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Full-Text Articles in Law

Google Searching For The Truth: Examining The Admissibility Of Internet Search History, Chisup Kim Jun 2024

Google Searching For The Truth: Examining The Admissibility Of Internet Search History, Chisup Kim

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

The internet has become more ubiquitously available than ever before, with search engines serving as the portals to an unparalleled amount of information. As a byproduct of this phenomenon, a vast amount of internet search history has also begun to enter legal proceedings as evidence. The most intimate questions that defendants have asked their search engines have begun to be examined under the scope of the Federal Rules of Evidence or a state equivalent. This Comment examines the admissibility of internet search history and provides a general legal framework based on the Federal Rules of Evidence. Drawing upon six cases, …


Everybody Wants To Rule The World: Central Bank Digital Currencies In The Era Of Decoupling The World’S Two Largest Economies, James M. Cooper Jun 2024

Everybody Wants To Rule The World: Central Bank Digital Currencies In The Era Of Decoupling The World’S Two Largest Economies, James M. Cooper

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

Some 130 central banks around the world are experimenting with various levels of a central bank digital currency (“CBDC”), a digitized form of a sovereign-backed, national currency that is a liability of that country’s central bank. Unlike fiat currency, CBDCs are trackable and potentially subject to interference and even freezing by government authorities. CBDCs will affect citizens’ control over commerce, payments, and savings, and impact their privacy rights. The Chinese government has piloted, refined, and rolled out its own CBDC called the Digital Currency/Electronic Payment initiative (“DC/EP”), also known as the digital yuan or e-CNY. The Chinese government is far …


When Ai Remembers Too Much: Reinventing The Right To Be Forgotten For The Generative Age, Cheng-Chi Chang Jun 2024

When Ai Remembers Too Much: Reinventing The Right To Be Forgotten For The Generative Age, Cheng-Chi Chang

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

The emergence of generative artificial intelligence (AI) systems poses novel challenges for the right to be forgotten. While this right gained prominence following the 2014 Google Spain v. Gonzalez case, generative AI’s limitless memory and ability to reproduce identifiable data from fragments threaten traditional conceptions of forgetting. This Article traces the evolution of the right to be forgotten from its privacy law origins towards an independent entitlement grounded in self-determination for personal information. However, it contends the inherent limitations of using current anonymization, deletion, and geographical blocking mechanisms to prevent AI models from retaining personal data render forgetting infeasible. Moreover, …


The Need For An International Ai Research Initiative: How To Create And Sustain A Virtuous Research-Regulation Cycle To Govern Ai, Kevin Frazier Jun 2024

The Need For An International Ai Research Initiative: How To Create And Sustain A Virtuous Research-Regulation Cycle To Govern Ai, Kevin Frazier

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

This paper explains the need for an international AI research initiative. The current focus of lawmakers at the subnational, national, and international level on regulation over research has created an imbalance, neglecting the critical role of continuous, informed research in developing laws that keep pace with rapid technological advancements in AI.

The proposed international AI research initiative would serve as a central hub for comprehensive AI risk analysis, modeled on successful precedents like CERN and the IPCC. CERN exemplifies a collaborative research environment with pooled resources from member states, leading to significant advancements in particle physics. Similarly, the IPCC has …


All Eyez On Rap & Hip-Hop: Analyzing How Black Expression Is Criminalized And The Language Of The Rap Act Of 2022, Maia Young Apr 2024

All Eyez On Rap & Hip-Hop: Analyzing How Black Expression Is Criminalized And The Language Of The Rap Act Of 2022, Maia Young

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

The Black existence, in the United States of America, has always been regarded as a conditional right. Conventionally, Blackness must always be nonviolent and non-disruptive to safely exist. Because of this, Blackness cannot be confined to restraints and disrupts these conventions with acts of joy and creative expression. Black creativity is both unconventional and sacred. Black creative expression documents, preserves, and unifies cultural lived experiences, from a first-hand lens of those oppressed. Creative and artistic expression celebrates the myriad of stories that are a part of the collective Black experience. Yet, Black creative expression is now being weaponized by prosecutors …


Constitutional Rights Of Artificial Intelligence, Mizuki Hashiguchi Apr 2024

Constitutional Rights Of Artificial Intelligence, Mizuki Hashiguchi

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

On February 8, 2022, the Italian Parliament approved constitutional amendments to protect the environment. A member of Parliament stated that the environment is an element of Italy, and that safeguarding the environment means safeguarding humans. The need to protect the environment seems to have become a critical component of public conscience. Likewise, if society perceives that artificial intelligence is vitally important for humanity, does constitutional law allow constitutional rights for artificial intelligence to be created?

