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2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 6632

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Health-Related Quality Of Life And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease In North Carolina, David Brown, Roy Pleasants, Jill Ohar, Monica Kraft, James Donohue, David Mannino, Winston Liao, Harry Herric Dec 2015

Health-Related Quality Of Life And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease In North Carolina, David Brown, Roy Pleasants, Jill Ohar, Monica Kraft, James Donohue, David Mannino, Winston Liao, Harry Herric

David C. Brown

Background:

Comparisons of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and adults in the general population are not well described.

Aims:

To examine associations between COPD and four measures of HRQOL in a population-based sample.

Patients & Methods:

These relationships were examined using data from 13,887 adults aged >18 years who participated in the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) conducted in North Carolina (NC). Logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted relative odds (aOR).

Results:

The age-adjusted prevalence of COPD among NC adults was 5.4% (standard error 0.27). Nearly half of adults …


Chapter 5. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd), David Mannino, Janet Croft, David Brown Dec 2015

Chapter 5. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd), David Mannino, Janet Croft, David Brown

David C. Brown

No abstract provided.


In Vitro Haematopoiesis Of A Novel Dendritic-Like Cell Present In Murine Spleen, Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill Oct 2015

In Vitro Haematopoiesis Of A Novel Dendritic-Like Cell Present In Murine Spleen, Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill

Jonathan Tan

Abstract: Dendritic cells (DC) are important antigen presenting cells (APC) which induce and control the adaptive immune response. In spleen alone, multiple DC subsets can be distinguished by cell surface marker phenotype. Most of these have been shown to develop from progenitors in bone marrow and to seed lymphoid and tissue sites during development. This study advances in vitro methodology for haematopoiesis of dendritic-like cells from progenitors in spleen. Since spleen progenitors undergo differentiation in vitro to produce these cells, the possibility exists that spleen represents a specific niche for differentiation of this subset. The fact that an equivalent cell …


Haematopoietic Stem Cells In Spleen Have Distinct Differentiative Potential For Antigen Presenting Cells., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill Sep 2015

Haematopoietic Stem Cells In Spleen Have Distinct Differentiative Potential For Antigen Presenting Cells., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill

Jonathan Tan

Dendritic cells (DC) are known to develop from macrophage dendritic progenitors (MDP) in bone marrow (BM), which give rise to conventional (c)DC and monocytes, both dominant antigen presenting cell (APC) subsets in spleen. This laboratory has however defined a distinct dendritic-like cell subset in spleen (L-DC), which can also be derived in long-term cultures of spleen. In line with the restricted in vitro development of only L-DC in these stromal cultures, we questioned whether self-renewing HSC or progenitors exist in spleen with restricted differentiative capacity for only L-DC. Neonatal spleen and BM were compared for their ability to reconstitute mice …


Occupational Science: A Data-Based American Perspective, Doris Pierce, Karen Atler, Julie Baltisberger, Elaine Fehringer, Elizabeth Hunter, Somaya Malkawi, Twilia Parr Feb 2015

Occupational Science: A Data-Based American Perspective, Doris Pierce, Karen Atler, Julie Baltisberger, Elaine Fehringer, Elizabeth Hunter, Somaya Malkawi, Twilia Parr

Julie A. Baltisberger

The purpose of this research was to provide a data-based picture of the discipline of occupational science by identifying patterns of research in the first 5 years of presentations at the Society for the Study of Occupation: USA (SSO:USA). A grounded theory approach was used to examine 184 peer-reviewed presentation abstracts, from 2002 to 2006. Among the 108 data-based presentations, adults were the most studied group, with 46% of the data-based abstracts focused on participants with a disability or clear disadvantage. Presenters’ research foci related to 4 themes: the personal experience of occupation, the context surrounding or impacting occupation, changes …


(Invited) Instructor For Ce Class, “Nlm Pubmed/Medline Basics: Locating Hidden Treasures In Radiology”, Marilia Antunez Dec 2014

(Invited) Instructor For Ce Class, “Nlm Pubmed/Medline Basics: Locating Hidden Treasures In Radiology”, Marilia Antunez

Marilia Y. Antunez, MLS, MA

Also provided research assistance to radiologists attending the 2007, 2009, and 2010 RSNA Annual Conferences in English and Spanish.


