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2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 8676

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Spleen As A Distinct Site For Dendritic Cell Haematopoiesis, Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill Jul 2015

Spleen As A Distinct Site For Dendritic Cell Haematopoiesis, Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill

Jonathan Tan

No abstract provided.


Motivational Interview (Mi) Using Co-Active Life Coaching Skills As A Treatment For Obesity, Courtney Newnham-Kanas, Jennifer Irwin, Don Morrow Jan 2013

Motivational Interview (Mi) Using Co-Active Life Coaching Skills As A Treatment For Obesity, Courtney Newnham-Kanas, Jennifer Irwin, Don Morrow

Donald Morrow

No abstract provided.


Change-Ing Obesity: A Methodological Account Of A Comprehensive Study For Obese University Students, Erin Pearson, Jennifer Irwin, Don Morrow Jan 2013

Change-Ing Obesity: A Methodological Account Of A Comprehensive Study For Obese University Students, Erin Pearson, Jennifer Irwin, Don Morrow

Donald Morrow

No abstract provided.


Motivational Interviewing For Special Populations Within Dentistry, Don Morrow, Jennifer Irwin Jan 2013

Motivational Interviewing For Special Populations Within Dentistry, Don Morrow, Jennifer Irwin

Donald Morrow

No abstract provided.


Qualitative Assessment Of Motivational Interviewing (Mi) Using Co-Active Life Coaching Skills As A Treatment For Obesity, Courtney Newnham-Kanas, Jennifer Irwin, Don Morrow Jan 2013

Qualitative Assessment Of Motivational Interviewing (Mi) Using Co-Active Life Coaching Skills As A Treatment For Obesity, Courtney Newnham-Kanas, Jennifer Irwin, Don Morrow

Donald Morrow

No abstract provided.


Risk Communication And College Students: The 2009 H1n1 Pandemic Influenza, Francisco Soto Mas Jan 2012

Risk Communication And College Students: The 2009 H1n1 Pandemic Influenza, Francisco Soto Mas

Francisco Soto Mas

Objective The purpose of this study was to assess university students’ self-reported knowledge, behavior, and behavioral intention regarding H1N1 influenza. Method A cross-sectional, causal comparative study with purposive sampling was conducted at a major university in the southwestern U.S. Data were collected in early spring 2010 using a 24-item survey. Analyses included frequencies, descriptive statistics, correlation, linear regression, and multivariate analysis of variance. Results A total of 483 students participated. The majority of participants (69%) indicated taking “specific precautions” to prevent H1N1 influenza, but one-third lacked knowledge about symptoms and treatment. Only 10% had been vaccinated, and approximately half ...


Effects Of Response Elaboration Training On Sentence Production Of Persons With Chronic Agrammatic Aphasia, Ryan S. Husak Dec 2011

Effects Of Response Elaboration Training On Sentence Production Of Persons With Chronic Agrammatic Aphasia, Ryan S. Husak

Theses and Dissertations--Rehabilitation Sciences

Purpose: Response Elaboration Training (RET) is a treatment program for increasing the amount of information contained in the speech of individuals with aphasia. This study employed a sentence production task (SPT) to examine whether RET will (1) generalize to a task not worked on in treatment and (2) affect syntactic performance.

Methods and Procedures: Three adults with chronic non-fluent Broca’s aphasia received RET in this prospective, repeated case study. The dependent variable was a SPT requiring the participant to put a verb in a sentence. Changes in the syntactic performance of the participant’s sentence productions were classified across ...