Extending constitutional rights to artificial intelligence may be consistent with the jurisprudential history of rights. Constitutional rights have undergone metamorphosis over time to protect new …


Rembrandt’S Missing Piece: Ai Art And The Fallacies Of Copyright Law, Eleni Polymenopoulou Apr 2024

Rembrandt’S Missing Piece: Ai Art And The Fallacies Of Copyright Law, Eleni Polymenopoulou

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

This article discusses contemporary problems related to Artificial Intelligence (AI), law and the visual arts. It suggests that the fallacies of copyright law are already visible in legal conundrums raised by AI in the creative sector. These include, for instance, the lack of uniformity in relation to creations’ copyrightability, the massive scale of copyright infringement affecting visual artists and the creative industry, and the difficulties in implementing media regulation and cyber-regulation. The deeply cherished ‘human authorship’ criterion that was sustained recently by a US Federal Appeals Court in Thaler, in particular, is a short-term solution to the legal challenges …


Public Health Consequences Of Appellate Standards For Hostile Work Environment Claims, Lauren Krumholz Mar 2024

Public Health Consequences Of Appellate Standards For Hostile Work Environment Claims, Lauren Krumholz

Washington Journal of Social & Environmental Justice

No abstract provided.


Forced To Bear The Burden And Now The Children: The Dobbs Decision And Environmental Justice Communities, Mia Petrucci Mar 2024

Forced To Bear The Burden And Now The Children: The Dobbs Decision And Environmental Justice Communities, Mia Petrucci

Washington Journal of Social & Environmental Justice

No abstract provided.


Navigating The First Amendment In School Choice: The Case For The Constitutionality Of Washington’S Charter School Act, Stephanie Smith Mar 2024

Navigating The First Amendment In School Choice: The Case For The Constitutionality Of Washington’S Charter School Act, Stephanie Smith

Washington Journal of Social & Environmental Justice

No abstract provided.


Pursuing The Exemption: The Makah's White Whale, Sarah Van Voorhis Mar 2024

Pursuing The Exemption: The Makah's White Whale, Sarah Van Voorhis

Washington Journal of Social & Environmental Justice

No abstract provided.


The Kids Are Not Alright: Negative Consequences Of Student Device And Account Surveillance, Ashley Peterson Mar 2024

The Kids Are Not Alright: Negative Consequences Of Student Device And Account Surveillance, Ashley Peterson

Washington Law Review

In recent years, student surveillance has rapidly grown. As schools have experimented with new technologies, transitioned to remote and hybrid instruction, and faced pressure to protect student safety, they have increased surveillance of school accounts and school-issued devices. School surveillance extends beyond school premises to monitor student activities that occur off-campus. It reaches students’ most intimate data and spaces, including things students likely believe are private: internet searches, emails, and messages. This Comment focuses on the problems associated with off-campus surveillance of school accounts and school-issued devices, including chilling effects that fundamentally alter student behavior, reinforcement of the school-to-prison pipeline, …


Preempting Private Prisons, Christopher Matthew Burgess Mar 2024

Preempting Private Prisons, Christopher Matthew Burgess

Washington Law Review

In 2019 and 2021, respectively, California and Washington enacted laws banning the operation of private prisons within each state, including those operated by private companies in contracts with the federal government. Nevertheless, the federal government continues to contract with private prisons through Immigrations and Customs Enforcement for the detention of non-United States citizens. In 2022, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals held in GEO Group, Inc. v. Newsom that federal immigration law preempted California’s private prison ban.

Preemption—when federal law supersedes state law—is a doctrinal thicket. Federal courts analyze preemption issues in multiple different ways in a particular case, often …


Speaking Back To Sexual Privacy Invasions, Brenda Dvoskin Mar 2024

Speaking Back To Sexual Privacy Invasions, Brenda Dvoskin

Washington Law Review

Many big players in the internet ecosystem do not like hosting sexual expression. They often justify these bans as a protection of sexual privacy. For example, Meta states that it removes sexual imagery to prevent the nonconsensual distribution of sexual images. In response, this Article argues that banning digital sexual expression is counterproductive if the aim is to alleviate the harms inflicted by sexual privacy losses.

