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2015

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Articles 1 - 29 of 29

Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Fungal Melanin: What Do We Know About Structure?, Joshua D. Nosanchuk, Ruth E. Stark, Arturo Casadevall Dec 2015

Fungal Melanin: What Do We Know About Structure?, Joshua D. Nosanchuk, Ruth E. Stark, Arturo Casadevall

Publications and Research

The production of melanin significantly enhances the virulence of many important human pathogenic fungi. Despite fungal melanin’s importance in human disease, as well as melanin’s contribution to the ability of fungi to survive in diverse hostile environments, the structure of melanin remains unsolved. Nevertheless, ongoing research efforts have progressively revealed several notable structural characteristics of this enigmatic pigment, which will be the focus of this review. These compositional and organizational insights could further our ability to develop novel therapeutic approaches to combat fungal disease and enhance our understanding of how melanin is inserted into the cell wall.


Expansion Of The Chlorovirus Genus By Studies On Virus Natural History And Chlorella Host Metabolism, Cristian F. Quispe Dec 2015

Expansion Of The Chlorovirus Genus By Studies On Virus Natural History And Chlorella Host Metabolism, Cristian F. Quispe

School of Biological Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Inland waters cover about 2.5 percent of our planet and harbor huge numbers of known and unknown microorganisms including viruses. Viruses likely play dynamic, albeit largely undocumented roles in regulating microbial communities and in recycling nutrients in the ecosystem. Phycodnaviruses are a genetically diverse, yet morphologically similar, group of large dsDNA-containing viruses (160- to 560-kb) that inhabit aquatic environments. Members of the genus Chlorovirus are common in freshwater. They replicate in eukaryotic, single-celled, chlorella-like green algae that normally exist as endosymbionts of protists in nature. Very little is known about the natural history of the chloroviruses and how they achieve …


Anti-Tb And Antibacterial Activities Of Natural Products Extracts, Douglas Armstrong, Nathan Krause, Drew Frey Oct 2015

Anti-Tb And Antibacterial Activities Of Natural Products Extracts, Douglas Armstrong, Nathan Krause, Drew Frey

Faculty Scholarship – Chemistry

Samples of numerous plant species were received from the southwestern part of the USA from Richard Spjut, and plant samples were collected here in Illinois. All were extracted with typical solvents, giving crude residues, some of which were subjected to counter-current or flash chromatographic methods. Some of the crude extracts and chromatographic fractions had anti-tuberculosis and/or antibacterial activity.

In a general way, bioactive natural products are dealt with very well by Liang & Fang, 2006. More specifically, the southwestern part of the United States has a large variety of indigenous plants, many of which have not been investigated for their …


A Tail Of Two Phages: Genomic And Functional Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Phages Vb_Lmos_188 And Vb_Lmos_293 Reveal The Receptor-Binding Proteins Involved In Host Specificity, Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, Olivia Mcauliffe Oct 2015

A Tail Of Two Phages: Genomic And Functional Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Phages Vb_Lmos_188 And Vb_Lmos_293 Reveal The Receptor-Binding Proteins Involved In Host Specificity, Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, Olivia Mcauliffe

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

The physical characteristics of bacteriophages establish them as viable candidates for downstream development of pathogen detection assays and biocontrol measures. To utilize phages for such purposes, a detailed knowledge of their host interaction mechanisms is a prerequisite. There is currently a wealth of knowledge available concerning Gram-negative phage-host interaction, but little by comparison for Gram-positive phages and Listeria phages in particular. In this research, the lytic spectrum of two recently isolated Listeria monocytogenes phages (vB_LmoS_188 and vB_LmoS_293) was determined, and the genomic basis for their observed serotype 4b/4e host-specificity was investigated using comparative genomics. The late tail genes of these …


