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Air Force Institute of Technology

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Gnss Software Defined Radio: History, Current Developments, And Standardization Efforts, Thomas Pany, Dennis Akos, Javier Arribas, M. Zahidul H. Bhuiyan, Pau Closas, Fabio Dovis, Ignacio Fernandez-Hernandez, Carles Fernandez-Prades, Sanjeev Gunawardena, Todd Humphreys, Zaher M. Kassas, Jose A. Lopez Salcedo, Mario Nicola, Mario L. Psiaki, Alexander Rugamer, Yong-Jin Song, Jong-Hoon Won Jan 2024

Gnss Software Defined Radio: History, Current Developments, And Standardization Efforts, Thomas Pany, Dennis Akos, Javier Arribas, M. Zahidul H. Bhuiyan, Pau Closas, Fabio Dovis, Ignacio Fernandez-Hernandez, Carles Fernandez-Prades, Sanjeev Gunawardena, Todd Humphreys, Zaher M. Kassas, Jose A. Lopez Salcedo, Mario Nicola, Mario L. Psiaki, Alexander Rugamer, Yong-Jin Song, Jong-Hoon Won

Faculty Publications

Taking the work conducted by the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) software-defined radio (SDR) working group during the last decade as a seed, this contribution summarizes, for the first time, the history of GNSS SDR development. This report highlights selected SDR implementations and achievements that are available to the public or that influenced the general development of SDR. Aspects related to the standardization process of intermediate-frequency sample data and metadata are discussed, and an update of the Institute of Navigation SDR Standard is proposed. This work focuses on GNSS SDR implementations in general-purpose processors and leaves aside developments conducted on …


Directional Microwave Emission From Femtosecond-Laser Illuminated Linear Arrays Of Superconducting Rings, Thomas J. Bullard, Kyle Frische, Charlie Ebbing, Stephen J. Hageman, John Morrison, John Bulmer, Enam A. Chowdury, Michael L. Dexter, Timothy J. Haugan, Anil K. Patniak Dec 2023

Directional Microwave Emission From Femtosecond-Laser Illuminated Linear Arrays Of Superconducting Rings, Thomas J. Bullard, Kyle Frische, Charlie Ebbing, Stephen J. Hageman, John Morrison, John Bulmer, Enam A. Chowdury, Michael L. Dexter, Timothy J. Haugan, Anil K. Patniak

Faculty Publications

We examine the electromagnetic emission from two photo-illuminated linear arrays composed of inductively charged superconducting ring elements. The arrays are illuminated by an ultrafast infrared laser that triggers microwave broadband emission detected in the 1–26 GHz range. Based on constructive interference from the arrays a narrowing of the forward radiation lobe is observed with increasing element count and frequency demonstrating directed GHz emission. Results suggest that higher frequencies and a larger number of elements are achievable leading to a unique pulsed array emitter concept that can span frequencies from the microwave to the terahertz (THz) regime.


The Afit Engineer, Volume 5, Issue 4, Graduate School Of Engineering And Management, Air Force Institute Of Technology Dec 2023

The Afit Engineer, Volume 5, Issue 4, Graduate School Of Engineering And Management, Air Force Institute Of Technology

AFIT Documents

This issue has a special research feature section by the Autonomy and Navigation Technology Center (ANT) on Demonstration of Alternative Navigation Technologies for Autonomous Aircraft.

Also in this issue:

  • ANT Center lowers DOD dependence on GPS
  • Record number of female Doctorates awarded at AFIT's Fall Commencement
  • D'Azzo Research Library recognized by Library of Congress.
  • Hypersonic vehicle flying qualities assessment
  • Retirement of Dean Badiru

.... and more.