Pengaruh Pemberian Kombinasi Ekstrak Air Akar Kucing (Acalypha Indica Linn.) Dengan Ekstrak Etanol 70% Rimpang Jahe Merah (Zingiber Officinale Rosc.) Terhadap Penurunan Kadar Asam Urat Tikus Putih, Anita Ayu Dwi Ajie Saputri, Juheini Amin, Azizahwati Azizahwati Dec 2011

Pengaruh Pemberian Kombinasi Ekstrak Air Akar Kucing (Acalypha Indica Linn.) Dengan Ekstrak Etanol 70% Rimpang Jahe Merah (Zingiber Officinale Rosc.) Terhadap Penurunan Kadar Asam Urat Tikus Putih, Anita Ayu Dwi Ajie Saputri, Juheini Amin, Azizahwati Azizahwati

Majalah Ilmu Kefarmasian

Hyperuricemia treatment can be given roots of Acalypha indica Linn. Combined with red ginger plant (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as anti-inflammatory drug. This study aimed to examine the effect of aqueous extract the roots of Acalypha indica Linn. with 70%ethanol extract of rhizome of Red Ginger from the decrease in blood uric acid levels of male rats made hiperurisemia by potassium oxonate. There were 35 male white rats of Sprague Dawley strain weighing 180 g to 200 gs were divided into seven groups. Three groups were given a combination of extract, consist of a fixed dose 5.4 g/200 ...


Optimasi Kecepatan Disintegrasi Tablet Terdisintegrasi Cepat (Fast Disintegrating Tablet) Domperidon Dengan Superdisintegran Sodium Starch Glycolate, Imam Prabowo, Iskandarsyah Iskandarsyah Dec 2011

Optimasi Kecepatan Disintegrasi Tablet Terdisintegrasi Cepat (Fast Disintegrating Tablet) Domperidon Dengan Superdisintegran Sodium Starch Glycolate, Imam Prabowo, Iskandarsyah Iskandarsyah

Majalah Ilmu Kefarmasian

Fast disintegrating tablet is one of advanced pharmaceutical technologies. Fast disintegrating tablets is a tablet when placed on the tongue will be instantly disintegrated and releases the drug with the help of saliva. This technology can solve the problem of using oral drug in patients such as pediatrics, geriatrics or in circumstances where the patient can not swallow tablets conventionally with the help of water. The purpose of this study was to optimize the speed of disintegration in fast disintegrating tablet formulations both with varying concentrations of sodium starch glycolate. Optimization the speed of disintegration was done by using sodium ...


Partition Decoupling For Multi-Gene Analysis Of Gene Expression Profiling Data, Rosemary Braun, Gregory Leibon, Scott Pauls, Daniel Rockmore Dec 2011

Partition Decoupling For Multi-Gene Analysis Of Gene Expression Profiling Data, Rosemary Braun, Gregory Leibon, Scott Pauls, Daniel Rockmore

Dartmouth Scholarship

Background:

Multi-gene interactions likely play an important role in the development of complex phenotypes, and relationships between interacting genes pose a challenging statistical problem in microarray analysis, since the genes involved in these interactions may not exhibit marginal differential expression. As a result, it is necessary to develop tools that can identify sets of interacting genes that discriminate phenotypes without requiring that the classification boundary between phenotypes be convex.

Results:

We describe an extension and application of a new unsupervised statistical learning technique, known as the Partition Decoupling Method (PDM), to gene expression microarray data. This method may be used ...


Prevalence And Risk Factors Of Major Depressive Disorder In Hiv/Aids As Seen In Semi-Urban Entebbe District, Uganda, Eugene Kinyanda, Susan Hoskins, Juliet Nakku, Saira Nawaz, Vikram Patel Dec 2011

Prevalence And Risk Factors Of Major Depressive Disorder In Hiv/Aids As Seen In Semi-Urban Entebbe District, Uganda, Eugene Kinyanda, Susan Hoskins, Juliet Nakku, Saira Nawaz, Vikram Patel

Dartmouth Scholarship

Background:

Not much is known about the risk factors of major depressive disorder (MDD) in HIV/AIDS in the African socio-cultural context. Therefore a study was undertaken to examine the prevalence and risk factors of MDD in HIV/AIDS in semi-urban Uganda.

Methods:

A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 618 respondents attending two HIV clinics in Uganda.

Results:

Prevalence of MDD was 8.1%. Factors associated with MDD at univariate analysis only were female gender, family history of mental illness, negative coping style, alcohol dependency disorder, food insecurity and stress; not associated with MDD were social support, neurocognitive impairment, CD4 ...


