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A Metaphysics Of Artifacts: Essence And Mind-Dependence, Tim Juvshik 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A Metaphysics Of Artifacts: Essence And Mind-Dependence, Tim Juvshik

Doctoral Dissertations

My dissertation explores the nature of artifacts – things like chairs, tables, and pinball machines – and addresses the question of whether there is anything essential to being an artifact and a member of a particular artifact kind. My dissertation offers new arguments against both the anti-essentialist and current essentialist proposals. Roughly put, the view is that artifacts are successful products of an intention to make something with certain features constitutive of an artifact kind. The constitutive features are often functional features, but may include structural, material, aesthetic, and other features. I further explore the ways in which artifacts are mind-dependent and ...


Actual Causation: Apt Causal Models And Causal Relativism, Jennifer R. McDonald 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Actual Causation: Apt Causal Models And Causal Relativism, Jennifer R. Mcdonald

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation begins by addressing the question of when a causal model is apt for deciding questions of actual causation with respect to some target situation. I first provide relevant background about causal models, explain what makes them promising as a tool for analyzing actual causation, and motivate the need for a theory of aptness as part of such an analysis (Chapter 1). I then define what it is for a model on a given interpretation to be accurate of, that is, say only true things about, some target situation. This involves a systematization of various representational principles mentioned and ...


How Speech Act Theory Can Help Address Problems In Theology And Church Posed By Modern Philosophy, Charles W. Westby 2022 Concordia Seminary, St. Louis

How Speech Act Theory Can Help Address Problems In Theology And Church Posed By Modern Philosophy, Charles W. Westby

Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation

Westby, Charles W. “How Speech Act Theory Can Help Address Problems in Theology and Church Posed by Modern Philosophy.” Ph.D. diss., Concordia Seminary, 2022. 347 pp.

This dissertation analyzes modern idealism as developed by René Descartes and Immanuel Kant to show how modern philosophy has impacted conservative theology, focusing on the theology of Carl F. H. Henry. The relationship between theology and philosophy is analyzed in terms of foundationalism, using postliberal theological analysis propounded by Hans Frei and George Lindbeck. Speech Act Theory as propounded by J. L. Austin and John R. Searle is used to critique modern idealism ...


New Animals, Alina Iakirevitch 2022 CUNY Hunter College

New Animals, Alina Iakirevitch

Theses and Dissertations

To transfer the rhythms of the body into the earth, in Lippard’s language, one has to engage in a non verbal, illogical action. Art is the sphere of this action. Staying engaged with the unpredictable in us, the random, the primal, is the core of art making and encountering art.


Speech Acts As Contingent Encounters: Realizing Agency In Contaminated Worlds, Zachary Cross 2022 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Speech Acts As Contingent Encounters: Realizing Agency In Contaminated Worlds, Zachary Cross

Honors Theses

Agency is realized in the act of speaking, an act which is always contingent on a collaborative process that transforms all parties involved. We think and act with one another and our concepts, there is no act of speech prior to encounter. In this paper I explore different ways which language shapes our thinking and play with those structures to use them as models for realizing agency. This exploration became personal insofar as exploring ways of thinking transformed my own sense of agency in the speech act. The completion of this paper is thus essential to its conclusion.


Negation & Acosmism: Hegel's Acosmist Reading Of Spinoza, Jared Jones 2022 William & Mary

Negation & Acosmism: Hegel's Acosmist Reading Of Spinoza, Jared Jones

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this thesis, I argue that Spinoza's views on negation are coupled with a view of being which, although Hegel misunderstands it to an extent, makes it impossible for finite things to exist, as Hegel's "acosmist" reading of Spinoza maintains. I begin by arguing that acosmism would present an internal problem for Spinoza's system in the Ethics, framing the importance of the topic and showing why Hegel's interpretation, as an interpretation, does not work. After that, I first provide an account of Hegel and Spinoza's views on negation. In the process, I give an account ...


On Certain Antinomies Of Freedom: Divine Foreknowledge And Immutability, Tanja T. Rounds 2022 William & Mary

On Certain Antinomies Of Freedom: Divine Foreknowledge And Immutability, Tanja T. Rounds

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The objective of this inquiry is to establish the compatibility of free operation in the divine essence given that God is omniscient, and immutable. As such, this inquiry differs from conventional philosophical debate surrounding the divine attributes and creaturely freedom. Chapter I will respond to the antinomy of God’s foreknowledge and divine freedom, and offers a theory for divine freedom and foreknowledge compatibilism from the theory of truthmaking. Chapter II will respond to the antinomy of divine freedom and immutability, and offers a Neo-Thomist account of freedom to explain free action in the divine essence.


Indeterminacy, Disagreement, And Reasonable Reference Magnetism, Jaocb (Hengyun) Yang 2022 William & Mary

Indeterminacy, Disagreement, And Reasonable Reference Magnetism, Jaocb (Hengyun) Yang

Undergraduate Honors Theses

According to reference magnetism, some properties are easier to refer than others. The proposal finds many applications in the different fields of philosophy, but it has also been criticized as an ad hoc solution to philosophical problems. This thesis provides a novel account of reference magnetism that preserves its explanatory power but is, hopefully, more reasonable.