A Computational Approach For Mapping Electrochemical Activity Of Multi-Principal Element Alloys, Jodie A. Yuwono, Xinyu Li, Tyler D. Dolezal, Adib J. Samin, Javen Qinfeng Shi, Zhipeng Li, Nick Birbilis Nov 2023

A Computational Approach For Mapping Electrochemical Activity Of Multi-Principal Element Alloys, Jodie A. Yuwono, Xinyu Li, Tyler D. Dolezal, Adib J. Samin, Javen Qinfeng Shi, Zhipeng Li, Nick Birbilis

Faculty Publications

Multi principal element alloys (MPEAs) comprise an atypical class of metal alloys. MPEAs have been demonstrated to possess several exceptional properties, including, as most relevant to the present study a high corrosion resistance. In the context of MPEA design, the vast number of potential alloying elements and the staggering number of elemental combinations favours a computational alloy design approach. In order to computationally assess the prospective corrosion performance of MPEA, an approach was developed in this study. A density functional theory (DFT) – based Monte Carlo method was used for the development of MPEA ‘structure’; with the AlCrTiV alloy used …


System-Level Noise Performance Of Coherent Imaging Systems, Derek J. Burrell, Joshua H. Follansbee, Mark F. Spencer, Ronald G. Driggers Nov 2023

System-Level Noise Performance Of Coherent Imaging Systems, Derek J. Burrell, Joshua H. Follansbee, Mark F. Spencer, Ronald G. Driggers

Faculty Publications

We provide an in-depth analysis of noise considerations in coherent imaging, accounting for speckle and scintillation in addition to “conventional” image noise. Specifically, we formulate closed-form expressions for total effective noise in the presence of speckle only, scintillation only, and speckle combined with scintillation. We find analytically that photon shot noise is uncorrelated with both speckle and weak-to-moderate scintillation, despite their shared dependence on the mean signal. Furthermore, unmitigated speckle and scintillation noise tends to dominate coherent-imaging performance due to a squared mean-signal dependence. Strong coupling occurs between speckle and scintillation when both are present, and we characterize this behavior …


Impact Of Silicon Ion Irradiation On Aluminum Nitride-Transduced Microelectromechanical Resonators, David D. Lynes, Joshua Young, Eric Lang, Hengky Chandrahalim Nov 2023

Impact Of Silicon Ion Irradiation On Aluminum Nitride-Transduced Microelectromechanical Resonators, David D. Lynes, Joshua Young, Eric Lang, Hengky Chandrahalim

Faculty Publications

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators use is widespread, from electronic filters and oscillators to physical sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes. These devices' ubiquity, small size, and low power consumption make them ideal for use in systems such as CubeSats, micro aerial vehicles, autonomous underwater vehicles, and micro-robots operating in radiation environments. Radiation's interaction with materials manifests as atomic displacement and ionization, resulting in mechanical and electronic property changes, photocurrents, and charge buildup. This study examines silicon (Si) ion irradiation's interaction with piezoelectrically transduced MEMS resonators. Furthermore, the effect of adding a dielectric silicon oxide (SiO2) thin film is …


Conservative Estimation Of Inertial Sensor Errors Using Allan Variance Data, Kyle A. Lethander, Clark N. Taylor Oct 2023

Conservative Estimation Of Inertial Sensor Errors Using Allan Variance Data, Kyle A. Lethander, Clark N. Taylor

Faculty Publications

To understand the error sources present in inertial sensors, both the white (time-invariant) and correlated noise sources must be properly characterized. To understand both sources, the standard approach (IEEE standards 647-2006, 952-2020) is to compute the Allan variance of the noise and then use human-based interpretation of linear trends to estimate the separate noise sources present in a sensor. Recent work has sought to overcome the graphical nature and visual-inspection basis of this approach leading to more accurate noise estimates. However, when using noise characterization in a filter, it is important that the noise estimates be not only accurate but …


Influencing Air Force Logisticians' Information Seeking During The Covid-19 Pandemic: The Role Of Organizational Meetings In An Expanded Prism Framework, Matthew D. Roberts, Christopher T. Price, Seong-Jong Joo Sep 2023

Influencing Air Force Logisticians' Information Seeking During The Covid-19 Pandemic: The Role Of Organizational Meetings In An Expanded Prism Framework, Matthew D. Roberts, Christopher T. Price, Seong-Jong Joo

Faculty Publications

Purpose: This research aims to understand how organizational workplace meetings surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic impacted logistics Airmen across the United States Air Force and how these meetings impacted their risk seeking behavior on social media.

Design/methodology/approach: This survey research tested an extended Planned Risk Information Risk Seeking Model (PRISM) with organizational meetings as an antecedent to determine if current meetings influenced an Airman's perceived behavioral control, attitude toward seeking, subjective norms, knowledge sufficiency and intention to seek information regarding COVID-19.