Herbal Marijuana Alternatives Investigation: K2 And Spice: A Masters Thesis, Christopher D. Rosenbaum Dec 2011

Herbal Marijuana Alternatives Investigation: K2 And Spice: A Masters Thesis, Christopher D. Rosenbaum

Morningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses

Background

Herbal marijuana alternatives (HMA), legal plant products adulterated with synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists, represent a growing public health concern. Only a few case reports describe HMA and synthetic cannabinoid’s clinical toxicity. We describe an outbreak of HMA abuse primarily in the Midwest, the clinical presentation of HMA toxicity, and clinical and forensic testing.

Methods

During the course of ongoing surveillance for emerging drugs of abuse between November 2009 and August 2010, we retrospectively and prospectively identified a convenience sample comprising 81 cases of abuse of HMA products. Subject demographics, vital signs, lab results and urine were obtained (when ...


Functional Evaluation Of The Urinary Tract By Duplex Doppler Ultrasonography In Patients With Acute Renal Colic., Raza Sayani, Muhammad Ali, Kashif Shazlee, Rana Shoaib Hamid, Kamran Hamid Dec 2011

Functional Evaluation Of The Urinary Tract By Duplex Doppler Ultrasonography In Patients With Acute Renal Colic., Raza Sayani, Muhammad Ali, Kashif Shazlee, Rana Shoaib Hamid, Kamran Hamid

Department of Radiology

Purpose: To determine the role of duplex Doppler ultrasonography (DDU) in Patients with acute unilateral renal obstruction. Subjects And Methods:A total of 161 Patients with suspected renal colic due to urolithiasis were evaluated by DDU followed by intravenous urography (IVU). The mean intra-arterial resistive index (RI) and the difference of mean resistive index between both kidneys (delta RI) were determined for each person. An RI value of ≥0.70 and a delta RI value of ≥0.06 were taken as the discriminatory threshold for obstruction. IVU results were considered the " reference standard" against which renal DDU findings were compared ...


Determinants Of Prostate Survival In Arizona: Demographic And Clinical Characteristics, Gudeta D. Fufaa Dec 2011

Determinants Of Prostate Survival In Arizona: Demographic And Clinical Characteristics, Gudeta D. Fufaa

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

In investigating the determinants of survival of prostate cancer cohorts, characterization of the cohort in terms of competing underlying causes of death would be appropriate. Atherosclerotic heart disease, bronchitis, acute myocardial infarction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and stroke were found to be the major causes of death among prostate cancer cohorts aside from prostate cancer. A population-based assessment of the codeterminants of mortality and a demographic and clinical determinant of prostate cancer survival was undertaken. Average survival time and survival curves of the various age categories were significantly different. The average survival time and survival curves of ...


Earlier Surgical Intervention In Congenital Heart Disease Results In Better Outcome And Resource Utilization, Roheena Z. Panni, Awais Ashfaq, Muhammad M. Amanullah Dec 2011

Earlier Surgical Intervention In Congenital Heart Disease Results In Better Outcome And Resource Utilization, Roheena Z. Panni, Awais Ashfaq, Muhammad M. Amanullah

Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery

Background:Congenital heart disease (CHD) accounts for a major proportion of disease in the pediatric age group. The objective of the study was to estimate the cost of illness associated with CHD pre, intra and postoperatively, among Patients referred to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. This is the first study conducted to estimate the cost of managing CHD in Pakistan.

Methods:

A prevalence based cost of illness Study Design was used to estimate the cost of cardiac surgery (corrective & palliative) for congenital heart defects in children Results:The mean age at the time of surgery in group A ...


Correlation Of Cough Frequency With Treatment Efficacy In Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients In Lima, Peru, Jesus Gutierrez Dec 2011

Correlation Of Cough Frequency With Treatment Efficacy In Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients In Lima, Peru, Jesus Gutierrez

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Table Ii: Baseline Values Of Primary And Secondary Outcomes For Placebo And Botox Groups, Michael K. Flynn Dec 2011

Table Ii: Baseline Values Of Primary And Secondary Outcomes For Placebo And Botox Groups, Michael K. Flynn

Obstetrics and Gynecology Publications

Table of supplemental data to accompany an article submitted for publication by the author.


