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Full-Text Articles in Biodiversity

Leaf Optical And Indirect Lai Measurements In Wheat And Alfalfa At Maciv: Agmet Progress Report 89-4, E. A. Walter-Shea, B. L. Blad Jan 9999

Leaf Optical And Indirect Lai Measurements In Wheat And Alfalfa At Maciv: Agmet Progress Report 89-4, E. A. Walter-Shea, B. L. Blad

School of Natural Resources: Documents and Reviews

No abstract provided.


With Love, ; An Interdisciplinary And Intersectional Look At Why Creativity Is Essential, Theo Starr Gardner May 2024

With Love, ; An Interdisciplinary And Intersectional Look At Why Creativity Is Essential, Theo Starr Gardner

Whittier Scholars Program

My Whittier Scholars Program self-designed major, Teaching Creativity, is a mixture of Art, Literature, and Education classes. My research and praxis classes have been focused on the ‘how?’s and 'why?’s of creativity, so it felt only right that my project should be a constructivist, generative project. The project I have been working on throughout my time at Whittier, and that has just fully come to fruition on April 11th, 2024, was a solo art gallery/open mic event entitled ‘With Love,’. With Love, was conceptually inspired by the research I’ve conducted on creativity and creative arts education over the past few …


Genetic Diversity Of Extant Populations Of Warea Amplexifolia, Carson Craft Apr 2024

Genetic Diversity Of Extant Populations Of Warea Amplexifolia, Carson Craft

Scholars Day Conference

Warea amplexifolia is an endangered plant due to habitat loss and fragmentation that is endemic to the central ridge system of Florida (USFWS 2017). To aid in the recovery of this species, we seek to study if populations of Warea amplexifolia have lost genetic diversity, if certain populations are more diverse than others, if self-fertilization is occurring, if the geographic location has any effect on relations between populations, and what populations would be best as sources for reintroduction purposes. A closely related species, Warea carteri, has selfing capabilities and is thought to be largely selfing (Evans et al. 2000), which …


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones) Part Xxxi. Two New Genera From Somaliland: Sanaag Gen. N. And Sahil Gen. N. (Buthidae), František Kovařík Apr 2024

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones) Part Xxxi. Two New Genera From Somaliland: Sanaag Gen. N. And Sahil Gen. N. (Buthidae), František Kovařík

Euscorpius

Two new monotypic buthid genera are described: Sanaag gen. n. and Sahil gen. n. from Somaliland, both belonging to the ‘Buthus’ group. Sanaag gen. n. (type species Gint maidensis Kovařík et al., 2018) differs from Gint Kovařík et al., 2013 in the structure of its hemispermatophore, which has a large, tall, subtriangular hook-like basal lobe, and in the shape of its telson which is rather bulbous. Sahil gen. n. (type species Sahil elmii sp. n.) differs from all morphologically similar small-sized genera of the Horn of Africa in having the ventral aspect of cheliceral fixed finger with two denticles, …


Tree Canopy Cover Influences Habitat Use Of Breeding Birds At Jack Mountain Wildlife Management Area, Kaleigh Thomas Apr 2024

Tree Canopy Cover Influences Habitat Use Of Breeding Birds At Jack Mountain Wildlife Management Area, Kaleigh Thomas

Honors Theses

Across the United States, bird populations have declined due to habitat loss. To better understand habitat use by birds, researchers observed populations at Jack Mountain Wildlife Management Area in southwest Arkansas. Students at Ouachita Baptist University surveyed 94 point count locations to estimate species diversity (total number of species observed) and species abundance (total number of individuals observed). At each point, students recorded the percentage of tree canopy cover, ground cover, midstory cover, and shrub cover. These variables were used as explanatory variables in multiple regression analyses to determine which variables were influential in explaining variation in species diversity and …


Reproductive Characteristics Of The Stripetail Darter (Etheostoma Kennicotti) Relative To Monogenean Gill Parasite Infection In Estill Fork In North Alabama, Joy L. Garcia, Zeina Celine Sleiman, Corinne N. Preacher, Bruce Stallsmith Apr 2024