Findings: Results of the CFA showed that the expanded PRISM model had good model fit. Additionally, using …


Oxidation Of Hafnium Diboride—Silicon Carbide At 1500 °C In Air; Effect Of Compressive Stress, Anthony J. Degregoria, Marina B. Ruggles-Wrenn, Glen E. Pry Aug 2023

Oxidation Of Hafnium Diboride—Silicon Carbide At 1500 °C In Air; Effect Of Compressive Stress, Anthony J. Degregoria, Marina B. Ruggles-Wrenn, Glen E. Pry

Faculty Publications

The long-term oxidation behavior of HfB2 and of HfB2-20 vol.% SiC was studied. Test samples of each material were oxidized at 1500 °C in air using a box furnace. The exposure times were 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 30, 45 and 90 h. Weight gain, oxide scale composition and oxide scale thickness were characterized for both materials. Crystal structure of the surface scales was analyzed using x-ray diffraction. Oxide scales were further characterized via scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. For HfB2 the oxide scale consists predominantly of porous HfO …


Spectral Broadening Effects On Pulsed-Source Digital Holography, Steven A. Owens, Mark F. Spencer, Glen P. Perram Aug 2023

Spectral Broadening Effects On Pulsed-Source Digital Holography, Steven A. Owens, Mark F. Spencer, Glen P. Perram

Faculty Publications

Using a pulsed configuration, a digital-holographic system is setup in the off-axis image plane recording geometry, and spectral broadening via pseudo-random bit sequence is used to degrade the temporal coherence of the master-oscillator laser. The associated effects on the signal-to-noise ratio are then measured in terms of the ambiguity and coherence efficiencies. It is found that the ambiguity efficiency, which is a function of signal-reference pulse overlap, is not affected by the effects of spectral broadening. The coherence efficiency, on the other hand, is affected. As a result, the coherence efficiency, which is a function of effective fringe visibility, is …


The Characteristics Of Successful Military It Projects: A Cross-Country Empirical Study, Helene Berg, Jonathan D. Ritschel Jul 2023

The Characteristics Of Successful Military It Projects: A Cross-Country Empirical Study, Helene Berg, Jonathan D. Ritschel

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Domain Restriction Zones: An Evolution Of The Military Exclusion Zone, Cole M. Mooty, Robert A. Bettinger, Mark G. Reith Jul 2023

Domain Restriction Zones: An Evolution Of The Military Exclusion Zone, Cole M. Mooty, Robert A. Bettinger, Mark G. Reith

Faculty Publications

Since the early part of the twenty-first century, US adversaries have expanded their military capabilities within and their access to new warfighting domains. When faced with the growth of adversaries’ asymmetric capabilities, the means, tactics, and strategies previously used by the US military lose their proportional effectiveness. To avoid such degradation of capability, the operational concept of the military exclusion zone (MEZ) should be revised to suit the modern battlespace while also addressing the shifts in national policy that encourage diplomacy over military force. The concept and development of domain restriction zones (DRZs) increase the relevancy of traditional MEZs in …


Accurate Covariance Estimation For Pose Data From Iterative Closest Point Algorithm, Rick H. Yuan, Clark N. Taylor, Scott L. Nykl Jul 2023

Accurate Covariance Estimation For Pose Data From Iterative Closest Point Algorithm, Rick H. Yuan, Clark N. Taylor, Scott L. Nykl

Faculty Publications

One of the fundamental problems of robotics and navigation is the estimation of the relative pose of an external object with respect to the observer. A common method for computing the relative pose is the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm, where a reference point cloud of a known object is registered against a sensed point cloud to determine relative pose. To use this computed pose information in downstream processing algorithms, it is necessary to estimate the uncertainty of the ICP output, typically represented as a covariance matrix. In this paper, a novel method for estimating uncertainty from sensed data is …


Intrinsic Point Defects (Vacancies And Antisites) In Cdgep2 Crystals, Timothy D. Gustafson, Nancy C. Giles, Peter G. Schunemann, Kevin T. Zawilski, Kent L. Averett, Jonathan E. Slagle, Larry E. Halliburton Jun 2023

Intrinsic Point Defects (Vacancies And Antisites) In Cdgep2 Crystals, Timothy D. Gustafson, Nancy C. Giles, Peter G. Schunemann, Kevin T. Zawilski, Kent L. Averett, Jonathan E. Slagle, Larry E. Halliburton

