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Articles 1 - 30 of 5863

Full-Text Articles in Law

Privacy Matters: Data Breach Litigation In Japan, Andrew M. Pardieck Feb 2024

Privacy Matters: Data Breach Litigation In Japan, Andrew M. Pardieck

Washington International Law Journal

In 1890, when Brandeis and Warren wrote The Right to Privacy, Japan did not have a word for privacy. Today, it is closely guarded in Japan: the European Data Protection Board has found privacy protections in Japan “equivalent” to those in the EU. This research explores the evolution of privacy law in Japan, focusing on data breach and the legal rights and obligations associated with it. The writing is broken up into two parts: This article discusses private enforcement of privacy norms, as it is the courts that first established and continue to define privacy rights in Japan. A separate …


Executive Agreements In Japan And The United States: Their Differences And Similarities, Yuhei Matsuyama Feb 2024

Executive Agreements In Japan And The United States: Their Differences And Similarities, Yuhei Matsuyama

Washington International Law Journal

The national constitutions of Japan and the United States describe which domestic branches conclude “treaties” and how they do it. In both countries, the legislative branch plays a critical role in the treaty-making process, checking and controlling the executive branch. However, both nations enter international agreements without following the procedures explicitly provided in their national constitutions. Such agreements are called “executive agreements.” In both Japan and the United States, the practice of entering executive agreements has been recognized since the adoption of the current constitutions, and the number of such agreements—in lieu of treaties—is rising. Despite contrasting government and legal …


To Catch The Cheshire Cat: Freezing Injunction Jurisdiction At The Click Of A Mouse, King Fung Tsang, Pierce Lai Feb 2024

To Catch The Cheshire Cat: Freezing Injunction Jurisdiction At The Click Of A Mouse, King Fung Tsang, Pierce Lai

Washington International Law Journal

Since its emergence in 1975, the English freezing injunction has grown to have a robust and global extraterritorial reach, but its exercise in extreme cases is jurisdictionally unsound. The “real connecting link” between assets and forum required for the grant of a worldwide freezing order in aid of foreign proceedings has become significantly looser, notably with an element of fraud acting as catalyst. This jurisdictional link is further weakened by the receding of reciprocity imperatives between the United Kingdom and member states of the European Union following Brexit. In its place is the enforcement principle, enabling a high degree of …


Should We Reform The Jury? An Australian Perspective, Keith Thompson Feb 2024

Should We Reform The Jury? An Australian Perspective, Keith Thompson

Washington International Law Journal

Jury trials are a necessary part of American and Australian jurisprudence. However, critics question whether both jurisdictions should consider eliminating or reforming jury trials. High-profile jury cases in Australia and the United States elicit criticism regarding the ongoing relevance of the institution. Jury trials function differently in both countries and hold different levels of public trust in the institution. Despite the criticisms of jury trials, neither country has engaged in serious conversations to abolition this ancient institution. This article discusses the trials of Lindy Chamberlain and Cardinal George Pell, placing the use of criminal jury trial in their ancient English …


Criminal Caselaw Notebook 2024, Hon. Ronald Kessler Feb 2024

Criminal Caselaw Notebook 2024, Hon. Ronald Kessler

Washington State Books

This publication from King County Superior Court judge Ronald Kessler is updated semi-annually and is distributed free of charge. It includes citations to Washington state case law on a variety of criminal law topics.


Privacy’S Next Act, Erik Lampmann-Shaver Jan 2024

Privacy’S Next Act, Erik Lampmann-Shaver

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

This Article identifies and describes three data privacy policy developments from recent legislative sessions that may seem unrelated, but which I contend together offer clues about privacy law’s future over the short-to-medium term.

The first is the proliferation, worldwide and in U.S. states, of legislative proposals and statutes referred to as “age-appropriate design codes.” Originating in the United Kingdom, age-appropriate design codes typically apply to online services “directed to children” and subject such services to transparency, default settings, and other requirements. Chief among them is an implied obligation to conduct ongoing assessments of whether a service could be deemed “directed …


Quantifying Civil Recovery In Hybrid Antitrust-Data Protection Harms, Jose Maria Marella Jan 2024

Quantifying Civil Recovery In Hybrid Antitrust-Data Protection Harms, Jose Maria Marella

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

If digital platforms are found liable on hybrid antitrust-data protection violations, by how much should individual users be compensated? While traditional antitrust literature offers some estimation techniques, these methods were developed mostly around the idea that anti-competitive conduct manifests in supra-competitive prices, lost profits, or lost customers, all of which are easily quantifiable using commercially available evidence.

