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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

School-Based Development And Implementation Of An Educational Toolkit, Chantel M. Kilford Ms May 2023

School-Based Development And Implementation Of An Educational Toolkit, Chantel M. Kilford Ms

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

The purpose of this evidence-based change in practice is to increase knowledge and confidence among healthcare providers and teachers within a high school setting by providing an educational tool kit about behavioral disorders in children. The disorders that will be focused upon are conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and common co-morbidities of these disorders. There will be education about an appropriate childhood, evidence based mental health assessment tool that assesses childhood mental health, including how to score the tool and interpret the results. Evidence suggests that healthcare providers and teachers are not confident or knowledgeable about identification, assessment, and behavioral …


Measuring Outcomes Of Occupational Therapy Facilitated In Natural Settings With Young Children, Amie Smith, Deepak Dale, Brinda Saini, Zoe Peters, Amanda Laccone May 2023

Measuring Outcomes Of Occupational Therapy Facilitated In Natural Settings With Young Children, Amie Smith, Deepak Dale, Brinda Saini, Zoe Peters, Amanda Laccone

Occupational Therapy | Graduate Capstone Projects

To date, there is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of Occupational Therapy (OT) services delivered outside in nature. This study explored the benefits of OT intervention in Natural Settings (NS) for children by examining development in the areas of self-regulation, social skills, sensory processing, confidence, and motor skills. A quantitative, quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design was used in this study. Researchers partnered with a local outpatient OT clinic that offers an 8-week outdoor program. Seven children and their parents were recruited and participated in the study. A modified version of the COPM and two BOT-2 subtests, along with a novel log …


Honors Thesis – Awareness Of Autism In Black And Brown Communities, Varun Kota Jan 2023

Honors Thesis – Awareness Of Autism In Black And Brown Communities, Varun Kota

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects a multitude of races and ethnicities as its impact varies from person to person. ASD is typically diagnosed around the age of two to three years old since signs and symptoms of Autism become clinically apparent at that time. Increased reporting of Autism in local communities has surged from diagnostic tools and criteria. However, even with these advancements, the African American community suffers a delayed diagnosis of ASD. This issue poses problems for both the parents and children with Autism and has broader implications for the South Florida community; opportunities are limited for developmental services …


N-Back Accuracy And Neural Activation In Dld, Ronald Gillam Jan 2023

N-Back Accuracy And Neural Activation In Dld, Ronald Gillam

Browse all Datasets

The present study was designed to explore the general cognitive mechanisms in WM that are often found to be impaired in children with DLD. A continuous auditory N-back task was used to probe cognitive abilities such as sustained attention, storage, updating, and inhibition in monolingual TD children and children with DLD. FNIRS was used to examine the hemodynamic response patterns in the left DLPFC and IPL as children performed 0-back, 1-back, and 2-back tasks. The 0-back task was used in our analysis as a control for sustained attention. The research questions were: 1) Are there differences in N-back response accuracy …


Measuring Outcomes Of Occupational Therapy Facilitated In Natural Settings With Young Children, Amie Smith, Zoe Peters, Brinda Saini, Deepak Dale, Amanda Laccone Jan 2023

Measuring Outcomes Of Occupational Therapy Facilitated In Natural Settings With Young Children, Amie Smith, Zoe Peters, Brinda Saini, Deepak Dale, Amanda Laccone

Occupational Therapy | Student Research Posters

To date, there is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of Occupational Therapy (OT) services delivered outside in nature. This study explored the benefits of OT intervention in Natural Settings (NS) for children by examining development in the areas of self-regulation, social skills, sensory processing, confidence, and motor skills. A quantitative, quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design was used in this study. Researchers partnered with a local outpatient OT clinic that offers an 8-week outdoor program. Seven children and their parents were recruited and participated in the study. A modified version of the COPM and two BOT-2 subtests, along with a novel log …