Faculty Publications

Cadmium germanium diphosphide (CdGeP2) crystals, with versatile terahertz-generating properties, belong to the chalcopyrite family of nonlinear optical materials. Other widely investigated members of this family are ZnGeP2 and CdSiP2. The room-temperature absorption edge of CdGeP2 is near 1.72 eV (720 nm). Cadmium vacancies, phosphorous vacancies, and germanium-on-cadmium antisites are present in as-grown CdGeP2 crystals. These unintentional intrinsic point defects are best studied below room temperature with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption. Prior to exposure to light, the defects are in charge states that have no unpaired spins. Illuminating a CdGeP2 …


Optimal Estimation Inversion Of Ionospheric Electron Density From Gnss-Pod Limb Measurements: Part I-Algorithm And Morphology, Dong L. Wu, Nimalan Swarnalingam, Cornelius Csar Jude H. Salina, Daniel J. Emmons, Tyler C. Summers, Robert Gardiner-Garden Jun 2023

Optimal Estimation Inversion Of Ionospheric Electron Density From Gnss-Pod Limb Measurements: Part I-Algorithm And Morphology, Dong L. Wu, Nimalan Swarnalingam, Cornelius Csar Jude H. Salina, Daniel J. Emmons, Tyler C. Summers, Robert Gardiner-Garden

Faculty Publications

GNSS-LEO radio links from Precise Orbital Determination (POD) and Radio Occultation (RO) antennas have been used increasingly in characterizing the global 3D distribution and variability of ionospheric electron density (Ne). In this study, we developed an optimal estimation (OE) method to retrieve Ne profiles from the slant total electron content (hTEC) measurements acquired by the GNSS-POD links at negative elevation angles (ε < 0°). Although both OE and onion-peeling (OP) methods use the Abel weighting function in the Ne inversion, they are significantly different in terms of performance in the lower ionosphere. The new OE results can overcome the large Ne oscillations, sometimes negative values, seen in the OP retrievals in the E-region ionosphere. In the companion paper in this Special Issue, the HmF2 and NmF2 from the OE retrieval are validated against ground-based ionosondes and radar observations, showing generally good agreements in NmF2 from all sites. Nighttime hmF2 measurements tend to agree better than the daytime when the ionosonde heights tend to be slightly lower. The OE algorithm has been applied to all GNSS-POD data acquired from the COSMIC-1 (2006–2019), COSMIC-2 (2019–present), and Spire (2019–present) constellations, showing a consistent ionospheric Ne morphology. The unprecedented spatiotemporal sampling of the ionosphere from these constellations now allows a detailed analysis of the frequency–wavenumber spectra for the Ne variability at different heights. In the lower ionosphere (~150 km), we found significant spectral power in DE1, DW6, DW4, SW5, and SE4 wave components, in addition to well-known DW1, SW2, and DE3 waves. In the upper ionosphere (~450 km), additional wave components are still present, including DE4, DW4, DW6, SE4, and SW4. The co-existence of eastward- and westward-propagating wave4 components implies the presence of a stationary wave4 (SPW4), as suggested by other earlier studies. Further improvements to the OE method are proposed, including a tomographic inversion technique that leverages the asymmetric sampling about the tangent point associated with GNSS-LEO links.


Imparting Systems Engineering Experience Via Interactive Fiction Serious Games, Thomas C. Ford, David Long, Echo Ford * Jun 2023

Imparting Systems Engineering Experience Via Interactive Fiction Serious Games, Thomas C. Ford, David Long, Echo Ford *

Faculty Publications

Serious games for education are becoming increasing popular. Interactive fiction games are some of the most popular in app stores and are also beginning to be heavily used in education to teach analysis and decision-making. Noting that it is difficult for systems engineers to experience all necessary situations which prepare them for the role of a chief engineer, in this paper, we explore the use of interactive fiction serious games to impart systems engineering experience and to teach systems engineering principles. The results of a cognitive viability, qualitative viability, and replayability analysis of 14 systems engineering serious games developed in …


The Afit Engineer, Volume 5, Issue 2, Graduate School Of Engineering And Management, Air Force Institute Of Technology Jun 2023