Rapid Label-Free Detection Of E. Coli Using Antimicrobial Peptide Assisted Impedance Spectroscopy, Keren Jieng, Hashem Etayash, Sarfuddin Azmi, Selvaraj Naicker, Mahtab Hassanpourfard, Parmiss Mojir Shaibani, Garima Thakur, Kamaljit Kaur, Thomas Thundat Aug 2015

Rapid Label-Free Detection Of E. Coli Using Antimicrobial Peptide Assisted Impedance Spectroscopy, Keren Jieng, Hashem Etayash, Sarfuddin Azmi, Selvaraj Naicker, Mahtab Hassanpourfard, Parmiss Mojir Shaibani, Garima Thakur, Kamaljit Kaur, Thomas Thundat

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

There is an increasing demand for rapid detection of waterborne pathogens to monitor drinking water safety. We demonstrate a compact, label-free sensor array for rapid detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in contaminated water samples using antimicrobial peptide assisted impedimetric sensor platform. Interdigitated electrode arrays immobilized with the antimicrobial peptide Colicin V (ColV) were used to screen the affinity towards different bacterial strains by monitoring impedance variations in real-time. This ColV assisted impedance biosensor exhibited high selectivity towards Gram-negative strains particularly towards E. coli strains. This selective detection of E. coli from other strains was observed at 10 …


Application Of Ichip To Grow “Uncultivable” Microorganisms And Its Impact On Antibiotic Discovery, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Caretta J. Reese, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi Aug 2015

Application Of Ichip To Grow “Uncultivable” Microorganisms And Its Impact On Antibiotic Discovery, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Caretta J. Reese, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose. Antibiotics have revolutionized modern medicine, allowing significant progress in healthcare and improvement in life expectancy. Development of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria is a natural phenomenon; however, the rate of antibiotic resistance emergence is increasing at an alarming rate, due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics in healthcare, agriculture and even everyday products. Traditionally, antibiotic discovery has been conducted by screening extracts of microorganisms for antimicrobial activity. However, this conventional source has been over-used to such an extent that it poses the risk of “running out” of new antibiotics. Aiming to increase access to a greater diversity of microorganisms, …


Negative Skeletal Effects Of Locally Produced Adiponectin, Marcia J. Abbott, Theresa M. Roth, Linh Ho, Liping Wang, Dylan O'Carroll, Robert A. Nissenson Jul 2015

Negative Skeletal Effects Of Locally Produced Adiponectin, Marcia J. Abbott, Theresa M. Roth, Linh Ho, Liping Wang, Dylan O'Carroll, Robert A. Nissenson

Health Sciences and Kinesiology Faculty Articles

Epidemiological studies show that high circulating levels of adiponectin are associated with low bone mineral density. The effect of adiponectin on skeletal homeostasis, on osteoblasts in particular, remains controversial. We investigated this issue using mice with adipocyte-specific over-expression of adiponectin (AdTg). MicroCT and histomorphometric analysis revealed decreases (15%) in fractional bone volume in AdTg mice at the proximal tibia with no changes at the distal femur. Cortical bone thickness at mid-shafts of the tibia and at the tibiofibular junction was reduced (3–4%) in AdTg mice. Dynamic histomorphometry at the proximal tibia in AdTg mice revealed inhibition of bone formation. AdTg …


Effects Of Pringle Maneuver And Partial Hepatectomy On The Pharmacokinetics And Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability Of Sodium Fluorescein In Rats, Mohammad K. Miah, Imam H. Shaik, Ulrich Bickel, Reza Mehvar Jun 2015

Effects Of Pringle Maneuver And Partial Hepatectomy On The Pharmacokinetics And Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability Of Sodium Fluorescein In Rats, Mohammad K. Miah, Imam H. Shaik, Ulrich Bickel, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Liver diseases are known to affect the function of remote organs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Pringle maneuver, which results in hepatic ischemia–reperfusion (IR) injury, and partial hepatectomy (Hx) on the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of sodium fluorescein (FL), which is a widely used marker of blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Rats were subjected to Pringle maneuver (total hepatic ischemia) for 20 min with (HxIR) or without (IR) 70% hepatectomy. Sham-operated animals underwent laparotomy only. After 15 min or 8 h of reperfusion, a single 25-mg/kg dose of FL was injected intravenously and serial …