Expression Of Trichoderma Reesei Β-Mannanase In Tobacco Chloroplasts And Its Utilization In Lignocellulosic Woody Biomass Hydrolysis, Pankaj Agrawal, Dheeraj Verma, Henry Daniell Dec 2011

Expression Of Trichoderma Reesei Β-Mannanase In Tobacco Chloroplasts And Its Utilization In Lignocellulosic Woody Biomass Hydrolysis, Pankaj Agrawal, Dheeraj Verma, Henry Daniell

Departmental Papers (Dental)

Lignocellulosic ethanol offers a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuels. One among the major limitations in the lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis is unavailability of efficient and environmentally biomass degrading technologies. Plant-based production of these enzymes on large scale offers a cost-effective solution. Cellulases, hemicellulases including mannanases and other accessory enzymes are required for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. β-mannanase catalyzes endo-hydrolysis of the mannan backbone, a major constituent of woody biomass. In this study, the man1 gene encoding β-mannanase was isolated from Trichoderma reesei and expressed via the chloroplast genome. PCR and Southern hybridization analysis confirmed site-specific transgene ...


Mechanism And Regulation Of Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking Of Smad, Xiaochu Chen, Lan Xu Dec 2011

Mechanism And Regulation Of Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking Of Smad, Xiaochu Chen, Lan Xu

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Smad proteins are the intracellular mediators of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling. Smads function as transcription factors and their activities require carboxyl-terminal phosphorylation by TGF-beta receptor kinases which are embedded in the cell membrane. Therefore, the translocation of activated Smads from the cytoplasm into the nucleus is a rate-limiting step in TGF-beta signal transduction into the nucleus. On the other hand, the export of Smads out of the nucleus turns off TGF-beta effect. Such spatial control of Smad ensures a tight regulation of TGF-beta target genes. Several cross-talk pathways have been shown to affect TGF-beta signaling by impairing nuclear ...


Research Brief: "Secondary Trauma And Military Veteran Caregivers", Institute For Veterans And Military Families At Syracuse University Dec 2011

Research Brief: "Secondary Trauma And Military Veteran Caregivers", Institute For Veterans And Military Families At Syracuse University

Institute for Veterans and Military Families

This brief is about the stress that occurs for caregivers of veterans due to secondary trauma. In policy and practice, caregivers can continuously monitor themselves for symptoms of secondary trauma, maintain a balance between professional life and personal life, and promote a supportive culture within the caregiver community; policies should acknowledge that secondary trauma stressors do exist for caregivers and should look for ways to reduce the negative effects of secondary trauma stressors. Suggestions for future research include using econometric models to detect relevant factors for risk of developing secondary trauma stressors.


Cd2ap Regulates Sumoylation Of Cin85 In Podocytes, Irini Tossidou, Rainer Niedenthal, Malte Klaus, Beina Teng, Kirstin Worthmann, Benjamin King, Kevin Peterson Dec 2011

Cd2ap Regulates Sumoylation Of Cin85 In Podocytes, Irini Tossidou, Rainer Niedenthal, Malte Klaus, Beina Teng, Kirstin Worthmann, Benjamin King, Kevin Peterson

Dartmouth Scholarship

Podocytes are highly differentiated and polarized epithelial cells located on the visceral side of the glomerulus. They form an indispensable component of the glomerular filter, the slit diaphragm, formed by several transmembrane proteins and adaptor molecules. Disruption of the slit diaphragm can lead to massive proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome in mice and humans. CD2AP is an adaptor protein that is important for the maintenance of the slit diaphragm. Together with its paralogue, CIN85, CD2AP belongs to a family of adaptor proteins that are primarily described as being involved in endocytosis and downregulation of receptor tyrosine kinase activity. We have shown ...