Reproductive Characteristics Of The Stripetail Darter (Etheostoma Kennicotti) Relative To Monogenean Gill Parasite Infection In Estill Fork In North Alabama, Joy L. Garcia, Zeina Celine Sleiman, Corinne N. Preacher, Bruce Stallsmith

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

What relationship exists between Aethycteron sp. gill parasite infection and the reproductive characteristics of stripetail darters, Etheostoma kennicotti? 450 E. kennicotti were collected over 11 months from Estill Fork in Jackson County, Alabama. Gonads were removed and photographed. All oocytes were counted and then classified into one of four developmental stages based on size and appearance. Gill parasites belonging to the monogenean genus Aethycteron were excised, photographed, and counted. Sexual dimorphism in length and mass was observed in E. kennicotti. The number of males found at the 25> mm SL range far outnumbered the females while almost all …


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xxx. Parabuthus (Buthidae) (Part Iii), With Description Of Three New Species From Somaliland And Occurrence Of Parabuthus Eritreaensis Kovařík, 2003, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Hassan Sh A. Elmi, František Šťáhlavský Apr 2024

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xxx. Parabuthus (Buthidae) (Part Iii), With Description Of Three New Species From Somaliland And Occurrence Of Parabuthus Eritreaensis Kovařík, 2003, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Hassan Sh A. Elmi, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

A new record of an adult female of Parabuthus eritreaensis Kovařík, 2003 in Somaliland confirms true distribution of this species, already discussed in Kovařík et al. (2016: 19–21). Three new species are described from Somaliland, P. dorisae sp. n., P. evae sp. n., and P. quincyae sp. n.. The hemispermatophore of P. dorisae sp. n. is illustrated and described. In addition to the analyses of external morphology and hemispermatophore, we have provided descriptions of the karyotypes of P. dorisae sp. n. and P. quincyae sp. n. Despite the presence of multivalents (CVIII and CXIV), both species exhibit karyotypes with 2n=16 …


An Interdisciplinary Experience, Reyna Vergara, Michael Dodson Apr 2024

An Interdisciplinary Experience, Reyna Vergara, Michael Dodson

OUR Assignment Repository

This proposal showcases the success of an interdisciplinary approach. It provides an overview of a project titled: "Cacao and Chocolate: A Powerful Legacy." It took place during Hispanic Heritage Month in 2023. The project aimed to explore the rich and multifaceted legacy of cacao and chocolate in Latin America, incorporating perspectives from various academic disciplines, including public history, chemistry, Spanish language, graphic design, culinary arts, and family science. The interdisciplinary nature of the project highlights the power of collaboration in research and education, serving as a model for integrating diverse fields of study.

The project was divided into two main …


Ornithofauna Diversity Of Tehsil Pakpattan, Punjab, Pakistan, Muhammad Amir Sial Mar 2024

Ornithofauna Diversity Of Tehsil Pakpattan, Punjab, Pakistan, Muhammad Amir Sial

Journal of Bioresource Management

Tehsil Pakpattan is situated in the Doab region of Punjab, Pakistan, along the Sutlej River. The present study aimed to evaluate the avian biodiversity of Tehsil Pakpattan. The study included the evaluation of species diversity, IUCN Red List status, migratory description, and feeding habits of the bird populations of Tehsil Pakpattan. Regular surveys were conducted at ten different localities in Tehsil Pakpattan, including Islam Colony, Kanipur, Farid Kot, 14 S/P, Chak Khagga, Musewal, 8 S/P, Noorpur, Green Town, and Bonga Niaz Khan, from January 2022 to April 2023. The Shannon‒Wiener diversity index value (R' = 3.41) indicated the notable diversity …


New Locality Record Of Bar-Necked Keelback Fowlea Schnurrenbergeri (Kramer, 1977) In Northeastern Punjab, Pakistan, Mudassar Basri, Zohaib Nasar Mar 2024

New Locality Record Of Bar-Necked Keelback Fowlea Schnurrenbergeri (Kramer, 1977) In Northeastern Punjab, Pakistan, Mudassar Basri, Zohaib Nasar

Journal of Bioresource Management

The bar-necked keelback snake plays a vital ecological role as a natural pest controller, effectively regulating populations of fish, frogs, and rodents. Through their predatory behavior, they contribute significantly to maintaining ecological balance by managing the numbers of these smaller creatures, thereby contributing to the overall health of ecosystem. We have documented Fowlea schnurrenbergeri in the urban center of Tehsil Zafarwal and Dariyapur village, within Narowal district, Punjab. Previously, Sindh-Thatta represented the southeastern most known locality for this species in Pakistan. This study presents new insights into the distribution range of this less-frequently observed species.