In digital markets, where antitrust violations are often intertwined with data protection issues, several complications arise. First, unlike transactions covered by traditional treble damage estimation techniques, “data-for-services” dealings are not evidenced by receipts. Second, personal data valuation is highly contextual and prone to …


Limits Of Algorithmic Fair Use, Jacob Alhadeff, Cooper Cuene, Max Del Real Jan 2024

Limits Of Algorithmic Fair Use, Jacob Alhadeff, Cooper Cuene, Max Del Real

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

In this article, we apply historical copyright principles to the evolving state of text-to-image generation and explore the implications of emerging technological constructs for copyright’s fair use doctrine. Artificial intelligence (“AI”) is frequently trained on copyrighted works, which usually involves extensive copying without owners’ authorization. Such copying could constitute prima facie copyright infringement, but existing guidance suggests fair use should apply to most machine learning contexts. Mark Lemley and Bryan Casey argue that training machine learning (“ML”) models on copyrighted material should generally be permitted under fair use when the model’s outputs transcends the purpose of its inputs. Their arguments …


Coded Social Control: China’S Normalization Of Biometric Surveillance In The Post Covid-19 Era, Michelle Miao Jan 2024

Coded Social Control: China’S Normalization Of Biometric Surveillance In The Post Covid-19 Era, Michelle Miao

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

This article investigates the longevity of health QR codes, a digital instrument of pandemic surveillance, in post-COVID China. From 2020 to 2022, China widely used this tri-color tool to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. A commonly held assumption is that health QR codes have become obsolete in post-pandemic China. This study challenges such an assumption. It reveals their persistence and integration - through mobile apps and online platforms - beyond the COVID-19 public health emergency. A prolonged, expanded and normalized use of tools which were originally intended for contact tracing and pandemic surveillance raises critical legal and ethical concerns. Moreover, their …


A Loophole In The Fourth Amendment: The Government's Unregulated Purchase Of Intimate Health Data, Rhea Bhatia Jan 2024

A Loophole In The Fourth Amendment: The Government's Unregulated Purchase Of Intimate Health Data, Rhea Bhatia

Washington Law Review Online

Companies use everyday applications and personal devices to collect deeply personal information about a user’s body and health. While this “intimate health data” includes seemingly innocuous information about fitness activities and basic vitals, it also includes extremely private information about the user’s health, such as chronic conditions and reproductive health. However, consumers have no established rights over the intimate health data shared on their devices. Believing that these technologies are created for their benefit, consumers hand over the most intimate aspects of their lives through health-related applications relying on the promise that their data will remain private. Today, the intimate …


Closing The Feedback Gap: Reflections As Diagnostic Resource, Jaclyn Celebrezze Dec 2023

Closing The Feedback Gap: Reflections As Diagnostic Resource, Jaclyn Celebrezze

Presentations

Providing students with helpful, actionable feedback is a perennial challenge. This presentation identifies an additional data source for instructors when drafting feedback: digital student reflections. This process has a dual benefit for both instructors and students. For instructors, digitized reflections unlock an understanding of why a student drafted a certain way, minimizing guesswork and ensuring more targeted feedback. For students, this process directs the instructor’s gaze to a concrete concern or discomfort for immediate response. While not a solution for all feedback problems, digitizing student reflections allows instructors and students to work together to close the gap.


Wrong Or (Fundamental) Right?: Substantive Due Process And The Right To Exclude, Jack May Dec 2023

Wrong Or (Fundamental) Right?: Substantive Due Process And The Right To Exclude, Jack May

Washington Law Review

Substantive due process provides heightened protection from government interference with enumerated constitutional rights and unenumerated—but nevertheless “fundamental”—rights. To date, the United States Supreme Court has never recognized any property right as a fundamental right for substantive due process purposes. But in Yim v. City of Seattle, a case recently decided by the Ninth Circuit, landlords and tenant screening companies argued that the right to exclude from one’s property should be a fundamental right. Yim involved a challenge to Seattle’s Fair Chance Housing Ordinance, which, among other things, prohibits landlords and tenant screening companies from inquiring about or considering a …


Following The Science: Judicial Review Of Climate Science, Maxine Sugarman Dec 2023