A Critical Analysis Of The Current State Of Neurosurgery Training In Pakistan, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim, Muhammad Zubair Tahir, Saniya Siraj Godil, Rajesh Kumar, Arshad Ali Siddiqui Dec 2011

A Critical Analysis Of The Current State Of Neurosurgery Training In Pakistan, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim, Muhammad Zubair Tahir, Saniya Siraj Godil, Rajesh Kumar, Arshad Ali Siddiqui

Section of Neurosurgery

Objective: To observe interdepartmental variation in the availability of resources and academic activities within the various neurosurgery programs of Pakistan.
Methods: This was a proforma-based survey of neurosurgery trainees and young neurosurgeons of Pakistan, looking at the academic infrastructure and output of their programs. The proforma was filled by 36 respondents from 11 neurosurgery centers of the country. All these centers were accredited for neurosurgery training in Pakistan.
Results: Out of the 36 respondents, 30 were completing a Fellowship training (FCPS) and six were enrolled for a Master in Surgery (MS) program. About 80% of the participants used the Youman ...


High Fat Diet Enhances Cardiac Abnormalities In Shr Rats: Protective Role Of Heme Oxygenaseadiponectin Axis, Jian Cao, Komal Sodhi, Nitin Puri, Sumit R. Monu, Rita Rezzani, Nader G. Abraham Dec 2011

High Fat Diet Enhances Cardiac Abnormalities In Shr Rats: Protective Role Of Heme Oxygenaseadiponectin Axis, Jian Cao, Komal Sodhi, Nitin Puri, Sumit R. Monu, Rita Rezzani, Nader G. Abraham

Pharmaceutical Science and Research

Background

High dietary fat intake is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and metabolic dysfunction including obesity, cardiomyopathy and hypertension.

Methods

The present study was designed to examine effect of high fat (HF) diet on cardio-vascular structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), fed HF diet for 15 weeks, a phenotype designed to mimic metabolic syndrome.

Results

Development of metabolic syndrome like phenotype was confirmed using parameters, including body weight, total cholesterol and blood pressure levels. High fat diet impaired vascular relaxation by acetylcholine and exacerbated cardiac dysfunction in SHRs as evidenced by lower left ventricular function ...


Research Brief: "Military Service And Men’S Health Trajectories In Later Life", Institute For Veterans And Military Families At Syracuse University Dec 2011

Research Brief: "Military Service And Men’S Health Trajectories In Later Life", Institute For Veterans And Military Families At Syracuse University

Institute for Veterans and Military Families

This brief is about the health and age-related changes of wartime male veterans during later years in life as compared to non-veterans and non-wartime veterans. In policy and practice, veterans reaching retirement age, with help from their families, should pay attention to their health in case any conditions arise, and health policies should look at early-life health in addition to later-life health. Suggestions for future research include performing studies over time on younger veterans as they age and clearing up biases within the sampling processes.


A Review Of Baobab (Adansonia Digitata) Products: Effect Of Processing Techniques, Medicinal Properties And Uses, Donatien Kabore, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani, Bréhima Diawara, Clarise Compaoré, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Mogens Jacobsen Dec 2011

A Review Of Baobab (Adansonia Digitata) Products: Effect Of Processing Techniques, Medicinal Properties And Uses, Donatien Kabore, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani, Bréhima Diawara, Clarise Compaoré, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Mogens Jacobsen

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

A general literature review including the effect of processing techniques, medicinal value and uses of baobab tree is reported in this manuscript. Baobab tree has multi-purpose uses, as it produces food and non-food products such as medicines, fuel, timber, fodder. Every part of the baobab tree is reported to be useful. The seeds, leaves, roots, flowers, fruit pulp and bark of baobab are edible. Baobab leaves are used in the preparation of soup. Seeds are used as a thickening agent in soups, but they can be fermented and used as a flavouring agent or roasted and eaten as snacks. The ...