Toxicity Of Three Species Of The Solanaceae Family Growing In Algeria Against Culiseta Longiareolata Mosquitos 4th Stage Larvae, Saliha Benhissen, Abdelmaddjid Yagoub Asloum, Nora Belkhiri, Zakaria Hedjouli, Siham Bounadji, Wafa Habbachi, Khellaf Rebbas Mar 2024

Toxicity Of Three Species Of The Solanaceae Family Growing In Algeria Against Culiseta Longiareolata Mosquitos 4th Stage Larvae, Saliha Benhissen, Abdelmaddjid Yagoub Asloum, Nora Belkhiri, Zakaria Hedjouli, Siham Bounadji, Wafa Habbachi, Khellaf Rebbas

Journal of Bioresource Management

Mosquitoes have always been considered a source of harm to humans and animals mainly because they can be vectors of disease. This work represents a study on the effect of aqueous extract of three plants (Hyoscyamus albus, Solanum elaeagnifolium, Solanum nigrum) of the Solanaceae family on the mortality of 4th stage larvae of Culiseta longiareolata larvae. Extract of the high impact is of S. nigrum followed by H. albus and S. elaeagnifolium, respectivley of C. longiareolata larvae.


Mathematically Modeling How Trapping Regimes That Target Specific Crayfish Life Stages Impact Removal Efficacy, Rini Pattison Mar 2024

Mathematically Modeling How Trapping Regimes That Target Specific Crayfish Life Stages Impact Removal Efficacy, Rini Pattison

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

The red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, is an invasive species introduced into several streams within the Santa Monica Mountains (SMM) in Southern California. Crayfish predation decimates native aquatic species. Thus, the Mountains Restoration Trust (MRT) and Environmental Restoration Group have worked to remove crayfish through regular trapping in Malibu Creek.

To aid conservation efforts, former SURB students William Milligan and Dev Patel developed mathematical models of crayfish removal efficacy. Milligan created a differential equation model of how crayfish removal affects local newt populations. Patel expanded Milligan’s crayfish model by creating a discrete model of the crayfish life cycle that newly …


Drone Imagery Of Submarine Groundwater Discharge Effects On Coastal Primary Productivity On Coral Reefs In Maunalua Bay, Hawai'i, Lulu Wang, Florybeth Flores La Valle, Grace Kim Mar 2024

Drone Imagery Of Submarine Groundwater Discharge Effects On Coastal Primary Productivity On Coral Reefs In Maunalua Bay, Hawai'i, Lulu Wang, Florybeth Flores La Valle, Grace Kim

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) plays a crucial role in coastal ecosystems, especially coral reefs, by introducing terrestrial nutrients and freshwater, significantly affecting the primary productivity of coastal ecosystems and potentially altering ecological balances. La Valle et al. (2023) emphasized the importance of SGD in nutrient distribution and algal productivity, highlighting the need for comprehensive understanding and management strategies in the face of increasing nutrient runoff due to land use changes due to increased population. To better understand the impact, our experiments utilize remote sensing and data science by using a DJI Mavic 3 Enterprise drone with a thermal imaging camera …


Effectiveness Of Frog Skin Secretions Against Uv-B Radiation, Connor Mcgaha, Kinkade Mcmurray, Lee B. Kats Mar 2024

Effectiveness Of Frog Skin Secretions Against Uv-B Radiation, Connor Mcgaha, Kinkade Mcmurray, Lee B. Kats

