Engineering

This project examines the development of a smart boat which could serve as a possible marine research apparatus. The smart boat consists of a miniature vessel containing a low-cost microcontroller to live stream a camera feed, GPS telemetry, and compass data through its own WiFi access point. The smart boat also has the potential for autonomous navigation. My project captivated the interest of several members of California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo’s (Cal Poly SLO) Marine Science Department faculty, who proposed a variety of fascinating and valuable smart boat applications.

An Investigation Into Crouzeix's Conjecture, Timothy T. Royston Jun 2022

#### An Investigation Into Crouzeix's Conjecture, Timothy T. Royston

##### Master's Theses

We will explore Crouzeix’s Conjecture, an upper bound on the norm of a matrix after the application of a polynomial involving the numerical range. More formally, Crouzeix’s Conjecture states that for any n × n matrix A and any polynomial p from C → C,
∥p(A)∥ ≤ 2 supz∈W (A) |p(z)|.
Where W (A) is a set in C related to A, and ∥·∥ is the matrix norm. We first discuss the conjecture, and prove the simple case when the matrix is normal. We then explore a proof for a class of matrices given by Daeshik Choi. We expand …

Jun 2022

#### Dynamical Systems And Matching Symmetry In Beta-Expansions, Karl Zieber

##### Master's Theses

Symbolic dynamics, and in particular β-expansions, are a ubiquitous tool in studying more complicated dynamical systems. Applications include number theory, fractals, information theory, and data storage.

In this thesis we will explore the basics of dynamical systems with a special focus on topological dynamics. We then examine symbolic dynamics and β-transformations through the lens of sequence spaces. We discuss observations from recent literature about how matching (the property that the itinerary of 0 and 1 coincide after some number of iterations) is linked to when Tβ,⍺ generates a subshift of finite type. We prove the set of ⍺ in …

Exploring The Numerical Range Of Block Toeplitz Operators, Brooke Randell Jun 2022

#### Exploring The Numerical Range Of Block Toeplitz Operators, Brooke Randell

##### Master's Theses

We will explore the numerical range of the block Toeplitz operator with symbol function $$\phi(z)=A_0+zA_1$$, where $$A_0, A_1 \in M_2(\mathbb{C})$$. A full characterization of the numerical range of this operator proves to be quite difficult and so we will focus on characterizing the boundary of the related set, $$\{W(A_0+zA_1) : z \in \partial \mathbb{D}\}$$, in a specific case. We will use the theory of envelopes to explore what the boundary looks like and we will use geometric arguments to explore the number of flat portions on the boundary. We will then make a conjecture as to the number of flat …

A Network Analysis Of Covid-19 In The United States, Joseph C. Mcguire Jun 2022

#### A Network Analysis Of Covid-19 In The United States, Joseph C. Mcguire

##### Master's Theses

Through methods in network theory and time-series analysis, we will analyze the spread of COVID-19 in the United States by determining trends in state-by-state daily cases through a network construction. Previous researchers have found frameworks for approximating the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and identifying potential rises in cases by a network construction based on correlation of cases between regions [1]. Applying this network construction we determine how this network and its structure act as a predictor for overall COVID-19 cases in the United States by preforming a trend analysis on a variety of network statistics and US COVID-19 cases.

Unique Signed Minimal Wiring Diagrams And The Stanley-Reisner Correspondence, Vanessa Newsome-Slade Jun 2022

#### Unique Signed Minimal Wiring Diagrams And The Stanley-Reisner Correspondence, Vanessa Newsome-Slade

##### Master's Theses

Biological systems are commonly represented using networks consisting of interactions between various elements in the system. Reverse engineering, a method of mathematical modeling, is used to recover how the elements in the biological network are connected. These connections are encoded using wiring diagrams, which are directed graphs that describe how elements in a network affect one another. A signed wiring diagram provides additional information about the interactions between elements relating to activation and inhibition. Due to cost concerns, it is optimal to gain insight into biological networks with as few experiments and data as possible. Minimal wiring diagrams identify the …

An Introduction To Fröberg's Conjecture, Caroline Semmens Jun 2022

#### An Introduction To Fröberg's Conjecture, Caroline Semmens

##### Master's Theses

The goal of this thesis is to make Fröberg's conjecture more accessible to the average math graduate student by building up the necessary background material to understand specific examples where Fröberg's conjecture is true.