The Effects Of Screen Time On Children, Jacqueline Valdepenas Jan 2023

The Effects Of Screen Time On Children, Jacqueline Valdepenas

Nursing | Senior Theses

With the development of technology continuing to grow at a fast-paced pace in society, children are now becoming exposed to such technology at a younger age. The introduction of smartphones and tablets, which is defined as screen time in this paper, are being introduced to children as young as 6 months of age. Instead of children playing with toys recommended for their age, they use screen time for their play needs and entertainment. Some parents use screen time as a distraction and/or relief for their own needs when the child is upset or they’re unable to tend to the child. …


Safe Practices For Preventing Covid-19 Among School-Aged Children, Meleena Reyelle Banda-Garcia Dec 2022

Safe Practices For Preventing Covid-19 Among School-Aged Children, Meleena Reyelle Banda-Garcia

Nursing | Senior Theses

Communicable diseases and infections are common health problems among children. Among the most impactful communicable diseases present today is COVID-19, a disease caused by a virus named SARS-CoV-2, which has forced many school closures due to rapid transmission. Despite children not being the main driving factor of the spread of the disease, severe complications underlying COVID-19 incidence have resulted in increased hospitalization among school-age children.The initial global response to the spread of COVID-19 included the closure of school systems; however as the disease continues to be effectively managed, communities are starting to re-open schools partially or entirely nationwide. Although pharmaceutical …


Improving The Perioperative Experience Of Patients And Families In A Pediatric Setting, Anjanette Pong Dec 2022

Improving The Perioperative Experience Of Patients And Families In A Pediatric Setting, Anjanette Pong

Student Scholarly Projects

Practice Problem: The experience of surgery for pediatric patients and their families can be dependent on multiple factors including adequate preparation, English language proficiency and realistic expectations. Anxiety can contribute to a negative experience that may result in poor outcomes and a damaging reflection of the healthcare team and organization.

PICOT: The PICOT question that guided this project was: In preoperative pediatric patients and their families, how do therapeutic communication style and the provision of information about the perioperative experience affect their healthcare experience over eight weeks?

Evidence: A multi-modal approach to providing tailored preoperative education for the child and …


Tip-Over Injuries Among Children: Data From An Urban Emergency Department Of Karachi, Pakistan, Rubaba Naeem, Asrar Ali, Ahmed Raheem Buksh, Ayesha Quddusi, Uzma Rahim Khan Nov 2022

Tip-Over Injuries Among Children: Data From An Urban Emergency Department Of Karachi, Pakistan, Rubaba Naeem, Asrar Ali, Ahmed Raheem Buksh, Ayesha Quddusi, Uzma Rahim Khan

Department of Emergency Medicine

Introduction: Most unintentional injuries among children occur in the home environment. Tip-overs, defined as incidents where heavy objects fall on children due to some type of interaction, are one of the reasons for injuries inside the home. This study aims to determine injury patterns and outcomes for child injuries resulting from tip-overs in the home environment as reported in the emergency department.
Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric (under 18 years) tip-overs injuries occurred in years 2010 to 2015 at the Aga Khan University Hospital. Furthermore, parents of injured children participated in phone interviews to provide information …


The Role Of Metformin In Treatment Of Weight Gain Associated With Atypical Antipsychotic Treatment In Children And Adolescents: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Randomized Controlled Trials, Zeeshan Mansuri, Ramkrishna Makani, Chintan Trivedi, Mahwish Adnan, Ramu Vadukapuram, John Rafael, Ashutosh Lodhi, Abhishek Reddy Nov 2022

The Role Of Metformin In Treatment Of Weight Gain Associated With Atypical Antipsychotic Treatment In Children And Adolescents: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Randomized Controlled Trials, Zeeshan Mansuri, Ramkrishna Makani, Chintan Trivedi, Mahwish Adnan, Ramu Vadukapuram, John Rafael, Ashutosh Lodhi, Abhishek Reddy

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Introduction: Second-generation antipsychotics are associated with significant weight gain. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the efficacy and safety of metformin for the treatment of weight gain in children and young adults treated with second-generation antipsychotics.

