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2015

Life Sciences

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Articles 1 - 30 of 97

Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Fungal Melanin: What Do We Know About Structure?, Joshua D. Nosanchuk, Ruth E. Stark, Arturo Casadevall Dec 2015

Fungal Melanin: What Do We Know About Structure?, Joshua D. Nosanchuk, Ruth E. Stark, Arturo Casadevall

Publications and Research

The production of melanin significantly enhances the virulence of many important human pathogenic fungi. Despite fungal melanin’s importance in human disease, as well as melanin’s contribution to the ability of fungi to survive in diverse hostile environments, the structure of melanin remains unsolved. Nevertheless, ongoing research efforts have progressively revealed several notable structural characteristics of this enigmatic pigment, which will be the focus of this review. These compositional and organizational insights could further our ability to develop novel therapeutic approaches to combat fungal disease and enhance our understanding of how melanin is inserted into the cell wall.


Mechanisms Of Adaptation In The Newly Invasive Species Brachypodium Sylvaticum (Hudson) Beauv., Gina Lola Marchini Dec 2015

Mechanisms Of Adaptation In The Newly Invasive Species Brachypodium Sylvaticum (Hudson) Beauv., Gina Lola Marchini

Dissertations and Theses

It is common knowledge that invasive species cause worldwide ecological and economic damage, and are nearly impossible to eradicate. However, upon introduction to a novel environment, alien species should be the underdogs: They are present in small numbers, possess low genetic diversity, and have not adapted to the climate and competitors present in the new habitat. So, how are alien species able to invade an environment occupied by native species that have already adapted to the local environment? To discover some answers to this apparent paradox I conducted four ecological genetic studies that utilized the invasive species Brachypodium sylvaticum (Hudson) …


Changes In Gut And Plasma Microbiome Following Exercise Challenge In Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (Me/Cfs), Sanjay K. Shukla, Dane B. Cook, Jacob Meyer, Suzanne D. Vernon, Thảo Lê, Derek Clevidence, Charles E. Robertson, Steven J. Schrodi, Steven Yale, Daniel N. Frank Dec 2015

Changes In Gut And Plasma Microbiome Following Exercise Challenge In Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (Me/Cfs), Sanjay K. Shukla, Dane B. Cook, Jacob Meyer, Suzanne D. Vernon, Thảo Lê, Derek Clevidence, Charles E. Robertson, Steven J. Schrodi, Steven Yale, Daniel N. Frank

Jacob Meyer

Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disease characterized by intense and debilitating fatigue not due to physical activity that has persisted for at least 6 months, post-exertional malaise, unrefreshing sleep, and accompanied by a number of secondary symptoms, including sore throat, memory and concentration impairment, headache, and muscle/joint pain. In patients with post-exertional malaise, significant worsening of symptoms occurs following physical exertion and exercise challenge serves as a useful method for identifying biomarkers for exertion intolerance. . Evidence suggests that intestinal dysbiosis and systemic responses to gut microorganisms may play a role in the symptomology of ME/CFS. As such, …


How The Rat Turned White, Kenneth J. Shapiro Dec 2015

How The Rat Turned White, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

This is the first in a three-part series on the use of animals in psychological research. In it, I describe how animals got into laboratories in the first place, and their purpose and life there. In the second, I will describe animal model research, the strategy whereby psychologists' develop nonhuman animal models to study human psychopathology. In the concluding piece, I will present a critique of this enterprise, using original data I gathered. The three articles are based on a forthcoming book, Animal Models of Human Psychology: Science, Ethics, and Policy.


A Rodent For Your Thoughts: The Animal Model Strategy In Psychology, Kenneth J. Shapiro Dec 2015

A Rodent For Your Thoughts: The Animal Model Strategy In Psychology, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

In this second of three essays, I describe how the early modern psychologists adopted the strategy of further transforming rats and other species into models of human thought, feeling, and behavior, and, particularly, of disorders of these - in effect taking "a rodent for your thoughts." In the third essay I will provide a critique and empirically-based evaluation of animal model research. Here I indicate what the model strategy in the biomedical sciences, properly understand, is intended to achieve and how, by contrast, particular models are presented to the public and funding agencies. Finally, I describe how they are utilized …


Psychology's Use Of Animals: Current Practices And Attitudes, Kenneth J. Shapiro Dec 2015

Psychology's Use Of Animals: Current Practices And Attitudes, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

In this chapter, I present a psychology primer for the uninitiated, with special emphasis on psychology's uses of animals. After sketching the scope of the field generally, I review available data on present numbers and species of animals used in psychological research, level of suffering induced and current trends. I also provide several concrete examples of psychological research involving animals. Finally, the chapter concludes with a presentation of attitudes of psychologists toward animals and these practices.