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

As an increasing number of their species face possible extinction, amphibian populations have been steadily declining over the past decades (IUCN). While various factors have been suggested or proven to be partially responsible for this reduction, increased ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR) appears to be one of the more prominent explanations, especially when considering the continual thinning of the Earth’s ozone layer due to anthropogenic climate change. However, it has also been discovered that skin secretions, which are reported to function as a component of amphibians’ innate immune systems, may have an effect on UVBR (Cramp and Franklin). With this in …


Variation In Vital Rates Among Least Chub (Iotichthy Phlegethontis), Lauren Applebee, Mark C. Belk, Nathan St. Andre Mar 2024

Variation In Vital Rates Among Least Chub (Iotichthy Phlegethontis), Lauren Applebee, Mark C. Belk, Nathan St. Andre

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2024

Conservation plans for a species often requires knowledge of population trends. These trends can be difficult to acquire, but one piece of information that can be attained from populations is the catch per unit effort (CPUE). We are trying to use CPUE in a new way to determine population demography for populations of Iotichthys phlegethontis, Least Chub.


Tree Damage Patterning In Alaskan Forests, Emma Barton, Richard Gill, Haden Penrod Mar 2024

Tree Damage Patterning In Alaskan Forests, Emma Barton, Richard Gill, Haden Penrod

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2024

• Tree defoliation (from insect parasites) is not abnormal in the densely forested areas of Alaska, but large outbreak events in recent years have led to cause for alarm.

• To better understand the factors affecting defoliation, we used remote sensing and GIS (geospatial information system) technologies to look at mortality spatial patterns across Hemlock and Spruce forests in southeast Alaska.

• Elevation and proximity to water as well as other factors were considered in determining the impacts of outbreak events due to evidence that changes in landscape can alter parasitism behaviors (Roland & Taylor, 1997).


Invasive Phragmites Effect On Utah Wetlands Soil Composition, Cecilia Steffen, Rachel Wood, Madison L. Brown Mar 2024

Invasive Phragmites Effect On Utah Wetlands Soil Composition, Cecilia Steffen, Rachel Wood, Madison L. Brown

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2024

Introduction

• Invasive Phragmites australis (referred to as Phragmites), invaded Utah wetlands in the 1980's. Efforts have been made since then to remove Phragmites through various treatments.

• Phragmites outcompetes other wetland plants, causing it to be the dominant species. This is called a monoculture.

• Utah's wetlands are important for many species migrations, filtration, and nutrient cycling.

• How do Phragmites treatments effect soil nutrients and moisture? How do untreated Phragmites wetlands compare to native dominant wetlands?


Diversity And Community Of Macroinvertebrates In Timpanogos Caves, Utah, Erika Frandsen, C. Riley Nelson Mar 2024

Diversity And Community Of Macroinvertebrates In Timpanogos Caves, Utah, Erika Frandsen, C. Riley Nelson

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2024

The Timpanogos Cave System consists of three caves in American Fork, Utah. In 2003, the National Park Service (NPS) commissioned Dr. Riley Nelson and laboratory students to conduct a survey of the diversity and abundance of terrestrial arthropod species found within the caves. Over the two years they sampled in Timpanogos Caves, they identified 55 species of macroinvertebrates in an unpublished report. In the 20 years since the last sampling, many environmental factors could have changed in these caves, contributing to an overall decrease in both abundance and biodiversity of fauna. Therefore, we repeated the sampling done by the Nelson …


Bird And Small Mammal Preference For Water Developments, Lizzie Wilson, Randy Larsen Mar 2024

Bird And Small Mammal Preference For Water Developments, Lizzie Wilson, Randy Larsen

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2024

 Different types of water developments nicknamed “guzzlers” have been installed in many different arid and semi-arid environments to provide water resources to game species in the state of Utah.

 Upland game guzzlers are usually covered by a sheet of metal and are used to target species like chukar partridge and quail (Figure 1).

 Big game guzzlers are open pools of water that are used to target species like mule deer and desert big horn sheep (Figure 2).  Most visitations to guzzlers are by native species not targeted by the guzzlers or wildlife management efforts (3).


A Survey Of Molecular Diagnostics Education, Kristina Berman, Ryan Cordner, Mary Davis Mar 2024

A Survey Of Molecular Diagnostics Education, Kristina Berman, Ryan Cordner, Mary Davis

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2024

Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) is vital for healthcare, involving the analysis of clinical samples to diagnose and monitor diseases. However, there's a scarcity of courses focused on molecular diagnostics, which could greatly benefit medical laboratory scientists.