Methods: We followed PRISMA guidelines to evaluated studies published before March 2020 in Medline, Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane library database, annual scientific sessions of the American Psychiatric Association, American Academy of Child and Adolescent, Psychiatry, and American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Studies included compared metformin with the placebo for management of weight gain in children and adolescents taking atypical …


Mothers’ Satisfaction With Distraction As A Postoperative Pain Management Intervention For Their Child: An Interventional Study, Edlin Glane Mathias Dr, Mamatha Shivananda Pai Dr, Vijay Kumar Dr, Vasudeva Guddattu Dr, Ann-Cathrine Bramhagen Dr Nov 2022

Mothers’ Satisfaction With Distraction As A Postoperative Pain Management Intervention For Their Child: An Interventional Study, Edlin Glane Mathias Dr, Mamatha Shivananda Pai Dr, Vijay Kumar Dr, Vasudeva Guddattu Dr, Ann-Cathrine Bramhagen Dr

Journal of Perioperative Nursing

Aim: This study aimed to investigate mothers’ levels of satisfaction with distraction as a post-operative pain management intervention for their child.

Background: Although the number of studies on paediatric pain management has increased over time, research into non-pharmacological post-operative pain management remains inadequate, indicating that more research is required.

Design: A posttest-only control group design was adopted to measure mothers’ levels of satisfaction with distraction as a non-pharmacological post-operative pain management intervention for their child.

Methods: The study included 160 mothers and their children undergoing elective surgery in a paediatric surgical unit. Mothers and children were randomly allocated to intervention …


The Enigma Of Primary Hypertension In Childhood, Bonita Falkner Nov 2022

The Enigma Of Primary Hypertension In Childhood, Bonita Falkner

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Beginning in the 1970s, hypertension in children and adolescents has been defined as systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure (BP) that is equal to or greater than the 95th percentile of the normal BP distribution in healthy children. The definition of hypertension in adults is based on longitudinal data that links a BP level with an increased risk for subsequent adverse outcomes related to hypertension including heart failure, kidney failure, stroke, or death. The statistical definition of hypertension continues to be used in childhood because there have been no data that link a BP level in childhood with a heightened risk …


The Childhood Acute Illness And Nutrition (Chain) Network Nested Case-Cohort Study Protocol: A Multi-Omics Approach To Understanding Mortality Among Children In Sub-Saharan Africa And South Asia, James M. Njunge, Kirkby Tickell, Abdoulaye Hama Diallo, Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayeem Bin Shahi, Md Amran Gazi, Ali Faisal Saleem, Zaubina Kazi, Syed Ali, Caroline Tigoi, Ezekiel Mupere Nov 2022

The Childhood Acute Illness And Nutrition (Chain) Network Nested Case-Cohort Study Protocol: A Multi-Omics Approach To Understanding Mortality Among Children In Sub-Saharan Africa And South Asia, James M. Njunge, Kirkby Tickell, Abdoulaye Hama Diallo, Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayeem Bin Shahi, Md Amran Gazi, Ali Faisal Saleem, Zaubina Kazi, Syed Ali, Caroline Tigoi, Ezekiel Mupere

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Introduction: Many acutely ill children in low- and middle-income settings have a high risk of mortality both during and after hospitalisation despite guideline-based care. Understanding the biological mechanisms underpinning mortality may suggest optimal pathways to target for interventions to further reduce mortality. The Childhood Acute Illness and Nutrition (CHAIN) Network ( www.chainnnetwork.org) Nested Case-Cohort Study (CNCC) aims to investigate biological mechanisms leading to inpatient and post-discharge mortality through an integrated multi-omic approach.
Methods and analysis; The CNCC comprises a subset of participants from the CHAIN cohort (1278/3101 hospitalised participants, including 350 children who died and 658 survivors, and …


The Effect Of Linguistic Context And Explicit Contrast On The Fast Mapping Of Verbs, Samantha L. Scripture Oct 2022