Contemporary sexual privacy theory, however, lacks analytical tools to explain why nudity bans harm the interests they intend to protect. This Article aims at building those tools. The main contribution is an invitation to …


Copyright's Public Reliance Interests, Bo S. L. Kim Mar 2024

Copyright's Public Reliance Interests, Bo S. L. Kim

Washington Law Review

Courts are increasingly invoking copyright law’s “scenes a faire” doctrine, which precludes infringement liability for copying typical or standard elements in a copyrighted work. But judges and commentators only cursorily discuss why certain elements constitute scenes a faire. Alternatively, they characterize the doctrine as merely an extension of other copyrightability doctrines. The result is doctrinal inconsistency in how scenes a faire applies and theoretical disagreement about why the doctrine exists.

This Article advances a “public reliance interests” theory of scenes a faire that provides descriptive clarity to the doctrine and highlights its underexplored importance to copyright law writ large. Drawing …


The Consumer Bundle, Shelly Kreiczer-Levy Mar 2024

The Consumer Bundle, Shelly Kreiczer-Levy

Washington Law Review

Can property law have a consumer protection purpose? One of the most important consumer law concerns today is the limited control consumers have over the digital assets and software-embedded products they purchase. Current proposals for reform focus on classifying the transaction as either license or sale and rely mostly on contract law and consumer protection regulation with a few calls for restoring ownership rights. This Article argues that property law can protect consumers by establishing a minimum bundle of rights for consumers: the “consumer’s bundle.” Working with property theory and an analysis of property values, this Article explains the importance …


In The Midst Of Bankruptcy: How Cryptocurrency's Classification Affects Creditors Who Were Once Customers, Mia Qu Mar 2024

In The Midst Of Bankruptcy: How Cryptocurrency's Classification Affects Creditors Who Were Once Customers, Mia Qu

Washington Law Review

In 2022, Congress proposed the Digital Commodities Consumer Protection Act to amend the Commodity Exchange Act and define a new type of commodity: digital commodity. The definition of digital commodity encompasses cryptocurrency and provides the Commodity Futures Trading Commission with jurisdiction over digital asset transactions. This definition of digital commodity has two important implications. First, it signals the lawmakers’ tendency to generalize cryptocurrency as a commodity. Second, it brings complications into how creditors—especially individual crypto account holders—can recover in the recent bankruptcy cases involving prominent crypto companies. This Comment contains four components. First, it provides a brief explanation of cryptocurrency …


From Precedent To Policy: The Effects Of Dobbs On Detained Immigrant Youth, Ciera Phung-Marion Mar 2024

From Precedent To Policy: The Effects Of Dobbs On Detained Immigrant Youth, Ciera Phung-Marion

Washington Law Review

In June 2022, the United States Supreme Court released the historic decision Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization, holding that the U.S. Constitution does not protect an individual’s right to an abortion. Dobbs overturned many cases, including J.D. v. Azar, which previously protected abortion rights for unaccompanied migrant youth in federal detention facilities. Post-Dobbs, the Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR)—the agency responsible for caring for detained immigrant children—still protects abortion rights as part of its own internal policy. Without judicial precedent, however, this policy lacks the stability to truly protect the rights of the children in its …


Salvaging Federal Domestic Violence Gun Regulations In Bruen’S Wake, Bonnie Carlson Mar 2024

Salvaging Federal Domestic Violence Gun Regulations In Bruen’S Wake, Bonnie Carlson

Washington Law Review

Congress passed two life-saving laws in the mid-1990s: a protection order prohibition, which bars firearm possession for protection order respondents, and the Lautenberg Amendment, which bars firearm possession for those convicted of misdemeanor crimes of domestic violence. Both laws have been repeatedly upheld by federal courts nationwide in the nearly thirty years since their enactment. Both faced renewed constitutional challenges after the United States Supreme Court’s foundation-shifting decision in New York State Rifle & Pistol Ass’n v. Bruen on June 23, 2022. The Lautenberg Amendment has fared well; every court to consider it post-Bruen has upheld it. Courts have …