Evaluation Of Animal Model Research, Kenneth J. Shapiro Dec 2015

Evaluation Of Animal Model Research, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

It is argued that a concept of evaluation of animal models that is broader and more useful than validation is available. Productive generativity refers to the degree to which a model furthers understanding and leads to more-effective treatment interventions. Results of the application of this novel evaluative frame to several animal models of eating disorders show that this animal-based research has not been productive. The question of the relation between clinic and animal laboratory is discussed.


The Ingrown World Of Animal Model Research In Psychology, Kenneth J. Shapiro Dec 2015

The Ingrown World Of Animal Model Research In Psychology, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

In the previous essay, I described the proper function of models in science as heuristic, as a way of generating hypotheses about the actual object of study. Turning to animal models in psychology, I offered a general characterization of that enterprise using sham feeding, an animal model of the eating disorder called bulimia, as an example. In this final of three essays, I offer an evaluation of this animal model strategy that largely employs the tools of social science. I close with a recommendation and a prediction.


Understanding Dogs Through Kinesthetic Empathy, Social Construction, And History, Kenneth J. Shapiro Dec 2015

Understanding Dogs Through Kinesthetic Empathy, Social Construction, And History, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

The term, "come into animal presence," she takes from the title of a Denise Levertov poem. The poem, which reads, in part, "What joy when the insouciant armadillo glances at us and doesn't quicken his trotting across the track into the palm bush. What is this joy?" This joy is the possibility of our being in the presence of animals for "(t)he armadillo has some intention to pursue in the palm forest." This joy, to which I invite you here, consists in dwelling in that presence, in inhabiting that intention, that armored but guileless world of the armadillo. I will …


Use Morality As Basis For Animal Treatment, Kenneth J. Shapiro Dec 2015

Use Morality As Basis For Animal Treatment, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

No abstract provided.


Expansion Of The Chlorovirus Genus By Studies On Virus Natural History And Chlorella Host Metabolism, Cristian F. Quispe Dec 2015

Expansion Of The Chlorovirus Genus By Studies On Virus Natural History And Chlorella Host Metabolism, Cristian F. Quispe

School of Biological Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Inland waters cover about 2.5 percent of our planet and harbor huge numbers of known and unknown microorganisms including viruses. Viruses likely play dynamic, albeit largely undocumented roles in regulating microbial communities and in recycling nutrients in the ecosystem. Phycodnaviruses are a genetically diverse, yet morphologically similar, group of large dsDNA-containing viruses (160- to 560-kb) that inhabit aquatic environments. Members of the genus Chlorovirus are common in freshwater. They replicate in eukaryotic, single-celled, chlorella-like green algae that normally exist as endosymbionts of protists in nature. Very little is known about the natural history of the chloroviruses and how they achieve …


Estudios En Biodiversidad, Volumen I, Griselda Pulido-Flores, Scott Monks, Maritza López-Herrera Nov 2015

Estudios En Biodiversidad, Volumen I, Griselda Pulido-Flores, Scott Monks, Maritza López-Herrera

Zea E-Books Collection

Este libro es el producto del trabajo colegiado que han desarrollado los profesores, investigadores, y estudiantes que conforman la Red Temática de Calidad Ambiental y Desarrollo Sustentable, a través del macroproyecto “Evaluación del impacto ambiental por actividades antropogénicas: Alternativas de mitigación”. El cual fue apoyado con recursos financieros por parte del Programa para el Desarrollo Profesional Docente (PRODEP), de la Secretaria de Educación Pública (SEP) en México. Las instituciones de educación superior y cuerpos participantes en la red temática son la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Uso, Manejo y Conservación de la Biodiversidad UAEHCA- 10; Ciencias Ambientales UAEH-CA-59); Universidad …