The Afit Engineer, Volume 5, Issue 2, Graduate School Of Engineering And Management, Air Force Institute Of Technology

AFIT Documents

In this issue:

  • Quantum information science (QIS) research at AFIT
  • Engineers Week Returns to AFIT
  • AFIT Joins U.S. Space Command’s Academic Engagement Enterprise
  • Digital Innovation and Integration Center of Excellence (DIICE)
  • FY22 External Sponsor Funding summary


Effects Of Individual Strategies For Resource Access On Collaboratively Maintained Irrigation Infrastructure, Jordan L. Stern, Afreen Siddiqi, Paul N. Grogan Jun 2023

Effects Of Individual Strategies For Resource Access On Collaboratively Maintained Irrigation Infrastructure, Jordan L. Stern, Afreen Siddiqi, Paul N. Grogan

Faculty Publications

Built infrastructure for water and energy supply, transportation, and other such services underpins human well-being and socioeconomic development. A fundamental understanding of how infrastructure design and user strategies interact can guide important design decisions as well as policy formulation for ensuring long-term infrastructure viability in conjunction with improved individual user benefits. In this work, an agent based model (ABM) is developed to study this issue for the specific case of irrigation canals. Cooperatively maintained irrigation canals serve essential roles in sustaining agriculture-based economies in many regions. Canal system design can strongly affect benefits derived by distributed users, regional agricultural output, …


Fate And Transport Of Per- And Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (Pfas) At Aqueous Film Forming Foam (Afff) Discharge Sites: A Review, Jeffery T. Mcgarr, Eric G. Mbonimpa, Drew C. Mcavoy, Mohamad R. Soltanian May 2023

Fate And Transport Of Per- And Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (Pfas) At Aqueous Film Forming Foam (Afff) Discharge Sites: A Review, Jeffery T. Mcgarr, Eric G. Mbonimpa, Drew C. Mcavoy, Mohamad R. Soltanian

Faculty Publications

Per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are an environmentally persistent group of chemicals that can pose an imminent threat to human health through groundwater and surface water contamination. In this review, we evaluate the subsurface behavior of a variety of PFAS chemicals with a focus on aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) discharge sites. AFFF is the primary PFAS contamination risk at sites such as airports and military bases due to use as a fire extinguisher. Understanding the fate and transport of PFAS in the subsurface environment is a multifaceted issue. This review focuses on the role of adsorbent, adsorbate, and …


Method Of Evanescently Coupling Whispering Gallery Mode Optical Resonators Using Liquids [U.S. Patent Us11650370b2], Hengky Chandrahalim, Kyle T. Bodily May 2023

Method Of Evanescently Coupling Whispering Gallery Mode Optical Resonators Using Liquids [U.S. Patent Us11650370b2], Hengky Chandrahalim, Kyle T. Bodily

Faculty Publications

The present invention relates to evanescently coupling whispering gallery mode optical resonators having a liquid coupling as well as methods of making and using same. The aforementioned evanescently coupling whispering gallery mode optical resonators having a liquid couplings provide increased tunability and sensing selectivity over current same. The aforementioned. Applicants’ method of making evanescent-wave coupled optical resonators can be achieved while having coupling gap dimensions that can be fabricated using standard photolithography. Thus economic, rapid, and mass production of coupled WGM resonators-based lasers, sensors, and signal processors for a broad range of applications can be realized.


Optical Fiber Tip Micro Anemometer [U.S. Patent Us11635315b2], Hengky Chandrahalim, Jeremiah C. Williams Apr 2023

Optical Fiber Tip Micro Anemometer [U.S. Patent Us11635315b2], Hengky Chandrahalim, Jeremiah C. Williams

Faculty Publications

A passive microscopic flow sensor includes a three-dimensional microscopic optical structure formed on a cleaved tip of an optical fiber. The three-dimensional microscopic optical structure includes a post attached off-center to and extending longitudinally from the cleaved tip of the optical fiber. A rotor of the three-dimensional microscopic optical structure is received for rotation on the post. The rotor has more than one blade. Each blade has a reflective undersurface that reflects a light signal back through the optical fiber when center aligned with the optical fiber, the blades of the rotor shaped to rotate at a rate related to …


Discriminating Wirelesshart Communication Devices Using Sub-Nyquist Stimulated Responses, Jeffrey D. Long, Michael A. Temple, Christopher M. Rondeau Apr 2023