Draft Genome Sequences Of Six Different Staphylococcus Epidermidis Clones, Isolated Individually From Preterm Neonates Presenting With Sepsis At Edinburgh's Royal Infirmary, Paul Walsh, M. Bekaert, J. Carroll, T. Manning, B. Kelly, A. O'Driscoll, X. Lu, C. Smith, P. Dickinson, K. Templeton, P. Ghazal, Roy D. Sleator May 2015

Draft Genome Sequences Of Six Different Staphylococcus Epidermidis Clones, Isolated Individually From Preterm Neonates Presenting With Sepsis At Edinburgh's Royal Infirmary, Paul Walsh, M. Bekaert, J. Carroll, T. Manning, B. Kelly, A. O'Driscoll, X. Lu, C. Smith, P. Dickinson, K. Templeton, P. Ghazal, Roy D. Sleator

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

Herein, we report the draft genome sequences of six individual Staphylococcus epidermidis clones, cultivated from blood taken from different preterm neonatal sepsis patients at the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom.


The Impact Of A 20% Vs. A 40% Caloric Restrictive Diet On Bone Mineral Density During The Growth Period In Male Rats, Kassandra Lee May 2015

The Impact Of A 20% Vs. A 40% Caloric Restrictive Diet On Bone Mineral Density During The Growth Period In Male Rats, Kassandra Lee

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a 20% and a 40% caloric restrictive diet on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength in male rats during the growth period. Methods: 32 male rats were randomly divided into: control groups (C20, n=8 and C40, n=8), a group fed the 20% caloric restrictive diet (D20, n=8), and a group fed the 40% caloric restrictive diet (D40, n=8). An animal in the caloric restrictive diet group was matched and pair fed with an animal in the control group for 6 weeks. Each caloric restrictive diet contained additional …


Puffs And Tufts: A Comparison Of Trichodesmium Colony Formations And Nutrient Availability Across The North Atlantic Ocean Using Remote Sensing Methods, Marc Rosenfield May 2015

Puffs And Tufts: A Comparison Of Trichodesmium Colony Formations And Nutrient Availability Across The North Atlantic Ocean Using Remote Sensing Methods, Marc Rosenfield

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Trichodesmium, a genus of diazotrophic bacteria, has the capability and the population to produce a large percentage of the total oceanic N2-fixation. Though their population is known to be heavily dependent on two of the ocean’s largest limiting factors, phosphorus and iron concentrations, it is unknown what affect these factors have on the population. In this study two of the largest colony formations of Trichodesmium in the North Atlantic, tufts and puffs, are compared nutrient quality with respect to time and geographical location. Though very little nutrient in situ data was collected from the cruise, remote sensing data collected from …


Effects Of Human Recreational Activity On The Tameness Of Common Loons (Gavia Immer) In Northern Wisconsin, Seth Yund May 2015

Effects Of Human Recreational Activity On The Tameness Of Common Loons (Gavia Immer) In Northern Wisconsin, Seth Yund

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The Common Loon (Gavia immer) is an aquatic diving bird that lives in freshwater habitats in Canada and the northern U.S.. Human activity on a loon’s resident lake may affect its fitness and behavior, yet few studies identify or quantify these effects. We modified existing techniques that measure escape distances in other species to measure tameness as the distance at which individual loons dove in response to human approach by canoe. Tameness was similar between pair members, suggesting that common lake conditions or the behavior of a mate might influence the behavior. Sex, size within sex, and human activity did …


The Effects Of A Caloric Restrictive Diet On Bone Mineral Density And Bone Strength In Male And Female Rats, Haley Folta May 2015