Species Delimitation, Discovery And Conservation In A Tiger Beetle Species Complex Despite Discordant Genetic Data., Daniel P. Duran, Robert A Laroche, Stephen J Roman, William Godwin, David P Herrmann, Ethan Bull, Scott P Egan Mar 2024

Species Delimitation, Discovery And Conservation In A Tiger Beetle Species Complex Despite Discordant Genetic Data., Daniel P. Duran, Robert A Laroche, Stephen J Roman, William Godwin, David P Herrmann, Ethan Bull, Scott P Egan

School of Earth & Environment Faculty Scholarship

In an age of species declines, delineating and discovering biodiversity is critical for both taxonomic accuracy and conservation. In recent years, there has been a movement away from using exclusively morphological characters to delineate and describe taxa and an increase in the use of molecular markers to describe diversity or through integrative taxonomy, which employs traditional morphological characters, as well as genetic or other data. Tiger beetles are charismatic, of conservation concern, and much work has been done on the morphological delineation of species and subspecies, but few of these taxa have been tested with genetic analyses. In this study, …


First Known Records Of The Specialist Bee, Colletes Aestivalis (Hymenoptera: Colletidae), In An Urban Area, Nina S. Fogel, Christine Kirmaier, Mike Arduser Mar 2024

First Known Records Of The Specialist Bee, Colletes Aestivalis (Hymenoptera: Colletidae), In An Urban Area, Nina S. Fogel, Christine Kirmaier, Mike Arduser

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Here we report on the first known records of the Heuchera specialist bee Colletes aestivalis in an urban area. This bee was found by a participant in a citizen science project in a residential garden in a suburb that abuts St. Louis, Missouri. The females were found only visiting Heuchera richardsonii, and the males were seen scouting for females by hovering over the plants. This finding shows that urban areas can support uncommon specialist bees and the utility of engaging non-experts in cataloging biodiversity.


A Dietary Variety: Analyzing The Impacts Of Diverse Vs Worm-Exclusive Diets On The Blanding’S Turtle (Emydoidea Blandingii), Caitlin F. Copenhaver Mar 2024

A Dietary Variety: Analyzing The Impacts Of Diverse Vs Worm-Exclusive Diets On The Blanding’S Turtle (Emydoidea Blandingii), Caitlin F. Copenhaver

Honors Theses

The endangered Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) is a species with a generally diverse diet in their freshwater wetland habitats; they consume prey such as crayfish and snails. In captivity, these options often become more limited due to logistical reasons. As ex situ conservation efforts such as captive rearing and head-starting are becoming more popular for this species, it will be important to gain more insight on how these more limited diets might affect these turtles. This study describes a comparison between diets in six captive Blanding’s turtles from September to November of 2023, with three turtles receiving only …


Comstock Point, Lubec, Maine - A Natural And Photographic History, Willaim H. Schlesinger, Lisa M. Dellwo Mar 2024

Comstock Point, Lubec, Maine - A Natural And Photographic History, Willaim H. Schlesinger, Lisa M. Dellwo

Documents from Environmental Organizations

A natural and photographic history of our lands compiled by Lisa Dellwo and Bill Schlesinger, with the help of many friends and neighbors.


In Memoriam Richard F. Ayrey (1948 – 2024), Melinda Deboer-Ayrey, Brandon T. Myers, Robert W. Bryson, Jr., Michael M. Webber, Matthew R. Graham, Graeme Lowe, Victor Fet, František Kovařík Feb 2024

In Memoriam Richard F. Ayrey (1948 – 2024), Melinda Deboer-Ayrey, Brandon T. Myers, Robert W. Bryson, Jr., Michael M. Webber, Matthew R. Graham, Graeme Lowe, Victor Fet, František Kovařík

Euscorpius

This is a memorial issue honoring Richard F. Ayrey (1948 – 2024), a US scorpiologist. A full list of his 26 works is appended, as well as a list of scorpion taxa described by Richard (two genera and 19 species of Vaejovidae), and a map of their type localities in the USA and Mexico.