The Effect Of Linguistic Context And Explicit Contrast On The Fast Mapping Of Verbs, Samantha L. Scripture

Doctoral Dissertations

In typical language acquisition, word learning is an induction problem. When word learners hear an unfamiliar word, they make assumptions about the possible referent and its meaning. For nouns, this is relatively easy as word learners can rely on perceptual and pragmatic cues. For verbs, these two cues are fleeting, and word learners require additional kinds of cues for their meaning to be acquired. Two cues that affect verb learning include linguistic context and contrastive information. The current study used a within group comparison to examine the effect of linguistic context (i.e., rich vs. sparse) and contrastive information (i.e., implicit …


Perspectives Of Middle Eastern Immigrant Parents Regarding Accessing Healthcare Services For Children During The Covid-19 Pandemic In London, Ontario, Sarvenaz Mehrabi Oct 2022

Perspectives Of Middle Eastern Immigrant Parents Regarding Accessing Healthcare Services For Children During The Covid-19 Pandemic In London, Ontario, Sarvenaz Mehrabi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, immigrants have been disproportionally affected and faced difficulties in accessing healthcare services. While it has been reported that the rate of pediatric healthcare utilization decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, the reasons behind this decline are unclear. It has been suggested that immigrant children might be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions regarding accessing healthcare services. This study aims to understand the Middle Eastern immigrant parents’ perspectives regarding their access to healthcare services for their children in the London, Ontario, area during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: This qualitative study was conducted with an interpretive description methodology …


Poliovirus Immunity Among Children Aged 6-11 And 36-48 Months In 14 Polio High-Risk Provinces Of Afghanistan: A Health-Facility-Based Study, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Maureen Martinez, Noha H. Farag, William S. Hendley, Derek Ehrhardt, Imran Ahmed, Imtiaz Hussain, William Weldon, Ahmed M. Kassem Oct 2022

Poliovirus Immunity Among Children Aged 6-11 And 36-48 Months In 14 Polio High-Risk Provinces Of Afghanistan: A Health-Facility-Based Study, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Maureen Martinez, Noha H. Farag, William S. Hendley, Derek Ehrhardt, Imran Ahmed, Imtiaz Hussain, William Weldon, Ahmed M. Kassem

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Afghanistan is one of two countries where wild poliovirus (WPV) type 1 remains endemic. We conducted a facility-based cross-sectional survey of antipoliovirus antibodies in children in 14 provinces of Afghanistan. The provinces were selected based on programmatic priorities for polio eradication. Children aged 6-11 and 36-48 months attending outpatient clinics were enrolled in the study. We collected venous blood, isolated serum, and conducted neutralization assays to detect poliovirus neutralizing antibodies. A total of 2086 children from the 14 provinces were enrolled. Among the enrolled children, 44.3% were girls; the median age in the 6-11-month group was 9.4 months, and in …


Screen Time Among Children With Mental, Emotional, Developmental, Or Behavioral Problems (Medb) - A Us Population-Based Study, Saral R. Desai, Amanda Shapiro Oct 2022

Screen Time Among Children With Mental, Emotional, Developmental, Or Behavioral Problems (Medb) - A Us Population-Based Study, Saral R. Desai, Amanda Shapiro

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


Bullying Victimization Among Children With Mental, Emotional, Developmental, Or Behavioral Problems - A Us Population-Based Study, Saral Desai Oct 2022

Bullying Victimization Among Children With Mental, Emotional, Developmental, Or Behavioral Problems - A Us Population-Based Study, Saral Desai

Tower Health Research Day

No abstract provided.