Discriminating Wirelesshart Communication Devices Using Sub-Nyquist Stimulated Responses, Jeffrey D. Long, Michael A. Temple, Christopher M. Rondeau

Faculty Publications

Reliable detection of counterfeit electronic, electrical, and electromechanical devices within critical information and communications technology systems ensures that operational integrity and resiliency are maintained. Counterfeit detection extends the device’s service life that spans manufacture and pre-installation to removal and disposition activity. This is addressed here using Distinct Native Attribute (DNA) fingerprinting while considering the effects of sub-Nyquist sampling on DNA-based discrimination. The sub-Nyquist sampled signals were obtained using factor-of-205 decimation on Nyquist-compliant WirelessHART response signals. The DNA is extracted from actively stimulated responses of eight commercial WirelessHART adapters and metrics introduced to characterize classifier performance. Adverse effects of sub-Nyquist decimation …


Filter-Based Air Sampler Capable Of Integration Into Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles [Us 11619570 B1], Robert M. Eninger, Stephanie A. Ohms, Jeremy Slagley Apr 2023

Filter-Based Air Sampler Capable Of Integration Into Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles [Us 11619570 B1], Robert M. Eninger, Stephanie A. Ohms, Jeremy Slagley

Faculty Publications

A filter-based air sampler, more specifically a filter-based air sampler capable of integration into small unmanned aerial systems is disclosed. The filter-based air sampler may include a filter assembly which has as its component parts: an open faced air intake component, a filter, and a filter support that has a central supporting grid. The filter assembly may joined to the housing of a fan, such as a centrifugal fan, with the supporting grid of the filter support being disposed over the air inlet of the fan.


Human Microbiome Transfer In The Built Environment Differs Based On Occupants, Objects, And Buildings, Andrew J. Hoisington, Christopher E. Stamper, Katherine L. Bates, Maggie A. Stanislawski, Michael C. Flux, Teodor T. Postolache, Christopher A. Lowry, Lisa A. Brenner Apr 2023

Human Microbiome Transfer In The Built Environment Differs Based On Occupants, Objects, And Buildings, Andrew J. Hoisington, Christopher E. Stamper, Katherine L. Bates, Maggie A. Stanislawski, Michael C. Flux, Teodor T. Postolache, Christopher A. Lowry, Lisa A. Brenner

Faculty Publications

Compared to microbiomes on other skin sites, the bacterial microbiome of the human hand has been found to have greater variability across time. To increase understanding regarding the longitudinal transfer of the hand microbiome to objects in the built environment, and vice versa, 22 participants provided skin microbiome samples from their dominant hands, as well as from frequently and infrequently touched objects in their office environments. Additional longitudinal samples from home environments were obtained from a subset of 11 participants. We observed stability of the microbiomes of both the hand and built environments within the office and home settings; however, …


Utilizing The System Engineering Trade Study Analysis Method To Analyze Patient Aeromedical Evacuation, Sara Shaghaghi, Jeremy M. Slagley, Michael E. Miller, Gaiven Varshney Apr 2023

Utilizing The System Engineering Trade Study Analysis Method To Analyze Patient Aeromedical Evacuation, Sara Shaghaghi, Jeremy M. Slagley, Michael E. Miller, Gaiven Varshney

Faculty Publications

The US Air Force has gone through many aeromedical patient isolation transport system designs. The first designs were developed in response to the Ebola outbreak in 2014 and, more recently, the COVID-19 pandemic. The trade study analysis part of the system engineering design method was used to analyze the historic and current aeromedical patient contamination control transport systems. A trade study is a process that evaluates alternatives based upon various “-ilities”, such as reconfigurability, flexibility, durability, cost, and more, and performs a systematic analysis to aid designers in producing a ‘good’ design alternative given the large set of possible solutions. …


Fast-, Light-Cured Scintillating Plastic For 3d-Printing Applications, Brian G. Frandsen, Michael Febbraro, Thomas Ruland, Theodore W. Stephens, Paul A. Hausladen, Juan J. Manfredi, James E. Bevins Mar 2023

Fast-, Light-Cured Scintillating Plastic For 3d-Printing Applications, Brian G. Frandsen, Michael Febbraro, Thomas Ruland, Theodore W. Stephens, Paul A. Hausladen, Juan J. Manfredi, James E. Bevins