Motivational Interviewing (Mi) Using Co-Active Life Coaching Skills As A Treatment For Obesity, Courtney Newnham-Kanas, Jennifer Irwin, Don Morrow Jan 2013

Motivational Interviewing (Mi) Using Co-Active Life Coaching Skills As A Treatment For Obesity, Courtney Newnham-Kanas, Jennifer Irwin, Don Morrow

Donald Morrow

No abstract provided.


Self-Assessed Emergency Readiness And Training Needs Of Nurses In Rural Texas, Holly Jacobson, Francisco Soto Mas, Chiehwen Hsu Jan 2012

Self-Assessed Emergency Readiness And Training Needs Of Nurses In Rural Texas, Holly Jacobson, Francisco Soto Mas, Chiehwen Hsu

Francisco Soto Mas

Nurses are potential first responders in the case of an emergency, and should play a key role in bioterrorism preparedness and response. The role of nurses becomes more critical in rural areas where local health departments are absent and health professionals are scarce. Given that nurses’ capacity to act will be vital to an emergency response in a rural community, it is imperative to determine their current level of bioterrorism training. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of bioterrorism-related preparedness and training needs of the nursing workforce in Regions 2 and 3 of the Texas Department …


Retention In Care Among Hiv-Infected Patients In Resource-Limited Settings: Emerging Insights And New Directions, Elvin Geng, Denis Nash, Andrew Kambugu, Yao Zhang, Paula Braitstein, Katerina Christopoulos, Winnie Muyindike, Mwebesa Bwana, Constantin Yiannoutsos, Maya Petersen, Jeff Martin Mar 2011

Retention In Care Among Hiv-Infected Patients In Resource-Limited Settings: Emerging Insights And New Directions, Elvin Geng, Denis Nash, Andrew Kambugu, Yao Zhang, Paula Braitstein, Katerina Christopoulos, Winnie Muyindike, Mwebesa Bwana, Constantin Yiannoutsos, Maya Petersen, Jeff Martin

Elvin H Geng

In resource-limited settings—where a massive scale up of HIV services has occurred in the last 5 years—both understanding the extent of and improving retention in care presents special challenges. First, retention in care within the decentralizing network of services is likely higher than existing estimates that account only for retention in clinic, and therefore antiretroviral therapy services may be more effective than currently believed. Second, both magnitude and determinants of patient retention vary substantially and therefore encouraging the conduct of locally relevant epidemiology is needed to inform programmatic decisions. Third, socio-structural factors such as program characteristics, transportation, poverty, work/child care …


Enhancement Of Reactive Oxygen Species Production And Chlamydial Infection By The Mitochondrial Nod-Like Family Member Nlrx1, Ali A. Abdul-Sater, Najwene Saïd-Sadier, Verissa M. Lam, Bhavni Singh, Matthew A. Pettengill, Fraser Soares, Ivan Tattoli, Simone Lipinski, Stephen E. Girardin, Philip Rosenstiel, David M. Ojcius Dec 2010

Enhancement Of Reactive Oxygen Species Production And Chlamydial Infection By The Mitochondrial Nod-Like Family Member Nlrx1, Ali A. Abdul-Sater, Najwene Saïd-Sadier, Verissa M. Lam, Bhavni Singh, Matthew A. Pettengill, Fraser Soares, Ivan Tattoli, Simone Lipinski, Stephen E. Girardin, Philip Rosenstiel, David M. Ojcius

All Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Chlamydia trachomatis infections cause severe and irreversible damage that can lead to infertility and blindness in both males and females. Following infection of epithelial cells, Chlamydia induces production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Unconventionally, Chlamydiae use ROS to their advantage by activating caspase-1, which contributes to chlamydial growth. NLRX1, a member of the Nod-like receptor family that translocates to the mitochondria, can augment ROS production from the mitochondria following Shigella flexneri infections. However, in general, ROS can also be produced by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. Given the importance of ROS-induced caspase-1 activation in growth of the chlamydial vacuole, we investigated the …