Privacy Matters: Data Breach Litigation In Japan, Andrew M. Pardieck Feb 2024

Privacy Matters: Data Breach Litigation In Japan, Andrew M. Pardieck

Washington International Law Journal

In 1890, when Brandeis and Warren wrote The Right to Privacy, Japan did not have a word for privacy. Today, it is closely guarded in Japan: the European Data Protection Board has found privacy protections in Japan “equivalent” to those in the EU. This research explores the evolution of privacy law in Japan, focusing on data breach and the legal rights and obligations associated with it. The writing is broken up into two parts: This article discusses private enforcement of privacy norms, as it is the courts that first established and continue to define privacy rights in Japan. A separate …


Executive Agreements In Japan And The United States: Their Differences And Similarities, Yuhei Matsuyama Feb 2024

Executive Agreements In Japan And The United States: Their Differences And Similarities, Yuhei Matsuyama

Washington International Law Journal

The national constitutions of Japan and the United States describe which domestic branches conclude “treaties” and how they do it. In both countries, the legislative branch plays a critical role in the treaty-making process, checking and controlling the executive branch. However, both nations enter international agreements without following the procedures explicitly provided in their national constitutions. Such agreements are called “executive agreements.” In both Japan and the United States, the practice of entering executive agreements has been recognized since the adoption of the current constitutions, and the number of such agreements—in lieu of treaties—is rising. Despite contrasting government and legal …


To Catch The Cheshire Cat: Freezing Injunction Jurisdiction At The Click Of A Mouse, King Fung Tsang, Pierce Lai Feb 2024

To Catch The Cheshire Cat: Freezing Injunction Jurisdiction At The Click Of A Mouse, King Fung Tsang, Pierce Lai

Washington International Law Journal

Since its emergence in 1975, the English freezing injunction has grown to have a robust and global extraterritorial reach, but its exercise in extreme cases is jurisdictionally unsound. The “real connecting link” between assets and forum required for the grant of a worldwide freezing order in aid of foreign proceedings has become significantly looser, notably with an element of fraud acting as catalyst. This jurisdictional link is further weakened by the receding of reciprocity imperatives between the United Kingdom and member states of the European Union following Brexit. In its place is the enforcement principle, enabling a high degree of …


Should We Reform The Jury? An Australian Perspective, Keith Thompson Feb 2024

Should We Reform The Jury? An Australian Perspective, Keith Thompson

Washington International Law Journal

Jury trials are a necessary part of American and Australian jurisprudence. However, critics question whether both jurisdictions should consider eliminating or reforming jury trials. High-profile jury cases in Australia and the United States elicit criticism regarding the ongoing relevance of the institution. Jury trials function differently in both countries and hold different levels of public trust in the institution. Despite the criticisms of jury trials, neither country has engaged in serious conversations to abolition this ancient institution. This article discusses the trials of Lindy Chamberlain and Cardinal George Pell, placing the use of criminal jury trial in their ancient English …


Privacy’S Next Act, Erik Lampmann-Shaver Jan 2024

Privacy’S Next Act, Erik Lampmann-Shaver

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

This Article identifies and describes three data privacy policy developments from recent legislative sessions that may seem unrelated, but which I contend together offer clues about privacy law’s future over the short-to-medium term.

The first is the proliferation, worldwide and in U.S. states, of legislative proposals and statutes referred to as “age-appropriate design codes.” Originating in the United Kingdom, age-appropriate design codes typically apply to online services “directed to children” and subject such services to transparency, default settings, and other requirements. Chief among them is an implied obligation to conduct ongoing assessments of whether a service could be deemed “directed …


Coded Social Control: China’S Normalization Of Biometric Surveillance In The Post Covid-19 Era, Michelle Miao Jan 2024

Coded Social Control: China’S Normalization Of Biometric Surveillance In The Post Covid-19 Era, Michelle Miao

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

This article investigates the longevity of health QR codes, a digital instrument of pandemic surveillance, in post-COVID China. From 2020 to 2022, China widely used this tri-color tool to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. A commonly held assumption is that health QR codes have become obsolete in post-pandemic China. This study challenges such an assumption. It reveals their persistence and integration - through mobile apps and online platforms - beyond the COVID-19 public health emergency. A prolonged, expanded and normalized use of tools which were originally intended for contact tracing and pandemic surveillance raises critical legal and ethical concerns. Moreover, their …