Faculty Publications

Additive manufacturing techniques enable a wide range of possibilities for novel radiation detectors spanning simple to highly complex geometries, multi-material composites, and metamaterials that are either impossible or cost prohibitive to produce using conventional methods. The present work identifies a set of promising formulations of photocurable scintillator resins capable of neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination (PSD) to support the additive manufacturing of fast neutron detectors. The development of these resins utilizes a step-by-step, trial-and-error approach to identify different monomer and cross-linker combinations that meet the requirements for 3D printing followed by a 2-level factorial parameter study to optimize the radiation detection …


The Afit Engineer, Volume 5, Issue 1, Graduate School Of Engineering And Management, Air Force Institute Of Technology Mar 2023

The Afit Engineer, Volume 5, Issue 1, Graduate School Of Engineering And Management, Air Force Institute Of Technology

AFIT Documents

In this issue:

  • 2023 Graduation
  • WMD research at AFIT
  • NOAA aerosol research at AFIT
  • AFIT Model Shop


Evolution Of Coronal Magnetic Field Parameters During X5.4 Solar Flare, Seth H. Garland, Benjamin F. Akers, Vasyl B. Yurchyshyn, Robert D. Loper, Daniel J. Emmons Mar 2023

Evolution Of Coronal Magnetic Field Parameters During X5.4 Solar Flare, Seth H. Garland, Benjamin F. Akers, Vasyl B. Yurchyshyn, Robert D. Loper, Daniel J. Emmons

Faculty Publications

The coronal magnetic field over NOAA Active Region 11,429 during a X5.4 solar flare on 7 March 2012 is modeled using optimization based Non-Linear Force-Free Field extrapolation. Specifically, 3D magnetic fields were modeled for 11 timesteps using the 12-min cadence Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager photospheric vector magnetic field data, spanning a time period of 1 hour before through 1 hour after the start of the flare. Using the modeled coronal magnetic field data, seven different magnetic field parameters were calculated for 3 separate regions: areas with surface |Bz| ≥ 300 G, areas of flare brightening seen …


Ads-B Classification Using Multivariate Long Short-Term Memory–Fully Convolutional Networks And Data Reduction Techniques, Sarah Bolton *, Richard Dill, Michael R. Grimaila, Douglas Hodson Feb 2023

Ads-B Classification Using Multivariate Long Short-Term Memory–Fully Convolutional Networks And Data Reduction Techniques, Sarah Bolton *, Richard Dill, Michael R. Grimaila, Douglas Hodson

Faculty Publications

Researchers typically increase training data to improve neural net predictive capabilities, but this method is infeasible when data or compute resources are limited. This paper extends previous research that used long short-term memory–fully convolutional networks to identify aircraft engine types from publicly available automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) data. This research designs two experiments that vary the amount of training data samples and input features to determine the impact on the predictive power of the ADS-B classification model. The first experiment varies the number of training data observations from a limited feature set and results in 83.9% accuracy (within 10% of …


Laser Powder Bed Fusion Of Molybdenum And Mo-0.1sic Studied By Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy And Electron Backscatter Diffraction Method, Nathan E. Ellsworth, Joshua R. Machacek, Ryan A. Kemnitz, Cayla C. Eckley, Brianna M. Sexton, Joel S. Gearhart, Larry W. Burggraf Feb 2023

Laser Powder Bed Fusion Of Molybdenum And Mo-0.1sic Studied By Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy And Electron Backscatter Diffraction Method, Nathan E. Ellsworth, Joshua R. Machacek, Ryan A. Kemnitz, Cayla C. Eckley, Brianna M. Sexton, Joel S. Gearhart, Larry W. Burggraf

Faculty Publications

Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) has been used for the first time to investigate the microstructure of additively manufactured molybdenum. Despite the wide applicability of positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques to the defect analysis of metals, they have only been used sparingly to monitor the microstructural evolution of additively manufactured metals. Molybdenum and molybdenum with a dilute addition (0.1 wt%) of nano-sized silicon carbide, prepared via laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) at four different scan speeds: 100, 200, 400, and 800 mm/s, were studied by PALS and compared with electron backscatter diffraction analysis. The aim of this study was to clarify …