Dna Methylation And Its Association With Prenatal Exposures And Pregnancy Outcomes, Jennifer Straughen Dec 2010

Dna Methylation And Its Association With Prenatal Exposures And Pregnancy Outcomes, Jennifer Straughen

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Altered DNA methylation may lead to suboptimal fetal programming, increasing the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as small for gestational age (SGA); however, few studies have examined the associations between DNA methylation, prenatal exposures, and fetal outcomes. Cross-sectional data from a larger, ongoing study were used to assess the impact of prenatal smoking on gene specific methylation of umbilical cord blood derived DNA and to investigate the association between gene-specific methylation and risk of SGA. The association between gene-specific DNA methylation and birthweight was also assessed. Maternal and infant covariates were abstracted from medical records, cigarette smoke exposure was …


Evaluation Of Common Inherited Variants In Mitochondrial-Related And Microrna-Related Genes As Novel Risk Factors For Ovarian Cancer, Jennifer Permuth Wey Dec 2010

Evaluation Of Common Inherited Variants In Mitochondrial-Related And Microrna-Related Genes As Novel Risk Factors For Ovarian Cancer, Jennifer Permuth Wey

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women in the United States, and the etiology is incompletely understood. Common, low penetrant genetic variants such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) likely contribute to a significant proportion of EOC. We examined whether SNPs in two understudied yet biologically important types of genes, mitochondrial-related and miRNA-related genes, may contribute to EOC susceptibility using data from a large, homogeneous study population of 1,815 EOC cases and 1,900 controls (frequency-matched on age-group and race/ethnicity) genotyped through stage 1 of an ongoing genome-wide association study. Inter-individual variation in genes involved …


Epidemiological Study Of Contributing Factors In The Development Of Peptic Ulcer And Gastric Cancer Initiated By Helicobacter Pylori Infection In India, Rahul Suresh Mhaskar Dec 2010

Epidemiological Study Of Contributing Factors In The Development Of Peptic Ulcer And Gastric Cancer Initiated By Helicobacter Pylori Infection In India, Rahul Suresh Mhaskar

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a significant risk factor for peptic ulcer (PU) and gastric cancer (GC). Apart from the virulent CagA genotype of H. pylori environmental and dietary factors influence disease outcomes. There have been no studies addressing these factors in Western India. Hence, we conducted a case control study enrolling PU, GC patients and controls at Pune, India.

Methods: Risk factors for PU and H. pylori infection were assessed in participant interview. H. pylori status was assessed from stool by monoclonal antigen detection. To understand treatment effect, we followed 100 H. pylori positive patients.

Results: We …


Acetate Causes Alcohol Hangover Headache In Rats, Christina R. Maxwell, Rebecca Jay Spangenberg, Jan B. Hoek, Stephen D. Silberstein, Michael L. Oshinsky Dec 2010

Acetate Causes Alcohol Hangover Headache In Rats, Christina R. Maxwell, Rebecca Jay Spangenberg, Jan B. Hoek, Stephen D. Silberstein, Michael L. Oshinsky

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Background

The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache.

Methods

We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats.

Results

Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia), followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate …


Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Β-Lactamase Induction Requires Two Permeases, Ampg And Ampp, Kok-Fai Kong, Alian Aguila, Kalai Mathee, Lisa Schnepper Dec 2010

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Β-Lactamase Induction Requires Two Permeases, Ampg And Ampp, Kok-Fai Kong, Alian Aguila, Kalai Mathee, Lisa Schnepper

Department of Biological Sciences

Background

In Enterobacteriaceae, β-lactam antibiotic resistance involves murein recycling intermediates. Murein recycling is a complex process with discrete steps taking place in the periplasm and the cytoplasm. The AmpG permease is critical to this process as it transports N-acetylglucosamine anhydrous N-acetylmuramyl peptides across the inner membrane. In Pseudomonadaceae, this intrinsic mechanism remains to be elucidated. Since the mechanism involves two cellular compartments, the characterization of transporters is crucial to establish the link.