Wildlife In U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals, John Hadidian Nov 2015

Wildlife In U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals, John Hadidian

John Hadidian, PhD

Conflicts between people and wild animals in cities are undoubtedly as old as urban living itself. In the United States it is only of late, however, that many of the species now found in cities have come to live there. The increasing kind and number of human-wildlife conflicts in urbanizing environments makes it a priority that effective and humane means of conflict resolution be found. The urban public wants conflicts with wildlife resolved humanely, but needs to know what the alternative management approaches are, and what ethical standards should guide their use. This paper examines contemporary urban wildlife control in …


Psychology And Its Animal Subjects, Kenneth J. Shapiro Oct 2015

Psychology And Its Animal Subjects, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

By way of introducing Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PsyETA) to readers of the journal, I have been asked to make some comments about the organization and, from a personal point of view, to suggest some of my own positions and views.


A Tail Of Two Phages: Genomic And Functional Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Phages Vb_Lmos_188 And Vb_Lmos_293 Reveal The Receptor-Binding Proteins Involved In Host Specificity, Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, Olivia Mcauliffe Oct 2015

A Tail Of Two Phages: Genomic And Functional Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Phages Vb_Lmos_188 And Vb_Lmos_293 Reveal The Receptor-Binding Proteins Involved In Host Specificity, Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, Olivia Mcauliffe

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

The physical characteristics of bacteriophages establish them as viable candidates for downstream development of pathogen detection assays and biocontrol measures. To utilize phages for such purposes, a detailed knowledge of their host interaction mechanisms is a prerequisite. There is currently a wealth of knowledge available concerning Gram-negative phage-host interaction, but little by comparison for Gram-positive phages and Listeria phages in particular. In this research, the lytic spectrum of two recently isolated Listeria monocytogenes phages (vB_LmoS_188 and vB_LmoS_293) was determined, and the genomic basis for their observed serotype 4b/4e host-specificity was investigated using comparative genomics. The late tail genes of these …


Pain In Aquatic Animals, Lynne U. Sneddon Aug 2015

Pain In Aquatic Animals, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Recent developments in the study of pain in animals have demonstrated the potential for pain perception in a variety of wholly aquatic species such as molluscs, crustaceans and fish. This allows us to gain insight into how the ecological pressures and differential life history of living in a watery medium can yield novel data that inform the comparative physiology and evolution of pain. Nociception is the simple detection of potentially painful stimuli usually accompanied by a reflex withdrawal response, and nociceptors have been found in aquatic invertebrates such as the sea slug Aplysia. It would seem adaptive to have a …


What Do Zebrafish Want? Impact Of Social Grouping, Dominance And Gender On Preference For Enrichment, Paul Schroeder, Soffia Jones, Iain S. Young, Lynne U. Sneddon Aug 2015

What Do Zebrafish Want? Impact Of Social Grouping, Dominance And Gender On Preference For Enrichment, Paul Schroeder, Soffia Jones, Iain S. Young, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Although environmental enrichment is known to improve laboratory rodent wellbeing and enhance scientific data collection, relatively little is known with regards to the type of enrichment that might be useful for zebrafish (Danio rerio). Therefore, this study explored if zebrafish displayed preferences for a range of enrichments, including substrates, artificial plants, combinations thereof and airstones. Tanks divided into two compartments containing different enrichment cues were used to determine the preferences of zebrafish housed in pairs and groups of eight. When comparing time spent in enriched versus barren compartments, dominant individuals in a pair displayed a preference for substrate and behaviourally …


Investigation Of Van Gogh-Like 2 Mrna Regulation And Localisation In Response To Nociception In The Brain Of Adult Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio), Siobhan C. Reilly, Anja Kipar, David J. Hughes, John P. Quinn, Andrew R. Cossins, Lynne U. Sneddon Aug 2015