Following The Science: Judicial Review Of Climate Science, Maxine Sugarman

Washington Law Review

Climate change is the greatest existential crisis of our time. Yet, to date, Congress has failed to enact the broad-sweeping policies required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at the rate scientists have deemed necessary to avoid devastating consequences for our planet and all those who inhabit it. In the absence of comprehensive legislative action to solve the climate crisis, the executive branch has become more creative in the use of its authorities under bedrock environmental statutes to develop new climate regulations. Environmental advocates, states, and industry groups that oppose such regulations or assert that agencies could accomplish more under existing …


A Good Death: End-Of-Life Lawyering Through A Relational Autonomy Lens, Genevieve Mann Dec 2023

A Good Death: End-Of-Life Lawyering Through A Relational Autonomy Lens, Genevieve Mann

Washington Law Review

Death is difficult—even for lawyers who counsel clients on end-of-life planning. The predominant approach to counseling clients about death relies too heavily on traditional notions of personal autonomy and a nearly impenetrable right to be free from interference by others. Rooted in these notions, contracts called “advance directives” emerged as the primary tool for choosing one’s final destiny. Nevertheless, advance directives are underutilized and ineffective because many people are mired in death anxiety, indecision, and the weight of planning for a hypothetical illness. In the end, many do not get the death they choose: to trust in others and share …


Surprises In The Skies: Resolving The Circuit Split On How Courts Should Determine Whether An "Accident" Is "Unexpected Or Unusual" Under The Montreal Convention, Ashley Tang Dec 2023

Surprises In The Skies: Resolving The Circuit Split On How Courts Should Determine Whether An "Accident" Is "Unexpected Or Unusual" Under The Montreal Convention, Ashley Tang

Washington Law Review

Article 17 of both the Montreal Convention and its predecessor, the Warsaw Convention, imposes liability onto air carriers for certain injuries and damages from “accidents” incurred by passengers during international air carriage. However, neither Convention defines the term “accident.” While the United States Supreme Court opined that, for the purposes of Article 17, an air carrier’s liability “arises only if a passenger’s injury is caused by an unexpected or unusual event or happening that is external to the passenger,” it did not explain what standards lower courts should employ to discern whether an event is “unexpected or unusual.” In 2004, …


The Administrative State's Jury Problem, Richard Lorren Jolly Dec 2023

The Administrative State's Jury Problem, Richard Lorren Jolly

Washington Law Review

This Article argues that the administrative state’s most acute constitutional fault is its routine failure to comply with the Seventh Amendment. Properly understood, that Amendment establishes an independent limitation on congressional authority to designate jurisdiction to juryless tribunals, and its dictate as to “Suits at common law” refers to all federal legal rights regardless of forum. Agencies’ use of binding, juryless adjudication fails these requirements and must be reformed. But this does not mean dismantling the administrative state; it is possible (indeed, necessary) to solve the jury problem while maintaining modern government. To that end, this Article advances a structural …


Putting The Public Back In The Public Trust Doctrine: A Reinterpretation To Advance Native Hawaiian Water Rights, Steven Hindman Dec 2023

Putting The Public Back In The Public Trust Doctrine: A Reinterpretation To Advance Native Hawaiian Water Rights, Steven Hindman

Washington Law Review

The public trust doctrine guarantees that the government will hold natural resources in trust and protect them for the common good. The doctrine has played a key role in the allocation of water rights, particularly for Native American and Native Hawaiian interests in the United States. State and federal courts often consider the doctrine when deciding if certain use rights should be granted. In Hawai‘i, the doctrine has taken on a particularly robust form because the State Constitution expressly provides that all public natural resources are to be held in trust for the benefit of all Hawaiians. Unfortunately, the doctrine’s …


Trademarks In An Algorithmic World, Christine Haight Farley Dec 2023

Trademarks In An Algorithmic World, Christine Haight Farley

Washington Law Review

According to the sole normative foundation for trademark protection—“search costs” theory—trademarks transmit useful information to consumers, enabling an efficient marketplace. The marketplace, however, is in the midst of a fundamental change. Increasingly, retail is virtual, marketing is data-driven, and purchasing decisions are automated by AI. Predictive analytics are changing how consumers shop. Search costs theory no longer accurately describes the function of trademarks in this marketplace. Consumers now have numerous digital alternatives to trademarks that more efficiently provide them with increasingly accurate product information. Just as store shelves are disappearing from consumers’ retail experience, so are trademarks disappearing from their …


Vietnam's "Entire People Ownership" Of Land: Theory And Practice, Phan Trung Hien, Hugh D. Spitzer Dec 2023

Vietnam's "Entire People Ownership" Of Land: Theory And Practice, Phan Trung Hien, Hugh D. Spitzer