Results

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 has two ampG paralogs, PA4218 (ampP) and PA4393 (ampG). Topology analysis using β-galactosidase and alkaline phosphatase fusions indicates ampP and …


The Ethics Of Placebo-Controlled Trials In Developing Countries To Prevent Mother-To-Child Transmission Of Hiv, John N. Williams Dec 2010

The Ethics Of Placebo-Controlled Trials In Developing Countries To Prevent Mother-To-Child Transmission Of Hiv, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

Placebo-trials on HIV-infected pregnant women in developing countries like Thailand and Uganda have provoked recent controversy. Such experiments aim to find a treatment that will cut the rate of vertical transmission more efficiently than existing treatments like zidovudine. This scenario is first stated as generally as possible, before three ethical principles found in the Belmont Report, itself a sharpening of the Helsinki Declaration, are stated. These three principles are the Principle of Utility, the Principle of Autonomy and the Principle of Justice. These are taken as voices of moral imperative. But although each has intuitive appeal, it can be shown …


The Mozambique Eyecare Programme – A Partnership Which Addresses Avoidable Blindness In Lusophone Africa, Aoife Phelan, James Loughman, Eva Doyle Dec 2010

The Mozambique Eyecare Programme – A Partnership Which Addresses Avoidable Blindness In Lusophone Africa, Aoife Phelan, James Loughman, Eva Doyle

Conference Papers

According to the WHO about 831 million people are visually impaired worldwide, 45 million of them are blind. Most people with visual impairment are older, and females are more at risk at every age, in every part of the world. Uncorrected Refractive Error accounts for over half of all visual impairment. About 87% of the worlds visually impaired live in developing countries. The Mozambique Eyecare Programme (MEP) is a cross institutional collaboration between governments, higher education institutions, non-governmental organisations and corporations. The aims of this Programme are to collaborate to provide a sustainable solution to the problem of avoidable blindness …


The Queering Of Hiv Testing Practices And The Reinforcement Of Stigma, Lance Wahlert, Autumn Fiester Dec 2010

The Queering Of Hiv Testing Practices And The Reinforcement Of Stigma, Lance Wahlert, Autumn Fiester

Center for Bioethics Papers

No abstract provided.


Pegylated Interferon Α-2b Up-Regulates Specific Cd8+ T Cells In Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B, Ji Chen, Yan Wang, Jun Li, Feng-Qin Hou, Gui-Qiang Wang Dec 2010

Pegylated Interferon Α-2b Up-Regulates Specific Cd8+ T Cells In Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B, Ji Chen, Yan Wang, Jun Li, Feng-Qin Hou, Gui-Qiang Wang

Pharmacology and Toxicology Faculty Publications

AIM: To investigate the effect of pegylated interferon (IFN) α-2b on specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: Twenty-one patients with CHB were treated with pegylated IFN α-2b. Periphery blood mononuclear cells were isolated from fresh heparinized blood by Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation (density: 1.077 g/L, Pharmingen) at weeks 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24, respectively. Frequency of circulating hepatitis B virus (HBV) epitope-specific CD8 T cells was detected by flow cytometry. Cytokines were detected by cytometric bead assay. RESULTS: The frequency of circulating HBV core or env-specific CD8 T cells was higher (P …


Stem Cells For Spinal Cord Regeneration: Current Status, Zain A. Sobani, Syed A. Quadri, Ather Enam Dec 2010

Stem Cells For Spinal Cord Regeneration: Current Status, Zain A. Sobani, Syed A. Quadri, Ather Enam

Section of Neurosurgery

Background: Nearly 11,000 cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) are reported in the United States annually. Current management options give a median survival time of 38 years, however, no rehabilitative measures are available. Stem cells have been under constant research given their ability to differentiate into neural cell lines replacing non functional tissue. Efforts have been made to establish new synapses and provide a conducive environment, by grafting cells from autologous and fetal sources, including embryonic or adult stem cells, Schwann cells, genetically modified fibroblasts, bone stromal cells, and olfactory ensheathing cells and combinations/ variants thereof.
Methods: In order to …


The Best Christmas Gift Of All, Kenneth P. Serbin Dec 2010

The Best Christmas Gift Of All, Kenneth P. Serbin

At Risk for Huntington's Disease

No abstract provided.