The Effects Of A Caloric Restrictive Diet On Bone Mineral Density And Bone Strength In Male And Female Rats, Haley Folta

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The purpose of this study was to determine the existence of sex differences following a 40% caloric restrictive diet and its impact on tibial bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength between male and female rats. Thirty-two, six-week old Sprague Dawley rats (16 males and 16 females) were randomly divided into an ad libitum fed control group (MC, n=8 and FC, n=8) and a pair fed diet group placed on the 40% caloric restriction (MD, n=8 and FD, n=8) for a 6 week period. The caloric restrictive diet was equivalent to the normal fed diet in vitamin and mineral content …


Effect Of Novel Dietary Supplement On Metabolism In Vitro And In Vivo, Robert A. Vaughan, Ailish C. White, Jason R. Beam, Nicholas P. Gannon, Randi Garcia-Smith, Roy M. Salgado, Marco Bisoffi, Kristina A. Trujillo, Carole A. Conn, Christine M. Mermier May 2015

Effect Of Novel Dietary Supplement On Metabolism In Vitro And In Vivo, Robert A. Vaughan, Ailish C. White, Jason R. Beam, Nicholas P. Gannon, Randi Garcia-Smith, Roy M. Salgado, Marco Bisoffi, Kristina A. Trujillo, Carole A. Conn, Christine M. Mermier

Health Sciences and Kinesiology Faculty Articles

Obesity is an increasingly prevalent and preventable morbidity with multiple behavioral, surgical and pharmacological interventions currently available. Commercial dietary supplements are often advertised to stimulate metabolism and cause rapid weight and/or fat loss, although few well-controlled studies have demonstrated such effects. We describe a commercially available dietary supplement (purportedly containing caffeine, catechins, and other metabolic stimulators) on resting metabolic rate in humans, and on metabolism, mitochondrial content, and related gene expression in vitro. Human males ingested either a placebo or commercially available supplement (RF) in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over fashion. Metabolic rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and blood pressure were …


Persister Cell Control Mechanisms In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, William H. Law Iii May 2015

Persister Cell Control Mechanisms In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, William H. Law Iii

Senior Honors Projects

Persister cells are a subpopulation of bacteria that demonstrate high tolerance to antibiotics, but revert to sensitivity after antibiotics are removed. The mechanism for induction of the persister cell state and antibiotic tolerance is not completely understood but likely occurs through the establishment of dormancy. Some of the suggested mechanisms for persister cell formation in Escherichia coli include: toxin­-antitoxin systems, starvation, gene regulation by (p)ppGpp, and stochastic formation. In our study we examine the mechanisms behind persistence in the E. coli strain CFT073, a uropathogenic isolate, which forms elevated levels of persisters compared to the laboratory strain MG1655. However, CFT073 …


Characterization And Investigation Of Fungi Inhabiting The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Healthy And Diseased Humans, Mallory J. Suhr May 2015

Characterization And Investigation Of Fungi Inhabiting The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Healthy And Diseased Humans, Mallory J. Suhr

Department of Food Science and Technology: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Gastrointestinal microbiome studies have failed to include fungi in total community analyses. As a result, their diversity and function in the gut is poorly understood. Recent work has begun to uncover the role intestinal fungi play in diet, immune system development, interactions with other microorganisms in the gut, and pathogenesis of diseases. Advances in sequencing technologies allow for the ability to profile the fungal gut microbiome (“mycobiome”) in healthy and diseased states. This thesis explores the mycobiome in 1) healthy humans with a vegetarian diet and 2) pediatric small bowel transplant recipients that develop fungal bloodstream infections.