Investigation Of Van Gogh-Like 2 Mrna Regulation And Localisation In Response To Nociception In The Brain Of Adult Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio), Siobhan C. Reilly, Anja Kipar, David J. Hughes, John P. Quinn, Andrew R. Cossins, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The Van Gogh-like 2 (vangl2) gene is typically associated with planar cell polarity pathways, which is essential for correct orientation of epithelial cells during development. The encoded protein of this gene is a transmembrane protein and is highly conserved through evolution. Van Gogh-like 2 was selected for further study on the basis of consistent regulation after a nociceptive stimulus in adult common carp and rainbow trout in a microarray study. An in situ hybridisation was conducted in the brain of mature common carp (Cyprinus carpio), 1.5 and 3 h after a nociceptive stimulus comprising of an acetic acid injection to …


Three Rs Approaches In The Production And Quality Control Of Fish Vaccines, Paul J. Midtlyng, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Elisabeth Balks, Lukas Bruckner, Lawrence Elsken, Øystein Evensen, Kjetil Fyrand, Allison Guy, Marlies Halder, Penny Hawkins, Gunn Kisen, Anne Berit Romstad, Kira Salonius, Patrick Smith, Lynne U. Sneddon Aug 2015

Three Rs Approaches In The Production And Quality Control Of Fish Vaccines, Paul J. Midtlyng, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Elisabeth Balks, Lukas Bruckner, Lawrence Elsken, Øystein Evensen, Kjetil Fyrand, Allison Guy, Marlies Halder, Penny Hawkins, Gunn Kisen, Anne Berit Romstad, Kira Salonius, Patrick Smith, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The workshop on Three Rs Approaches in the Production and Quality Control of Fish Vaccines aimed a) to identify animal tests currently stipulated for the production and quality control of fish vaccines and to highlight animal welfare concerns associated with these tests; b) to identify viable options to replace, reduce, and refine animal use for fish vaccine testing; and c) to discuss the way forward and set out how the Three Rs may be implemented without jeopardizing the quality of the vaccines. The workshop participants -- experts from academia, regulatory authorities, a scientific animal welfare organization, and the fish vaccine …


Pain Perception In Fish: Evidence And Implications For The Use Of Fish, Lynne U. Sneddon Aug 2015

Pain Perception In Fish: Evidence And Implications For The Use Of Fish, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Pain assessment in fish is particularly challenging due to their evolutionary distance from humans, their lack of audible vocalization, and apparently expressionless demeanour. However, there are criteria that can be used to gauge whether pain perception occurs using carefully executed scientific approaches. Here, the standards for pain in fish are discussed and can be considered in three ways: neural detection and processing of pain; adverse responses to pain; and consciously experiencing pain. Many procedures that we subject fish to cause tissue damage and may give rise to the sensation of pain. Fish are popular as pets, in animal exhibits, and …


Environmental Change Alters Personality In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Ashley J. Frost, Jack S. Thomson, Charlotte Smith, Hannah C. Burton, Ben Davis, Phillip C. Watts, Lynne U. Sneddon Aug 2015

Environmental Change Alters Personality In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Ashley J. Frost, Jack S. Thomson, Charlotte Smith, Hannah C. Burton, Ben Davis, Phillip C. Watts, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Boldness is a personality trait that defines how individuals respond to risky situations and has clear fitness consequences. Since the adaptive value of boldness is context dependent, the benefit of a distinct personality is less clear when the environment is unpredictable. An ability to modulate behaviour can be beneficial, although as behavioural plasticity itself may be costly this depends on the levels of environmental stability. Both boldness and its plasticity are linked with physiological stress coping mechanisms, whereby animals with reduced glucocorticoid responses to stress are bolder and less flexible in behaviour. We investigated the behavioural changes made by bold …


Characterisation Of Chemosensory Trigeminal Receptors In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss: Responses To Chemical Irritants And Carbon Dioxide, Jessica J. Mettam, Catherine R. Mccrohan, Lynne U. Sneddon Jul 2015

Characterisation Of Chemosensory Trigeminal Receptors In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss: Responses To Chemical Irritants And Carbon Dioxide, Jessica J. Mettam, Catherine R. Mccrohan, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Trigeminally innervated, mechanically sensitive chemoreceptors (M) were previously identified in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but it is not known whether these receptors are responsive only to noxious, chemical irritants or have a general chemosensory function. This study aimed to characterise the stimulus–response properties of these receptors in comparison with polymodal nociceptors (P). Both P and M gave similar response profiles to acetic acid concentrations. The electrophysiological properties were similar between the two different afferent types. To determine whether the receptors have a nociceptive function, a range of chemical stimulants was applied to these receptors, including non-noxious stimuli such as ammonium …