Mosaic Clinical Trial Statistical Analysis Plan Primary Analysis V1.2, Gareth Lingham, Emmanuel Kobia-Acquah, James Loughman, Daniel I. Flitcroft Oct 2022

Mosaic Clinical Trial Statistical Analysis Plan Primary Analysis V1.2, Gareth Lingham, Emmanuel Kobia-Acquah, James Loughman, Daniel I. Flitcroft

Other Resources

The Myopia Outcome Study of Atropine Treatment in Children (MOSAIC) is an investigator-led, double-masked randomised controlled trial of nightly atropine 0.01% eye drops compared to nightly placebo eye drops. A previously published protocol paper outlines the rationale, objective and sample size calculation for the study.1 A total of 250 participants were enrolled in the study and were randomised 2:1 to active treatment and placebo, respectively. This document outlines the plan for analysis of the 24-month outcomes of the MOSAIC.


Effective Occupational Therapy Interventions To Decrease Picky Eating In Children: A Systematic Review, Savannah L. Jacobsen, Josie Cox, Alli Bos, Cherokee Ferguson, Stacey Smallfield, Molly Whitlow Oct 2022

Effective Occupational Therapy Interventions To Decrease Picky Eating In Children: A Systematic Review, Savannah L. Jacobsen, Josie Cox, Alli Bos, Cherokee Ferguson, Stacey Smallfield, Molly Whitlow

Student Systematic Reviews: Occupational Therapy

PURPOSE: Picky eating is related to the lack of consumption in food variety by children when shown different foods (Wolstenholme et al., 2020). A 2015 study reported that almost half of children experience a period of picky eating at some point during early childhood, including almost 15% of children for whom picky eating does not resolve by age 6 (Cardona et al., 2015). The purpose of this systematic review is to identify interventions within the scope of occupational therapy that increase food acceptance in children under the age of seven years who demonstrate picky eating characteristics and who have no …


Changes In Brain Structural Volume And White Matter Abnormalities In Young Perinatally-Acquired Hiv Infected Children Treated With Antiretroviral Therapy, Netsiri Dumrongpisutikul, Kultida Chaiyagool Oct 2022

Changes In Brain Structural Volume And White Matter Abnormalities In Young Perinatally-Acquired Hiv Infected Children Treated With Antiretroviral Therapy, Netsiri Dumrongpisutikul, Kultida Chaiyagool

Chulalongkorn Medical Journal

Background: Several studies have reported human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) effects on brain volume and found white matter signal abnormality (WMSA) on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Objective: To evaluate brain volume and WMSA of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated perinatally-acquired HIV infected (PHIV) young children. Methods: From November 2016 to March 2018, MRI of 19 ART-treated PHIV young children, aged 12 - 56 months, were analyzed for structural brain volume using FreeSurfer software with manual correction. WMSA were classified into 4 grades. Comparison between the brain volumes and WMSA between early and late ART-treated groups as well as changes of the brain …


Developing Culturally Appropriate Food Literacy Resources For Aboriginal Children With Foodbank Wa’S Superhero Foods®, Jennifer Tartaglia, Roslyn Giglia, Jill Darby Oct 2022

Developing Culturally Appropriate Food Literacy Resources For Aboriginal Children With Foodbank Wa’S Superhero Foods®, Jennifer Tartaglia, Roslyn Giglia, Jill Darby

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Issue addressed

In Australia, food sovereignty of traditional landowners has been marginalised by the globalisation of food systems and resulted in limited opportunities for children to experience familiar bush tucker foods as healthy choices, particularly in a school environment. Superhero Foods® themed teaching resources focus on the development of nutrition education materials that included traditional Aboriginal foods together with contemporary foods readily available in regional/remote communities.

Methods

Consultation with an Aboriginal expert and Aboriginal artist; local, regional/remote teachers and stakeholders informed the development of tailored resources including food cartoon characters, school lesson plans and a storybook. The latter was …


Development Of Thai Sensory Patterns Assessment Tool For Children Aged 3–12 Years: Caregiver-Version, Revadee Sutthachai, Anuchart Kaunnil, Supaluck Phadsri, Ilada Pomngen, Mandy Stanley, Tiam Srikhamjak Oct 2022

Development Of Thai Sensory Patterns Assessment Tool For Children Aged 3–12 Years: Caregiver-Version, Revadee Sutthachai, Anuchart Kaunnil, Supaluck Phadsri, Ilada Pomngen, Mandy Stanley, Tiam Srikhamjak