Improve Governance System Of National Parks, Build The World‘S Largest National Park System With High Quality, Baorong Huang Feb 2024

Improve Governance System Of National Parks, Build The World‘S Largest National Park System With High Quality, Baorong Huang

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Improving the governance system of national parks is an inevitable requirement for China’s high-quality construction of the world’s largest national park system. This study analyzes the main challenges and problems faced by China’s national park governance based on long-term investigation on national parks and national park system pilot areas. Under the overall logic of modernization of China’s national governance system and governance capabilities, drawing on international experiences in sound governance of regional and watershed public goods and national parks, this study proposes a theoretical framework for establishing a “four in one” national park governance system in China, including a comprehensive …


Regime Of National Park Group Based On Protected Area System In Tibetan Plateau, Dong Chen, Yafei Wang, Dengsheng Wu, Jie Fan Feb 2024

Regime Of National Park Group Based On Protected Area System In Tibetan Plateau, Dong Chen, Yafei Wang, Dengsheng Wu, Jie Fan

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

China’s national park reform has entered a new stage of promoting reform based on the protected area system. The national park team of the second comprehensive scientific investigation and research on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) took the lead in putting forward the construction plan of the TP protected area, which is dominated by national park in area and function. The TP national park group, including “small group” which refer to national park, and “large group” which refer to different protected areas, innovates the long-term mechanism for the construction of national ecological security barriers on TP. The national park group requires …


Experience And Enlightenment Of Eu Natura 2000 Protected Area Network, Ling Tang, Baorong Huang, Tong Jin, Xuetian Hu Feb 2024

Experience And Enlightenment Of Eu Natura 2000 Protected Area Network, Ling Tang, Baorong Huang, Tong Jin, Xuetian Hu

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

The EU Natura 2000 protected area network, covering nearly 19% of the land and 10% of the sea in the EU, has played an important role in protecting biodiversity and enhancing regional socio-economic well-being, and is regarded as the most successful protected area network in the world. Its successful experience is mainly reflected in five aspects. (1) The adoption of regional biodiversity conservation legislation and the promotion of compliance with the law by member countries to promote the construction of the protected area network. (2) The establishment of a decision-making and implementation mechanism that combines the EU resolution process and …


Problems And Suggestions Of Building Scientific Decision-Making And Advisory Mechanism Of National Parks—Governance-Based Perspective, Yu Wei, Duowei Cheng, Yi Wang Feb 2024

Problems And Suggestions Of Building Scientific Decision-Making And Advisory Mechanism Of National Parks—Governance-Based Perspective, Yu Wei, Duowei Cheng, Yi Wang

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

National parks are multi-factor, multi-functional and multi-dimensional complexes, which makes them difficult to follow the traditional administration and management modes, and need to explore the construction of a modernized governance system. An important step in enhancing the effectiveness of governance is to establish a reasonable, and efficient scientific decision-making and consultation mechanism. China has made remarkable progress in scientific decision-making and consultation in national parks. However, there are still some problems with the national parks’ decision-making process and effectiveness due to vague definition of authority and responsibility, dependence on departmentalized management paths, and inadequate upward and downward transmission of information …


Effects Of Hemiparasites In Grassland Restorations Are Not Universal, Anna Scheidel, Victoria Borowicz Feb 2024

Effects Of Hemiparasites In Grassland Restorations Are Not Universal, Anna Scheidel, Victoria Borowicz

Faculty Publications – Biological Sciences

Root hemiparasites infiltrate the vascular tissue of host roots to acquire water and nutrients, which often reduces host growth. Hemiparasites are postulated to be keystone species in grassland communities if they suppress dominant species and increase plant community biodiversity, and ecosystem engineers if they increase nutrient accessibility for surrounding species. We examined keystone effects by evaluating species richness and evenness in 1 m2 plots in a recent prairie restoration where Castilleja sessiliflora was naturally present or absent, and in a longer-established prairie restoration with or without Pedicularis canadensis. We examined ecosystem engineer effects by determining nitrate and phosphate concentrations …