Plasticity Of Boldness In Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss: Do Hunger And Predation Influence Risk-Taking Behaviour?, Jack S. Thomson, Phillip C. Watts, Tom G. Pottinger, Lynne U. Sneddon Jul 2015

Plasticity Of Boldness In Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss: Do Hunger And Predation Influence Risk-Taking Behaviour?, Jack S. Thomson, Phillip C. Watts, Tom G. Pottinger, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne U. Sneddon, Ph.D.

Boldness, a measure of an individual's propensity for taking risks, is an important determinant of fitness but is not necessarily a fixed trait. Dependent upon an individual's state, and given certain contexts or challenges, individuals may be able to alter their inclination to be bold or shy in response. Furthermore, the degree to which individuals can modulate their behaviour has been linked with physiological responses to stress. Here we attempted to determine whether bold and shy rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, can exhibit behavioural plasticity in response to changes in state (nutritional availability) and context (predation threat). Individual trout were initially …


Negative Skeletal Effects Of Locally Produced Adiponectin, Marcia J. Abbott, Theresa M. Roth, Linh Ho, Liping Wang, Dylan O'Carroll, Robert A. Nissenson Jul 2015

Negative Skeletal Effects Of Locally Produced Adiponectin, Marcia J. Abbott, Theresa M. Roth, Linh Ho, Liping Wang, Dylan O'Carroll, Robert A. Nissenson

Health Sciences and Kinesiology Faculty Articles

Epidemiological studies show that high circulating levels of adiponectin are associated with low bone mineral density. The effect of adiponectin on skeletal homeostasis, on osteoblasts in particular, remains controversial. We investigated this issue using mice with adipocyte-specific over-expression of adiponectin (AdTg). MicroCT and histomorphometric analysis revealed decreases (15%) in fractional bone volume in AdTg mice at the proximal tibia with no changes at the distal femur. Cortical bone thickness at mid-shafts of the tibia and at the tibiofibular junction was reduced (3–4%) in AdTg mice. Dynamic histomorphometry at the proximal tibia in AdTg mice revealed inhibition of bone formation. AdTg …


Clinical Anesthesia And Analgesia In Fish, Lynne U. Sneddon Jul 2015

Clinical Anesthesia And Analgesia In Fish, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Fish have become a popular experimental model and companion animal, and are also farmed and caught for food. Thus, surgical and invasive procedures in this animal group are common, and this review will focus on the anesthesia and analgesia of fish. A variety of anesthetic agents are commonly applied to fish via immersion. Correct dosing can result in effective anesthesia for acute procedures as well as loss of consciousness for surgical interventions. Dose and anesthetic agent vary between species of fish and are further confounded by a variety of physiological parameters (e.g., body weight, physiological stress) as well as environmental …


The Efficacy Of Three Types Of Analgesic Drugs In Reducing Pain In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Jessica J. Mettam, Lois J. Oulton, Catherine R. Mccrohan, Lynne U. Sneddon Jul 2015

The Efficacy Of Three Types Of Analgesic Drugs In Reducing Pain In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Jessica J. Mettam, Lois J. Oulton, Catherine R. Mccrohan, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Recent research has shown the possibility of pain perception in fish; therefore, the use of analgesia or “painkillers” should be considered for invasive procedures. However, there is relatively little information on the effectiveness of analgesic drugs nor on the appropriate dose for fish. This study assessed the efficacy of three types of drug: an opioid, buprenorphine, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), carprofen and a local anaesthetic, lidocaine. Each drug was tested at three doses on rainbow trout that were noxiously stimulated and the most effective dose was also given to fish experiencing no pain to investigate side-effects. Ventilation rate and …


Diffusion Tensor Imaging Of Dolphin Brains Reveals Direct Auditory Pathway To Temporal Lobe, Gregory S. Berns, Peter F. Cook, Sean Foxley, Saad Jbabdi, Karla L. Miller, Lori Marino Jul 2015

Diffusion Tensor Imaging Of Dolphin Brains Reveals Direct Auditory Pathway To Temporal Lobe, Gregory S. Berns, Peter F. Cook, Sean Foxley, Saad Jbabdi, Karla L. Miller, Lori Marino

Lori Marino, Ph.D.