The gut mycobiome …


Engineering Of A Light-Gated Potassium Channel, Christian Cosentino, Laura Alberio, Sabrina Gazzarrini, Marco Aquila, Eduardo Romano, Solei Cermenati, Paolo Zuccolini, Jan Petersen, Monica Beltrame, James L. Van Etten, John M. Christie, Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni Apr 2015

Engineering Of A Light-Gated Potassium Channel, Christian Cosentino, Laura Alberio, Sabrina Gazzarrini, Marco Aquila, Eduardo Romano, Solei Cermenati, Paolo Zuccolini, Jan Petersen, Monica Beltrame, James L. Van Etten, John M. Christie, Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni

James Van Etten Publications

The present palette of opsin-based optogenetic tools lacks a light-gated potassium (K+) channel desirable for silencing of excitable cells. Here, we describe the construction of a blue-light–induced K+ channel 1 (BLINK1) engineered by fusing the plant LOV2-Ja photosensory module to the small viral K+ channel Kcv. BLINK1 exhibits biophysical features of Kcv, including K+ selectivity and high single-channel conductance, but reversibly photoactivates in blue light. Opening of BLINK1 channels hyperpolarizes the cell to the K+ equilibrium potential. Ectopic expression of BLINK1 reversibly inhibits the escape response in light-exposed zebrafish larvae. BLINK1 therefore provides a single-component optogenetic tool that can establish …


Live Imaging Of The Ependymal Cilia In The Lateral Ventricles Of The Mouse Brain, Alzahra J. Al Omran, Hannah C. Saternos, Tongyu Liu, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi Apr 2015

Live Imaging Of The Ependymal Cilia In The Lateral Ventricles Of The Mouse Brain, Alzahra J. Al Omran, Hannah C. Saternos, Tongyu Liu, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Multiciliated ependymal cells line the ventricles in the adult brain. Abnormal function or structure of ependymal cilia is associated with various neurological deficits. The current ex vivo live imaging of motile ependymal cilia technique allows for a detailed study of ciliary dynamics following several steps. These steps include: mice euthanasia with carbon dioxide according to protocols of The University of Toledo’s Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC); craniectomy followed by brain removal and sagittal brain dissection with a vibratome or sharp blade to obtain very thin sections through the brain lateral ventricles, where the ependymal cilia can be visualized. …


Examining Phage Infection Utilizing Mycobacterium Smegmatis, Tanya L. Riddick Apr 2015

Examining Phage Infection Utilizing Mycobacterium Smegmatis, Tanya L. Riddick

Undergraduate Research

Bacteriophages, also known as phages, are viruses that are ubiquitous and survive and replicate within the host of the bacterial cell, Mycobacterium smegmatis. They are considered one of the most abundant organisms on earth (1031). Structurally, they are 100-200nm in size and consist of a protein encapsulated head that contains DNA or RNA, a tail sheath and tail fibers. This research consisted of examining phage infection, by re-isolating a novel phage, Tango. Tango was originally isolated genetically in 2013 by a previous ISBT student, Anna Maccarrone. The phage was sent to genetic sequencing but two phages were discovered, …


Effects Of Cannabidiol On Contractions And Calcium Signaling In Rat Ventricular Myocytes, Ramez M. Ali, Lina T. Al Kury, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Anwar Qureshi, Mohanraj Rajesh, Sehamuddin Galadari, Yaroslav M. Shuba, Frank Christopher Howarth, Murat Oz Apr 2015

Effects Of Cannabidiol On Contractions And Calcium Signaling In Rat Ventricular Myocytes, Ramez M. Ali, Lina T. Al Kury, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Anwar Qureshi, Mohanraj Rajesh, Sehamuddin Galadari, Yaroslav M. Shuba, Frank Christopher Howarth, Murat Oz

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic cannabinoid found in Cannabis plant, has been shown to influence cardiovascular functions under various physiological and pathological conditions. In the present study, the effects of CBD on contractility and electrophysiological properties of rat ventricular myocytes were investigated. Video edge detection was used to measure myocyte shortening. Intracellular Ca2+ was measured in cells loaded with the Ca2+ sensitive fluorescent indicator fura-2 AM. Whole-cell patch clamp was used to measure action potential and Ca2+ currents. Radioligand binding was employed to study pharmacological characteristics of CBD binding. CBD (1 μM) caused a significant decrease in the amplitudes of …