A Shared Gene Expression Signature In Mouse Models Of Ebv-Associated And Non-Ebv-Associated Burkitt Lymphoma, Kathryn T. Bieging, Kamonwan Fish, Subbarao Bondada, Richard Longnecker Dec 2011

A Shared Gene Expression Signature In Mouse Models Of Ebv-Associated And Non-Ebv-Associated Burkitt Lymphoma, Kathryn T. Bieging, Kamonwan Fish, Subbarao Bondada, Richard Longnecker

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The link between EBV infection and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is strong, but the mechanism underlying that link has been elusive. We have developed a mouse model for EBV-associated BL in which LMP2A, an EBV latency protein, and MYC are expressed in B cells. Our model has demonstrated the ability of LMP2A to accelerate tumor onset, increase spleen size, and bypass p53 inactivation. Here we describe the results of total gene expression analysis of tumor and pretumor B cells from our transgenic mouse model. Although we see many phenotypic differences and changes in gene expression in pretumor B cells, the transcriptional ...


Improving Health Outcomes For Foster Care Children In Maine Draft Conceptual Model, Culter Institute Of Health And Social Policy Dec 2011

Improving Health Outcomes For Foster Care Children In Maine Draft Conceptual Model, Culter Institute Of Health And Social Policy

Population Health & Health Policy

Improving Health Outcomes for Children (IHOC) is a 5-year demonstration grant from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, and authorized by 401 (d) of the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA).

IHOC works with doctors' offices, practices and other agencies who want to improve health care in Maine and Vermont to:

  • Collect and report on the use of evidenced-based child health quality measures
  • Expand the Health Information Technology to improve the flow of child health data
  • Promote a collaborative child health learning environment


Computer-Aided, Multi-Modal, And Compression Diffuse Optical Studies Of Breast Tissue, David R. Busch Jr Dec 2011

Computer-Aided, Multi-Modal, And Compression Diffuse Optical Studies Of Breast Tissue, David R. Busch Jr

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Diffuse Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy permit measurement of important physiological parameters non-invasively through ~10 cm of tissue. I have applied these techniques in measurements of human breast and breast cancer. My thesis integrates three loosely connected themes in this context: multi-modal breast cancer imaging, automated data analysis of breast cancer images, and microvascular hemodynamics of breast under compression. As per the first theme, I describe construction, testing, and the initial clinical usage of two generations of imaging systems for simultaneous diffuse optical and magnetic resonance imaging. The second project develops a statistical analysis of optical breast data from many spatial ...


Cns Recruitment Of Cd8+ T Lymphocytes Specific For A Peripheral Virus Infection Triggers Neuropathogenesis During Polymicrobial Challenge., Christine M Matullo, Kevin J O'Regan, Mark Curtis, Glenn F Rall Dec 2011

Cns Recruitment Of Cd8+ T Lymphocytes Specific For A Peripheral Virus Infection Triggers Neuropathogenesis During Polymicrobial Challenge., Christine M Matullo, Kevin J O'Regan, Mark Curtis, Glenn F Rall

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Although viruses have been implicated in central nervous system (CNS) diseases of unknown etiology, including multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the reproducible identification of viral triggers in such diseases has been largely unsuccessful. Here, we explore the hypothesis that viruses need not replicate in the tissue in which they cause disease; specifically, that a peripheral infection might trigger CNS pathology. To test this idea, we utilized a transgenic mouse model in which we found that immune cells responding to a peripheral infection are recruited to the CNS, where they trigger neurological damage. In this model, mice are infected with ...


Health Literacy: An Overview Of An Emerging Field, Mary Grace Flaherty Dec 2011

Health Literacy: An Overview Of An Emerging Field, Mary Grace Flaherty

School of Information Student Research Journal

According to the National Adult Literacy Survey, nearly 90 million American adults test below a high school level for literacy skills (Kirsch, Jungeblut, Jenkins & Kolstad, 1993).Because most health materials are written at least at the high school level, this finding has major implications in terms of health care provision in this country (Helitzer, Hollis, Cotner & Oestreicher, 2009). This paper attempts to give an overview of the field of health literacy and includes: a brief background with current definitions; a description of screening and measurement tools; a discussion of aspects of limited literacy; the implications for quality health care; what role libraries might play; and areas of future research.