Limits Of Algorithmic Fair Use, Jacob Alhadeff, Cooper Cuene, Max Del Real Jan 2024

Limits Of Algorithmic Fair Use, Jacob Alhadeff, Cooper Cuene, Max Del Real

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

In this article, we apply historical copyright principles to the evolving state of text-to-image generation and explore the implications of emerging technological constructs for copyright’s fair use doctrine. Artificial intelligence (“AI”) is frequently trained on copyrighted works, which usually involves extensive copying without owners’ authorization. Such copying could constitute prima facie copyright infringement, but existing guidance suggests fair use should apply to most machine learning contexts. Mark Lemley and Bryan Casey argue that training machine learning (“ML”) models on copyrighted material should generally be permitted under fair use when the model’s outputs transcends the purpose of its inputs. Their arguments …


Quantifying Civil Recovery In Hybrid Antitrust-Data Protection Harms, Jose Maria Marella Jan 2024

Quantifying Civil Recovery In Hybrid Antitrust-Data Protection Harms, Jose Maria Marella

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

If digital platforms are found liable on hybrid antitrust-data protection violations, by how much should individual users be compensated? While traditional antitrust literature offers some estimation techniques, these methods were developed mostly around the idea that anti-competitive conduct manifests in supra-competitive prices, lost profits, or lost customers, all of which are easily quantifiable using commercially available evidence.

In digital markets, where antitrust violations are often intertwined with data protection issues, several complications arise. First, unlike transactions covered by traditional treble damage estimation techniques, “data-for-services” dealings are not evidenced by receipts. Second, personal data valuation is highly contextual and prone to …


A Loophole In The Fourth Amendment: The Government's Unregulated Purchase Of Intimate Health Data, Rhea Bhatia Jan 2024

A Loophole In The Fourth Amendment: The Government's Unregulated Purchase Of Intimate Health Data, Rhea Bhatia

Washington Law Review Online

Companies use everyday applications and personal devices to collect deeply personal information about a user’s body and health. While this “intimate health data” includes seemingly innocuous information about fitness activities and basic vitals, it also includes extremely private information about the user’s health, such as chronic conditions and reproductive health. However, consumers have no established rights over the intimate health data shared on their devices. Believing that these technologies are created for their benefit, consumers hand over the most intimate aspects of their lives through health-related applications relying on the promise that their data will remain private. Today, the intimate …


Breaking Algorithmic Immunity: Why Section 230 Immunity May Not Extend To Recommendation Algorithms, Max Del Real Jan 2024

Breaking Algorithmic Immunity: Why Section 230 Immunity May Not Extend To Recommendation Algorithms, Max Del Real

Washington Law Review Online

In the mid-1990s, internet experiences were underwhelming by today’s standards, despite the breakthrough technologies at their core. When a person logged on to the internet, they were met with a static experience. No matter who you were, where you were, or how you accessed a particular website, it rendered a consistent page. Today, internet experiences are personalized, dynamic, and vast—a far cry from the digital landscape of just a few decades ago. While today’s internet is unrecognizable compared with its early predecessors, many of its governing laws remain materially unaltered. In particular, section 230 of the Communications Act, which passed …


Surprises In The Skies: Resolving The Circuit Split On How Courts Should Determine Whether An "Accident" Is "Unexpected Or Unusual" Under The Montreal Convention, Ashley Tang Dec 2023

Surprises In The Skies: Resolving The Circuit Split On How Courts Should Determine Whether An "Accident" Is "Unexpected Or Unusual" Under The Montreal Convention, Ashley Tang

Washington Law Review

Article 17 of both the Montreal Convention and its predecessor, the Warsaw Convention, imposes liability onto air carriers for certain injuries and damages from “accidents” incurred by passengers during international air carriage. However, neither Convention defines the term “accident.” While the United States Supreme Court opined that, for the purposes of Article 17, an air carrier’s liability “arises only if a passenger’s injury is caused by an unexpected or unusual event or happening that is external to the passenger,” it did not explain what standards lower courts should employ to discern whether an event is “unexpected or unusual.” In 2004, …