Comparative Genomics Of Cluster O Mycobacteriophages, Steven G. Cresawn, Nathan S. Reyna, Ruth Plymale, Welkin H. Pope, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Charles A. Bowman, Daniel A. Russell, Rebekah M. Dedrick, Tamarah Adair, Kirk R. Anders, Sarah Ball, David Bollivar, Caroline Breitenberger, Sandra H. Burnett, Kristen Butela, Deanna Byrnes, Sarah Carzo, Kathleen A. Cornely, Trevor Cross, Richard L. Daniels, David Dunbar, Ann M. Findley, Chris R. Gissendanner, Urszula P. Golebiewska, Grant A. Hartzog, J. Robert Hatherill, Lee E. Hughes, Chernoh S. Jalloh, Carla De Los Santos, Kevin Ekanem, Sphindile L. Khambule, Rodney A. King, Christina King-Smith, Karen Klyczek, Greg P. Krukonis Mar 2015

Comparative Genomics Of Cluster O Mycobacteriophages, Steven G. Cresawn, Nathan S. Reyna, Ruth Plymale, Welkin H. Pope, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Charles A. Bowman, Daniel A. Russell, Rebekah M. Dedrick, Tamarah Adair, Kirk R. Anders, Sarah Ball, David Bollivar, Caroline Breitenberger, Sandra H. Burnett, Kristen Butela, Deanna Byrnes, Sarah Carzo, Kathleen A. Cornely, Trevor Cross, Richard L. Daniels, David Dunbar, Ann M. Findley, Chris R. Gissendanner, Urszula P. Golebiewska, Grant A. Hartzog, J. Robert Hatherill, Lee E. Hughes, Chernoh S. Jalloh, Carla De Los Santos, Kevin Ekanem, Sphindile L. Khambule, Rodney A. King, Christina King-Smith, Karen Klyczek, Greg P. Krukonis

Articles

Mycobacteriophages - viruses of mycobacterial hosts - are genetically diverse but morphologically are all classified in the Caudovirales with double-stranded DNA and tails. We describe here a group of five closely related mycobacteriophages - Corndog, Catdawg, Dylan, Firecracker, and YungJamal - designated as Cluster O with long flexible tails but with unusual prolate capsids. Proteomic analysis of phage Corndog particles, Catdawg particles, and Corndog-infected cells confirms expression of half of the predicted gene products and indicates a non-canonical mechanism for translation of the Corndog tape measure protein. Bioinformatic analysis identifies 8-9 strongly predicted SigA promoters and all five Cluster O …


Reply To Kjartansdóttir Et Al.: Chlorovirus Atcv-1 Findings Not Explained By Contamination, Robert H. Yolken, Lorraine Jones-Brando, David Dunigan, Geetha Kannan, Faith Dickerson, Emily Severance, Sarven Sabunciyan, C. Conover Talbot Jr., Emese Prandovszky, James Gurnon, Irina Agarkova, Flora Leister, Kristin L. Gressitt, Ou Chen, Bryan Deuber, Fangrui Ma, Mikhail V. Pletnikov, James L. Van Etten Mar 2015

Reply To Kjartansdóttir Et Al.: Chlorovirus Atcv-1 Findings Not Explained By Contamination, Robert H. Yolken, Lorraine Jones-Brando, David Dunigan, Geetha Kannan, Faith Dickerson, Emily Severance, Sarven Sabunciyan, C. Conover Talbot Jr., Emese Prandovszky, James Gurnon, Irina Agarkova, Flora Leister, Kristin L. Gressitt, Ou Chen, Bryan Deuber, Fangrui Ma, Mikhail V. Pletnikov, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

We agree with Kjartansdóttir et al. (1) that extreme caution must be used when interpreting high-throughput sequencing results in new hosts. The situation demands thorough investigation and validation beyond the identification of a few sequencing reads. However, we believe it is unlikely that random laboratory contamination explains the results reported in Yolken et al. (2) for the following reasons. ...