Physician’S Ability To Manually Detect Isolated Elevation In Leg Intracompartmental Pressure., Franklin D. Shuler Md, Matthew J. Dietz Dec 2010

Physician’S Ability To Manually Detect Isolated Elevation In Leg Intracompartmental Pressure., Franklin D. Shuler Md, Matthew J. Dietz

Orthopaedics

Background: Serial physical examination is recommended for patients for whom there is a high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome. This examination is more difficult when performed on an obtunded patient and relies on the sensitivity of manual palpation to detect compartment firmness—a direct manifestation of increased intracompartmental pressure. This study was performed to establish the sensitivity of manual palpation for detecting critical pressure elevations in the leg compartments most frequently involved in clinical compartment syndrome.

Methods: Reproducible, sustained elevation of intracompartmental pressure was established in fresh cadaver leg specimens. Pressures tested included 20 and 40 mm Hg (negative controls) …


Cast-Saw Burns: Evaluation Of Skin, Cast, And Blade Temperatures Generated During Cast Removal, Franklin D. Shuler Md, Frank N. Grisafi Dec 2010

Cast-Saw Burns: Evaluation Of Skin, Cast, And Blade Temperatures Generated During Cast Removal, Franklin D. Shuler Md, Frank N. Grisafi

Orthopaedics

Background: The use of an oscillating saw for cast removal creates a potential for iatrogenic injury and patient discomfort. Burns and abrasions can occur from the heat created by frictional forces and direct blade contact. With use of a cadaver model system, skin temperature measurements were recorded during cast removal with an oscillating saw.

Methods: Casts of uniform thickness were applied to cadavers equilibrated to body temperature. The casts were removed by a single individual while simultaneously measuring temperatures at the skin-padding interface, cast-padding interface, and the blade. Variables tested include two removal techniques, two casting materials (fiberglass and plaster), …


Phosphorylation Meets Nuclear Import: A Review., Jonathan D Nardozzi, Kaylen Lott, Gino Cingolani Dec 2010

Phosphorylation Meets Nuclear Import: A Review., Jonathan D Nardozzi, Kaylen Lott, Gino Cingolani

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Phosphorylation is the most common and pleiotropic modification in biology, which plays a vital role in regulating and finely tuning a multitude of biological pathways. Transport across the nuclear envelope is also an essential cellular function and is intimately linked to many degeneration processes that lead to disease. It is therefore not surprising that phosphorylation of cargos trafficking between the cytoplasm and nucleus is emerging as an important step to regulate nuclear availability, which directly affects gene expression, cell growth and proliferation. However, the literature on phosphorylation of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking cargos is often confusing. Phosphorylation, and its mirror process dephosphorylation, …


Mir-17* Suppresses Tumorigenicity Of Prostate Cancer By Inhibiting Mitochondrial Antioxidant Enzymes, Yong Xu, Fang Fang, Jiayou Zhang, Sajni Josson, William H. St. Clair, Daret K. St. Clair Dec 2010

Mir-17* Suppresses Tumorigenicity Of Prostate Cancer By Inhibiting Mitochondrial Antioxidant Enzymes, Yong Xu, Fang Fang, Jiayou Zhang, Sajni Josson, William H. St. Clair, Daret K. St. Clair

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Aberrant micro RNA (miRNA) expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. Recent studies have shown that the miR-17-92 cluster is overexpressed in many types of cancer. The oncogenic function of mature miRNAs encoded by the miR-17-92 cluster has been identified from the 5' arm of six precursors. However, the function of the miRNAs produced from the 3' arm of these precursors remains unknown. The present study demonstrates that miR-17* is able to suppress critical primary mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, such as manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPX2) and thioredoxin reductase-2 (TrxR2). Transfection of miR-17* into prostate cancer PC-3 …