Articles

The Constitution of Vietnam declares that “[t]he Socialist Republic of Vietnam State is a socialist rule of law State of the People, by the People, and for the People.” It also states that land is “under ownership by the entire people represented and uniformly managed by the State.” This means the entire people of Vietnam are collective landowners and the Vietnam State is their “representative.” Given that, how might the public execute its real ownership—rather than treating “people’s ownership” as just a slogan? This article analyzes the gaps in theory and practice in Vietnam, a country with a robust market …


Tech Supremacy: The New Arms Race Between China And The United States, Xuan-Thao Nguyen Dec 2023

Tech Supremacy: The New Arms Race Between China And The United States, Xuan-Thao Nguyen

Articles

In the brewing tech war between the United States and China, the quest for tech supremacy is in full force. Through enacting a series of laws and policies, China aims to reach its goal of tech supremacy. If China succeeds, U.S. corporations will face a daunting task in competing against Chinese products and services in core industries and in sectors where artificial intelligence and technological breakthroughs reign. This Article is the first to identify and analyze China’s 2022 Law on Science and Technology Progress, Personal Information Protection Law, Made in China 2025, National Intellectual Property Strategies, and digital currency e-CNY; …


A Democratic Perspective On Tax Law, Clint Wallace Oct 2023

A Democratic Perspective On Tax Law, Clint Wallace

Washington Law Review

As democracies around the world have faltered, legal scholars in fields as diverse as election law, labor law, and administrative law have turned to tax law to repair and support democratic governments. Taxation offers a toolset well-equipped to address concerns raised by democratic theorists focused on the conditions that shape a democratic community and help it to flourish. Tax laws can rectify social dynamics characterized by economic inequality and can help establish and strengthen civic institutions, among many possible interventions. But legal scholars evaluating and designing tax policies generally focus on the standard normative criteria of efficiency, equity, and administrability, …


Reasonable In Time, Unreasonable In Scope: Maximizing Fourth Amendment Protections Under Rodriguez V. United States, Thomas Heiden Oct 2023

Reasonable In Time, Unreasonable In Scope: Maximizing Fourth Amendment Protections Under Rodriguez V. United States, Thomas Heiden

Washington Law Review

In Rodriguez v. United States, the Supreme Court held that a law enforcement officer may not conduct a drug dog sniff after the completion of a routine traffic stop because doing so extends the stop without reasonable suspicion in violation of the Fourth Amendment’s prohibition on unreasonable seizures. Tracing the background of Rodriguez from the Supreme Court’s landmark decision in Terry v. Ohio, this Comment argues that Rodriguez is best understood as a reaction to the continued erosion of Fourth Amendment protections in the investigative stop context. Based on that understanding, this Comment argues for a strict reading of Rodriguez, …


After The Criminal Justice System, Benjamin Levin Oct 2023

After The Criminal Justice System, Benjamin Levin

Washington Law Review

Since the 1960s, the “criminal justice system” has operated as the common label for a vast web of actors and institutions. But as critiques of mass incarceration have entered the mainstream, academics, activists, and advocates increasingly have stopped referring to the “criminal justice system.” Instead, they have opted for critical labels—the “criminal legal system,” the “criminal punishment system,” the “prison industrial complex,” and so on. What does this re-labeling accomplish? Does this change in language matter to broader efforts at criminal justice reform or abolition? Or does an emphasis on labels and language distract from substantive engagement with the injustices …


Reifying Injustice: Using Culturally Specific Tattoos As A Marker Of Gang Membership, Beth Caldwell Oct 2023

Reifying Injustice: Using Culturally Specific Tattoos As A Marker Of Gang Membership, Beth Caldwell

Washington Law Review

The “gang” label has been so highly racialized that white people who self- identify as gang members are almost never categorized as “gang members” by law enforcement, while Black and Latino people who are not gang members are routinely labeled and targeted as if they were. Different rules attach to people under criminal law once they are labeled gang members, yet this two-track system is justified under the guise that the racially disparate treatment is legitimate because of gang association.