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Most existing tools for measuring sensory patterns of children have been developed in Western countries. These tools are complex and may not be culturally appropriate for other contexts that require specific knowledge in the clinical perspective. The aim of this study was to develop a simplified tool called the Thai Sensory Patterns Assessment (TSPA) tool for children. It is designed for children ages 3–12 years old to be completed by their caregiver. The process of creating the tool consisted of drafting a questionnaire and interpreting the result. Partial psychometrics were completed during item development, content validity of items was assessed …


The Ccr2+ Monocyte Subsets Increase In Obese Boys But Not Girls With Abnormally High Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Pilot Study, María José Garcés-Hernández, Karen Pedraza-Escudero, Nayely Garibay-Nieto, Joselin Hernández-Ruiz, Jessica Lakshmi Prieto-Chávez, Lourdes Andrea Arriaga-Pizano, Eréndira Villanueva-Ortega, Galileo Escobedo, Aaron Noe Manjarrez-Reyna, Juan C. Lopez-Alvarenga Sep 2022

The Ccr2+ Monocyte Subsets Increase In Obese Boys But Not Girls With Abnormally High Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Pilot Study, María José Garcés-Hernández, Karen Pedraza-Escudero, Nayely Garibay-Nieto, Joselin Hernández-Ruiz, Jessica Lakshmi Prieto-Chávez, Lourdes Andrea Arriaga-Pizano, Eréndira Villanueva-Ortega, Galileo Escobedo, Aaron Noe Manjarrez-Reyna, Juan C. Lopez-Alvarenga

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

The differential contribution of monocyte subsets expressing the C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) to subclinical atherosclerosis in girls and boys is unclear. In this pilot study, we compared classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocyte subsets expressing CCR2 in 33 obese children of both sexes aged 8 to 16 divided by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), considering values above the 75th percentile (p75) as abnormally high IMT. Obesity was defined as body mass index above the 95th percentile according to age and sex. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that boys but not girls with IMT ≥ p75 displayed increased CCR2+ cell percentage and …


Assessing The Effectiveness Of The Mover Program For Treating Attention Deficit In Children (Mover: Movement Opportunities Through Vestibular Engagement Rhythm), Lindsay B. Williams, Camille Skubik-Peplaski Sep 2022

Assessing The Effectiveness Of The Mover Program For Treating Attention Deficit In Children (Mover: Movement Opportunities Through Vestibular Engagement Rhythm), Lindsay B. Williams, Camille Skubik-Peplaski

Student Journal of Occupational Therapy

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of participation in a movement- to music program on the attention span of elementary school-aged children who have attention deficits. The hypothesis was that participants would demonstrate improved attention on the Test of Sustained Selective Attention (TOSSA) (Kovacs, 2015).

Methods: This quantitative study involved nine children who participated in four movement-to-music sessions with a staggered stop over a period of six weeks. The study incorporated a single group pre-test/post-test design, and a non-parametric Sign Test was utilized to analyze data from the TOSSA subcategories of concentration, detection, …


The Prevalence Of Cerebral Palsy In Children Aged 0-6 Years In China:A Meta-Analysis, Yuxia Feng, Wei Peng, Xin Li, Shunbo Yang, Shiyu Liu, Shuqing Lu Sep 2022

The Prevalence Of Cerebral Palsy In Children Aged 0-6 Years In China:A Meta-Analysis, Yuxia Feng, Wei Peng, Xin Li, Shunbo Yang, Shiyu Liu, Shuqing Lu

General Practice in China

BackgroundAs one of the main causes of children's disability, cerebral palsy (hereinafter referred to as CP) affects the improvement of our population quality. At present, the results of researches on the prevalence of children suffering from CP in our country are quite different, and there is a lack of epidemiological studies based on larger sample sizes and the current prevalence of CP. ObjectiveTo learn about the prevalence of CP in children aged 0~6 years in China. MethodsLiteratures on the prevalence of CP in children aged 0~6 years in China were retrievaled through computer in PubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane …


Frequency Of Bystander Exposure To Antibiotics For Enteropathogenic Bacteria Among Young Children In Low-Resource Settings, Elizabeth T. Rogawski Mcquade, Stephanie A. Brennhofer, Sarah E. Elwood, Timothy L. Mcmurry, Joseph A. Lewnard, Estomih R. Mduma, Sanjaya Shrestha, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Pascal O. Bessong, Gagandeep Kang Sep 2022

Frequency Of Bystander Exposure To Antibiotics For Enteropathogenic Bacteria Among Young Children In Low-Resource Settings, Elizabeth T. Rogawski Mcquade, Stephanie A. Brennhofer, Sarah E. Elwood, Timothy L. Mcmurry, Joseph A. Lewnard, Estomih R. Mduma, Sanjaya Shrestha, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Pascal O. Bessong, Gagandeep Kang

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Children in low-resource settings carry enteric pathogens asymptomatically and are frequently treated with antibiotics, resulting in opportunities for pathogens to be exposed to antibiotics when not the target of treatment (i.e., bystander exposure). We quantified the frequency of bystander antibiotic exposures for enteric pathogens and estimated associations with resistance among children in eight low-resource settings. We analyzed 15,697 antibiotic courses from 1,715 children aged 0 to 2 y from the MAL-ED birth cohort. We calculated the incidence of bystander exposures and attributed exposures to respiratory and diarrheal illnesses. We associated bystander exposure with phenotypic susceptibility of E. coli isolates in …


Early Intervention In Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Need For An International Approach, Amina Abubakar, Patricia Kipkemoi Sep 2022

Early Intervention In Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Need For An International Approach, Amina Abubakar, Patricia Kipkemoi

Institute for Human Development

Globally, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects approximately 1 in 100 children. Ideally, a diagnosis is made with the onset of symptoms before 3 years of age; however, a diagnosis may sometimes be delayed until 6 years or later. There has been an increase in ASD research over the last few decades, with many systematic reviews and meta-analyses synthesizing research evidence for ASD interventions in children. Evidence tends to support the notion that intervention for ASD must occur as early as possible, close to the critical periods when early social and communication skills are developing. Therefore, early screening and intervention could …


Clinicians' Perspectives On The Effectiveness Of Trauma - Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With African American Children: A Qualitative Study, Jada Carter Aug 2022

Clinicians' Perspectives On The Effectiveness Of Trauma - Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With African American Children: A Qualitative Study, Jada Carter

Doctoral Dissertations

Literature exploring clinicians' perspectives on the effectiveness of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with African American children who suffer from trauma-related disorders is very limited. The current study examined clinicians' perspectives on the TF-CBT model when utilized with this population, including their experiences working with African American children and families with observable types of trauma-related disorders. This research study also explored the various facets of trauma that African Americans encounter in childhood and the barriers that prevent them from receiving adequate mental health care. Thematic analysis was utilized to explore themes that emerged when treating African American children with TF-CBT. Five …


Sugar Shenanigans: Curbing The Added Sugar Epidemic In Children And Adolescents, Amy Krazl, Tonia Mailow Aug 2022

Sugar Shenanigans: Curbing The Added Sugar Epidemic In Children And Adolescents, Amy Krazl, Tonia Mailow

Faculty & Staff Research and Creative Activity

Background: The consumption of added sugar is one of the most dangerous problems regarding the health of society’s youngest generation. Children today consume added sugar at an alarming rate, on average surpassing the daily limit recommended by the American Heart Association. This study aims to educate and empower the child and adolescent population for the purpose of increasing knowledge and improving dietary practices. Methods: An educational program, entitled “Sugar Shenanigans” was delivered to groups of children between the ages of 8 and 13. Data was gathered from pre- and post-tests and “Impact Level Questionnaire” surveys for both participants and parents/guardians …