On The Numerical Range Of Compact Operators, Montserrat Dabkowski Jun 2022

#### On The Numerical Range Of Compact Operators, Montserrat Dabkowski

##### Master's Theses

One of the many characterizations of compact operators is as linear operators which
can be closely approximated by bounded finite rank operators (theorem 25). It is
well known that the numerical range of a bounded operator on a finite dimensional
Hilbert space is closed (theorem 54). In this thesis we explore how close to being
closed the numerical range of a compact operator is (theorem 56). We also describe
how limited the difference between the closure and the numerical range of a compact
operator can be (theorem 58). To aid in our exploration of the numerical range of
a compact …

Multiple Object Tracking For Marine Science, Nicholas A. Wachter Jun 2022

#### Multiple Object Tracking For Marine Science, Nicholas A. Wachter

##### Computer Science and Software Engineering

As drone and computer vision technology has been improving, many fields of study have been quick to utilize it to improve the accuracy and ease of data collection. The combination of the two technologies is perfect for surveying large areas and identifying features of interest. Marine science utilizes these technologies for activities such as animal tracking and population counting. I am working with the Drones for Marine Science research group at Cal Poly who want to build a fleet of drones that will fly out over the ocean to identify and track various marine animals. My role will be to …

Jun 2022

#### Solid Thermal Storage As An Energy Storage Device In Insulated Solar Electric Cookers: Thermal Modeling And Experiment, Michael Antonio Fernandez

##### Physics

The use of solid thermal storage (STS) as an energy storage device in insulated solar electric cookers (ISEC) was explored using a thermal simulation before retrofitting an existing cooker without energy storage and testing it under several conditions. STS sizing, material selection, and geometry were examined from both theoretical and practical perspectives and re-examined following experimental results. Characterization of the system’s thermal interfaces and methods to improve their thermal conductivities were investigated resulting in several performance enhancements to the system.

Jun 2022

#### Quantum Key Distribution Simulation Using Entangled Bell States, Nayana Tiwari

##### Physics

To communicate information securely, the sender and recipient of the information need to have a shared, secret key. Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a proposed method for this and takes advantage of the laws of quantum mechanics. The users, Alice and Bob, exchange quantum information in the form of entangled qubits over a quantum channel as well as exchanging measurement information over a classical channel. A successful QKD algorithm will ensure that when an eavesdropper has access to both the quantum and classical information channels, they cannot deduce the key, and they will be detected by the key generators. This …

Jun 2022

#### Recreating Nasa Images Using Hubble Data: Two Populations Of Stars In Messier 5, Adam N. Looper

##### Physics

This project seeks to recreate a color photo from NASA using Hubble data that shows the two distinct populations of stars in the cluster. Although the colored image displays the two types of stars, scientists often recolor astronomical pictures for two reasons: in order to clearly define objects, or to convert an image taken outside the visible spectrum into color. Thus, overlapping Hubble images colored according to filter should verify that there are two populations of stars in Messier 5, and the colored NASA photograph is valid in highlighting the unusual distribution of stars.

A Comparison Of Exotic And Pyraf In Analyzing Exoplanet Transits, Kailei A. Gallup Jun 2022

#### A Comparison Of Exotic And Pyraf In Analyzing Exoplanet Transits, Kailei A. Gallup

##### Physics

In this paper we discuss the data analysis processes using PyRaf, a Python-based version of IRAF, which is one of the most commonly used coding softwares in the astronomy community, as well as the analysis process using EXOTIC. Additionally, we will compare the outcomes from each process to determine if either has significant benefits over the other.

Developing A Data Acquisition System For Use In Cold Neutral Atom Traps, Jonathan E. Fuzaro Alencar Jun 2022

#### Developing A Data Acquisition System For Use In Cold Neutral Atom Traps, Jonathan E. Fuzaro Alencar

##### Physics

The rising interest in quantum computing has led to new quantum systems being developed and researched. Among these are trapped neutral atoms which have several desirable features and may be configured and operated on using lasers in an optical lattice. This work describes the development of a new data acquisition system for use in tuning lasers near the precise hyperfine transition frequencies of Rb 87 atoms, a crucial step in the functionality of a neutral atom trap. This improves on previous implementations that were deprecated and limited in laser frequency sweep range. Integration into the experiment was accomplished using an …

Legislative Language For Success, Sanjana Gundala Jun 2022

#### Legislative Language For Success, Sanjana Gundala

##### Master's Theses

Legislative committee meetings are an integral part of the lawmaking process for local and state bills. The testimony presented during these meetings is a large factor in the outcome of the proposed bill. This research uses Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning techniques to analyze testimonies from California Legislative committee meetings from 2015-2016 in order to identify what aspects of a testimony makes it successful. A testimony is considered successful if the alignment of the testimony matches the bill outcome (alignment is "For" and the bill passes or alignment is "Against" and the bill fails). The process of finding what …

Jun 2022

#### Out-Of-Core Gpu Path Tracing On Large Instanced Scenes Via Geometry Streaming, Jeremy Berchtold

##### Master's Theses

We present a technique for out-of-core GPU path tracing of arbitrarily large scenes that is compatible with hardware-accelerated ray-tracing. Our technique improves upon previous works by subdividing the scene spatially into streamable chunks that are loaded using a priority system that maximizes ray throughput and minimizes GPU memory usage. This allows for arbitrarily large scaling of scene complexity. Our system required under 19 minutes to render a solid color version of Disney's Moana Island scene (39.3 million instances, 261.1 million unique quads, and 82.4 billion instanced quads at a resolution of 1024x429 and 1024spp on an RTX 5000 (24GB memory …