The brains of odontocetes (toothed whales) look grossly different from their terrestrial relatives. Because of their adaptation to the aquatic environment and their reliance on echolocation, the odontocetes’ auditory system is both unique and crucial to their survival. Yet, scant data exist about the functional organization of the cetacean auditory system. A predominant hypothesis is that the primary auditory cortex lies in the suprasylvian gyrus along the vertex of the hemispheres, with this position induced by expansion of ‘associative0 regions in lateral and caudal directions. However, the precise location of the auditory cortex and its connections are still unknown. Here, …


The Spatial Dynamics Of Dengue Virus In Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand, Piraya Bhoomiboonchoo, Robert V. Gibbons, Angkana Huang, In-Kyu Yoon, Darunee Buddhari, Ananda Nisalak, Natkamol Chansatiporn, Mathuros Thipayamongkolgul, Siripen Kalanarooj, Timothy Endy, Alan L. Rothman, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Sharone Green, Mammen P. Mammen, Derek A. Cummings, Henrik Salje Jul 2015

The Spatial Dynamics Of Dengue Virus In Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand, Piraya Bhoomiboonchoo, Robert V. Gibbons, Angkana Huang, In-Kyu Yoon, Darunee Buddhari, Ananda Nisalak, Natkamol Chansatiporn, Mathuros Thipayamongkolgul, Siripen Kalanarooj, Timothy Endy, Alan L. Rothman, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Sharone Green, Mammen P. Mammen, Derek A. Cummings, Henrik Salje

Sharone Green

BACKGROUND: Dengue is endemic to the rural province of Kamphaeng Phet, Northern Thailand. A decade of prospective cohort studies has provided important insights into the dengue viruses and their generated disease. However, as elsewhere, spatial dynamics of the pathogen remain poorly understood. In particular, the spatial scale of transmission and the scale of clustering are poorly characterized. This information is critical for effective deployment of spatially targeted interventions and for understanding the mechanisms that drive the dispersal of the virus.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We geocoded the home locations of 4,768 confirmed dengue cases admitted to the main hospital in Kamphaeng Phet …


Nest Building In Captive Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla, Kristen E. Lukas, Tara S. Stoinski, Kyle Burks, Rebecca Snyder, Sarah Bexell, Terry L. Maple Jul 2015

Nest Building In Captive Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla, Kristen E. Lukas, Tara S. Stoinski, Kyle Burks, Rebecca Snyder, Sarah Bexell, Terry L. Maple

Sarah M. Bexell, PhD

Although various aspects of gorilla nest building have been described in wild populations, nest-building behavior of captive gorillas has not been subject to much scientific review. We observed nest building in 17 gorillas during three periods: summer baseline, winter baseline, and winter treatment, in which the amount of available nesting material was doubled. We conducted observations exclusively in the indoor holding area in the hour following evening departure of animal care staff. During baseline, gorillas engaged in nest-building on 3.1% of scans and were on a constructed nest on 27.9% of scans. Overall, gorillas spent significantly more time on elevated …


Observing Panda Play: Implications For Zoo Programming And Conservation Efforts, Sarah M. Bexell, Olga S. Jarrett, Luo Lan, Hu Yan, Estelle A. Sandhaus, Zhang Zhihe, Terry L. Maple Jul 2015

Observing Panda Play: Implications For Zoo Programming And Conservation Efforts, Sarah M. Bexell, Olga S. Jarrett, Luo Lan, Hu Yan, Estelle A. Sandhaus, Zhang Zhihe, Terry L. Maple

Sarah M. Bexell, PhD

This study explores the effects of visitor observation of giant panda play on visitor concern for endangered species and satisfaction with seeing giant pandas. A total of 335 visitors to three institutions that house giant pandas participated in the study. These institutions are: the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, and the Chengdu Zoo, in China; and Zoo Atlanta in the U.S. After viewing the giant pandas, visitors were interviewed on whether they ever observed a panda play session, whether they observed panda play on the day of the visit, whether they wanted additional information on panda protection, and …