Therefore, the conclusions in our report are based not only on “a few sequence reads” (1), but on confirmatory assays, as well as a highly controlled animal model of oral exposure and subsequent measurement of immune response and behavior. We …


Effects Of (R)-(-)-5-Methyl-1-Nicotinoyl-2-Pyrazoline On Glutamate Transporter 1 And Cysteine/Glutamate Exchanger As Well As Ethanol Drinking Behavior In Male, Alcohol-Preferring Rats, Munaf Aal-Aaboda, Hasan Alhaddad, Francis Osowik, Surya M. Nauli, Youssef Sari Jan 2015

Effects Of (R)-(-)-5-Methyl-1-Nicotinoyl-2-Pyrazoline On Glutamate Transporter 1 And Cysteine/Glutamate Exchanger As Well As Ethanol Drinking Behavior In Male, Alcohol-Preferring Rats, Munaf Aal-Aaboda, Hasan Alhaddad, Francis Osowik, Surya M. Nauli, Youssef Sari

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Alcohol consumption is largely associated with alterations in the extracellular glutamate concentrations in several brain reward regions. We recently showed that glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) is downregulated following chronic exposure to ethanol for 5 weeks in alcohol-preferring (P) rats and that upregulation of the GLT-1 levels in nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex results, in part, in attenuating ethanol consumption. Cystine glutamate antiporter (xCT) is also downregulated after chronic ethanol exposure in P rats, and its upregulation could be valuable in attenuating ethanol drinking. This study examines the effect of a synthetic compound, (R)-(−)-5-methyl-1-nicotinoyl-2-pyrazoline (MS-153), on ethanol drinking and expressions of …


Large Dsdna Chloroviruses Encode Diverse Membrane Transport Proteins, Gerhard Thiel, Timo Greiner, David Dunigan, Anna Moroni Jan 2015

Large Dsdna Chloroviruses Encode Diverse Membrane Transport Proteins, Gerhard Thiel, Timo Greiner, David Dunigan, Anna Moroni

James Van Etten Publications

Many large DNA viruses that infect certain isolates of chlorella-like green algae (chloroviruses) are unusual because they often encode a diverse set of membrane transport proteins, including functional K+ channels and aquaglyceroporins as well as K+ transporters and calcium transporting ATPases. Some chloroviruses also encode putative ligand-gated-like channel proteins. No one protein is present in all of the chloroviruses that have been sequenced, but the K+ channel is the most common as only two chloroviruses have been isolated that lack this complete protein. This review describes the properties of these membrane-transporting proteins and suggests possible physiological functions and evolutionary histories …


Segregation Of Information About Emotional Arousal And Valence In Horse Whinnies, Elodie F. Briefer, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Roi Mandel, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Iris Bachmann, Edna Hillmann Jan 2015

Segregation Of Information About Emotional Arousal And Valence In Horse Whinnies, Elodie F. Briefer, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Roi Mandel, Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Iris Bachmann, Edna Hillmann

Sentience Collection

Studying vocal correlates of emotions is important to provide a better understanding of the evolution of emotion expression through cross-species comparisons. Emotions are composed of two main dimensions: emotional arousal (calm versus excited) and valence (negative versus positive). These two dimensions could be encoded in different vocal parameters (segregation of information) or in the same parameters, inducing a trade-off between cues indicating emotional arousal and valence. We investigated these two hypotheses in horses. We placed horses in five situations eliciting several arousal levels and positive as well as negative valence. Physiological and behavioral measures collected during the tests suggested the …


The Genus Cerion (Gastropoda: Cerionidae) In The Florida Keys., Yesha Shrestha, Herman H. Wirshing, M. G. Harasewych Jan 2015