The Basis Of Vcp-Mediated Degeneration: Insights From A Drosophila Model Of Disease, Gillian P. Ritson Dec 2010

The Basis Of Vcp-Mediated Degeneration: Insights From A Drosophila Model Of Disease, Gillian P. Ritson

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that regulates a wide array of essential cellular processes. Mutations in VCP are causative of degenerative disease that can affect muscle, brain and bone. Despite VCP being implicated in many major pathways in the cell, the mechanism of disease pathogenesis is unknown. To gain insight into the degeneration associated with mutations in VCP, we developed and characterized a Drosophila model of disease that recapitulated VCP mutation-dependent toxicity. VCP is involved in a diverse array of activities, many of which we may not know. Therefore we employed an unbiased genetic screening method …


The Pathological And Biochemical Characterization Of Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 In Parkinson’S Disease, Jason P. Covy Dec 2010

The Pathological And Biochemical Characterization Of Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 In Parkinson’S Disease, Jason P. Covy

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects over 6 million people worldwide. Despite being the most common movement disorder in the U.S., there is still no effective treatment for halting the progression of disease. While generally considered a sporadic and idiopathic disorder, a number of mutations in genetic loci causal for PD have provided valuable insight into the etiology of disease. Mutations in the gene for leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the single most common cause of both familial and sporadic forms of PD. LRRK2 is a large 2527‐amino acid protein with several distinct …


Utilizing Genetically Engineered Mouse Models Of Pancreatic Cancer: Evaluating The Role Of Cathepsin B And The Efficacy Of Farnesyl Thiosalicylic Acid, Aarthi Gopinathan Dec 2010

Utilizing Genetically Engineered Mouse Models Of Pancreatic Cancer: Evaluating The Role Of Cathepsin B And The Efficacy Of Farnesyl Thiosalicylic Acid, Aarthi Gopinathan

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

I have utilized genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic cancer to identify a potential new therapeutic target, and to test the efficacy of a putative ras inhibitor. In the first part, I show that cathepsin B is upregulated during disease progression in the mouse pancreas, as is overall cathepsin activity. Loss of cathepsin B decreases preinvasive disease burden and imparts a significant survival benefit, with a consistent decrease in proliferation. In addition, lack of cathepsin B also decreases the burden of liver metastasis. Phospho-Erk localization appears to be affected by cathepsin B loss, which may account for the defect in …


Native Functions Of The Androgen Receptor Are Essential To Pathogenesis In A Drosophila Model Of Spinobulbar Muscular Atrophy, Natalia B. Nedelsky Dec 2010

Native Functions Of The Androgen Receptor Are Essential To Pathogenesis In A Drosophila Model Of Spinobulbar Muscular Atrophy, Natalia B. Nedelsky

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a progressive, late-onset disease characterized by degeneration of motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. The disease is caused by expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the androgen receptor (AR) and is dependent on exposure to AR ligand. The expanded polyglutamine tract confers toxic function to the protein through unknown mechanisms, although the ligand-dependent nature of SBMA suggests that the mechanism of pathogenesis may be tied to ligand-dependent alterations in AR function. However, whether toxicity is mediated by native AR function or a novel AR function is unknown. We systematically investigated ligand-dependent modifications of …


Causal Inference With Two-Stage Logistic Regression - Accuracy, Precision, And Application, Bing Cai Dec 2010

Causal Inference With Two-Stage Logistic Regression - Accuracy, Precision, And Application, Bing Cai

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Two-stage predictor substitution (2SPS) and the two-stage residual inclusion (2SRI) are two approaches to instrumental variable (IV) analysis. While 2SPS and 2SRI with linear models are well-studied methods of causal inference, the properties of 2SPS and 2SRI for logistic binary outcomes have not been thoroughly studied. We study the bias and variance properties of 2SPS and 2SRI for a logistic outcome model so that we can apply these IV approaches to the causal inference of binary outcomes. We also propose and implement an extension of generalized structure mean model originally developed for a randomized trial. We first present closed form …