This Article takes one concrete example—culturally specific tattoos—and unmasks how racial markers are used to attach the gang label. Specifically, …


Private Police Regulation And The Exclusionary Remedy: How Washington Can Eliminate The Public/Private Distinction, Jared Rothenberg Oct 2023

Private Police Regulation And The Exclusionary Remedy: How Washington Can Eliminate The Public/Private Distinction, Jared Rothenberg

Washington Law Review

Private security forces such as campus police, security guards, loss prevention officers, and the like are not state actors covered by the Fourth Amendment’s prohibition against unreasonable searches and seizures nor the Fifth Amendment’s Miranda protections. As members of the umbrella category of “private police,” these private law enforcement agents often obtain evidence, detain individuals, and elicit confessions in a manner that government actors cannot, which can then be lawfully turned over to the government. Though the same statutory law governing private citizens (assault, false imprisonment, trespass, etc.) also regulates private police conduct, private police conduct is not bound by …


One Crisis Or Two Problems? Disentangling Rural Access To Justice And The Rural Attorney Shortage, Daria F. Page, Brian R. Farrell Oct 2023

One Crisis Or Two Problems? Disentangling Rural Access To Justice And The Rural Attorney Shortage, Daria F. Page, Brian R. Farrell

Washington Law Review

We have all seen the headlines: No Lawyer for Miles or Legal Deserts Threaten Justice for All in Rural America. There is a substantial body of literature, across disciplines and for diverse audiences, that looks at access to justice in rural communities and geographies. However, in both the popular and scholarly imaginations, the access to justice crisis has been largely conflated with the shortage of local attorneys in rural areas: When bar associations, lawyers, and legal academics define the problem as not enough lawyers, more lawyers become the obvious solution. Consequently, programs aimed at building pipelines from law schools …


The Right To Access Information On Land Recovery, Compensation, Assistance, And Resettlement: Case Study, City Of Can Tho, Vietnam, Hien Trung Phan, Hugh D. Spitzer Oct 2023

The Right To Access Information On Land Recovery, Compensation, Assistance, And Resettlement: Case Study, City Of Can Tho, Vietnam, Hien Trung Phan, Hugh D. Spitzer

Articles

Land recovery in Vietnam is the process of compulsory transfer of land use rights from the hands of land users to the hands of the State by way of local government agencies. Land recovery frequently raises issues of compensation, assistance, and resettlement. It is vital for affected land users and the general public to have access to reports on land recovery, compensation, and resettlement. The article describes a limited survey of Vietnamese people whose land was subject to government recovery and evaluates their access to and understanding of information at each stage of the land recovery process. The study revealed …


Taking The Long Road: The Excessive Fines Clause As A Tool For Protecting Washington's Unsheltered Population, Anna Ferron Oct 2023

Taking The Long Road: The Excessive Fines Clause As A Tool For Protecting Washington's Unsheltered Population, Anna Ferron

Washington Law Review

Over the last decade, Washington State has seen a substantial increase in its unhoused population and an increase in laws that harm this group. Many of these laws subject unhoused and unsheltered people to fines, fees, and forfeitures that are exceedingly difficult for them to afford. The ExcessiveFinesClauses in the United States and Washington Constitutions protect citizens from fines deemed constitutionally excessive and could be used to shield unsheltered people from the burden of paying unjust fines they cannot afford. In City of Seattle v. Long, the Washington State Supreme Court analyzed the ability to pay of a person who …


What You Don’T Know Will Hurt You: Fighting The Privacy Paradox By Designing For Privacy And Enforcing Protective Technology, Perla Khattar Jun 2023

What You Don’T Know Will Hurt You: Fighting The Privacy Paradox By Designing For Privacy And Enforcing Protective Technology, Perla Khattar

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

The persistence of the privacy paradox is proof that current industry regulation is insufficient to protect consumer’s privacy. Although consumer choice is essential, we argue that it should not be the main pillar of modern data privacy legislation. This article argues that legislation should aim to protect consumer’s personal data in the first place, while also giving internet users the choice to opt-in to the processing of their information. Ideally, privacy by design principles would be mandated by law, making privacy an essential component of the architecture of every tech-product and service.


“Tiktok Told Me I Have Adhd”: Regulatory Outlook For The Telehealth Revolution, Kaitlin Campanini Jun 2023

“Tiktok Told Me I Have Adhd”: Regulatory Outlook For The Telehealth Revolution, Kaitlin Campanini

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

Telehealth’s expansion during the COVID-19 pandemic has drastically changed the approach to healthcare in the United States. This is particularly true in the behavioral health sector where several behavioral telehealth companies have emerged to treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (“ADHD”). These companies utilize a direct-to-consumer (“DTC”) model with a virtual platform that connects subscribing patients to medical providers who can treat them for ADHD. Although this telemedicine model emphasizes convenience and efficiency, the reality is that those benefits come at the cost of patient care. The federal regulations promulgated in the Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act of 2008 to curtail …