The Genus Cerion (Gastropoda: Cerionidae) In The Florida Keys., Yesha Shrestha, Herman H. Wirshing, M. G. Harasewych

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

The systematic relationships and phylogeography of Cerion incanum, the only species of Cerion native to the Florida Keys, are reviewed based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes derived from 18 populations spanning the range of this species and including the type localities of all four described subspecies. Our samples included specimens of Cerion casablancae, a species introduced to Indian Key in 1912, and a population of C. incanum x C. casablancae hybrids descended from a population of C. casablancae introduced onto Bahia Honda Key in the same year. Molecular data did not support the partition of …


Extraordinary Diversity Of Immune Response Proteins Among Sea Urchins: Nickel-Isolated Sp185/333 Proteins Show Broad Variations In Size And Charge., Lauren S. Sherman, Catherine S. Schrankel, Kristy J. Brown, L. Courtney Smith Jan 2015

Extraordinary Diversity Of Immune Response Proteins Among Sea Urchins: Nickel-Isolated Sp185/333 Proteins Show Broad Variations In Size And Charge., Lauren S. Sherman, Catherine S. Schrankel, Kristy J. Brown, L. Courtney Smith

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Effective protection against pathogens requires the host to produce a wide range of immune effector proteins. The Sp185/333 gene family, which is expressed by the California purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus in response to bacterial infection, encodes a highly diverse repertoire of anti-pathogen proteins. A subset of these proteins can be isolated by affinity to metal ions based on multiple histidines, resulting in one to four bands of unique molecular weight on standard Western blots, which vary depending on the individual sea urchin. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of nickel-isolated protein samples followed by Western blot was employed to detect …


Dimethylsulfide Gas Transfer Coefficients From Algal Blooms In The Southern Ocean, T. G. Bell, Warren J. De Bruyn, Christa A. Marandino, S. D. Miller, C. S. Law, Eric S. Saltzman Jan 2015

Dimethylsulfide Gas Transfer Coefficients From Algal Blooms In The Southern Ocean, T. G. Bell, Warren J. De Bruyn, Christa A. Marandino, S. D. Miller, C. S. Law, Eric S. Saltzman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Air-sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) fluxes and bulk air-sea gradients were measured over the Southern Ocean in February-March 2012 during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) study. The cruise encountered three distinct phytoplankton bloom regions, consisting of two blooms with moderate DMS levels, and a high biomass, dinoflagellate-dominated bloom with high seawater DMS levels (> 15 nM). Gas transfer coefficients were considerably scattered at wind speeds above 5 m s(-1). Bin averaging the data resulted in a linear relationship between wind speed and mean gas transfer velocity consistent with that previously observed. However, the wind-speed-binned gas transfer data distribution at all wind …


Role Of 5'Tg3'-Interacting Factors (Tgifs) In Vorinostat (Hdac Inhibitor)-Mediated Corneal Fibrosis Inhibition, Ajay Sharma, Nishant R. Sinha, Saad Siddiqui, Rajiv R. Mohan Jan 2015

Role Of 5'Tg3'-Interacting Factors (Tgifs) In Vorinostat (Hdac Inhibitor)-Mediated Corneal Fibrosis Inhibition, Ajay Sharma, Nishant R. Sinha, Saad Siddiqui, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose: We have previously reported that vorinostat, an FDA-approved, clinically used histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, attenuates corneal fibrosis in vivo in rabbits by blocking transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). The 5′TG3′-interacting factors (TGIFs) are transcriptional repressors of TGFβ1 signaling via the Smad pathway. The present study was designed to explore the expression of TGIFs in human corneal fibroblasts and to investigate their role in mediating the antifibrotic effect of vorinostat.

Methods: Human corneal fibroblast cultures were generated from donor corneas. RNA isolation, cDNA preparation, and PCR were performed to detect the presence of TGIF1 and TGIF2 transcripts. The cultures were …