A Defense Of Moral Realism, Caleb Robb 2022 University of Mary Washington

A Defense Of Moral Realism, Caleb Robb

Student Research Submissions

My Theis is a defense of the moral metaethical theory known as moral realism. Moral realism is the idea that moral laws are objective, true, non-natural, and applicable to all moral agents. I reference and subscribe to the form of moral relativism that is proposed by Russ Shafer-Landau in his book Moral Realism. In my thesis I argue that moral realism is the correct view of moral laws, and that relativism, error theory, and noncognitivism are all incorrect views. Relativism argues that moral laws stem from the culture and people in each society, and that they are subjective to only ...


Where Epistemology And Metaphysics Touch In Lois Lowry's The Giver, Seth Vannatta 2022 Morgan State University

Where Epistemology And Metaphysics Touch In Lois Lowry's The Giver, Seth Vannatta

Far West Popular Culture Association Annual Conference

In Lois Lowry’s dystopian young adult novel, The Giver, the veil of perception— the gap between appearance and reality— is woven into the community as a policy measure meant to establish Sameness—the effort to insure a world without conflict, inequality, difference, pain, or freedom of choice. But a question lingers in the premise of the novel’s community. Given that our options for bridging the gap amount to building a bridge of experience across it or digging a tunnel of existence under it, has the bridge been sabotaged to render perception spurious, or has the tunnel been blocked ...


Knowledge Through Divine Light: Ghazali’S Notions Of Mystical Cognition, Maisara Maasoum Marzouk 2022 American University in Cairo

Knowledge Through Divine Light: Ghazali’S Notions Of Mystical Cognition, Maisara Maasoum Marzouk

The Undergraduate Research Journal

Illumination, or knowledge through divine light, is a type of mystical cognition that Abu Hamid Ghazali regarded to be the cause of his rescue from his famous skeptical crisis. According to him, this type of divine knowledge is the apex of knowledge, to which all other sciences are subordinate. The receptive organ of this knowledge is the heart, a divine and cognitive subtlety that is distinct though related to the physical heart. Such is done by removing the veils that obstruct divine light from reaching it by means of the science of unveiling. The disclosure of knowledge that occurs once ...


First-Person Experience Cannot Rescue Causal Structure Theories From The Unfolding Argument, Michael H. Herzog, Aaron Schurger, Adrian Doerig 2022 EPFL – École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne

First-Person Experience Cannot Rescue Causal Structure Theories From The Unfolding Argument, Michael H. Herzog, Aaron Schurger, Adrian Doerig

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

We recently put forward an argument, the Unfolding Argument (UA), that integrated information theory (IIT) and other causal structure theories are either already falsified or unfalsifiable, which provoked significant criticism. It seems that we and the critics agree that the main question in this debate is whether first-person experience, independent of third-person data, is a sufficient foundation for theories of consciousness. Here, we argue that pure first-person experience cannot be a scientific foundation for IIT because science relies on taking measurements, and pure first-person experience is not measurable except through reports, brain activity, and the relationship between them. We also ...


Actualization Through Constraint: An Analysis Of Hegelian Self- Consciousness In Fascism- Exclusionary Expression And In Modular Orchestral Composition, Marisa Kaye Janke 2022 Eastern Washington University

Actualization Through Constraint: An Analysis Of Hegelian Self- Consciousness In Fascism- Exclusionary Expression And In Modular Orchestral Composition, Marisa Kaye Janke

2022 Symposium

How does a conscious entity become aware of itself and its place in the world? According to German Idealist Philosopher G.F.W. Hegel, there are required conditions that facilitate this movement of awareness. Recognition serves as a central requirement, for a consciousness cannot progress in an isolated space. Coexistence allows for referential points, and is often necessary for the actualization of concepts by providing social interactions wherein recognition both of and by others can occur.

This paper illustrates the progression of two such concepts, discourse and musical composition as forms of freedom “in-itself”. They are both imperfect for the ...


Invisible Things: An Inquiry Into The Laws Of Nature, Abigail Tulenko 2022 Claremont Colleges

Invisible Things: An Inquiry Into The Laws Of Nature, Abigail Tulenko

Scripps Senior Theses

What are the laws of nature? Are they abstract entities that govern physical processes? Or are they merely useful summaries that describe patterns in nature? In this thesis, I explore offer arguments for the former view– what is known as inflationism regarding laws of nature. It is my hope that by excavating and evaluating the role epistemological concerns have played in this debate, we may find new avenues to break this long-standing metaphysical stalemate


The Identity Of Properties: How Qualia Solve The Regress Problem In Dispositional Monism, Emma Kresch 2022 Claremont Colleges

The Identity Of Properties: How Qualia Solve The Regress Problem In Dispositional Monism, Emma Kresch

CMC Senior Theses

This paper argues for the existence of certain instances of categorical properties in non-physical qualia. There are two types of properties: dispositional properties and categorical properties. Dispositional properties are such that they derive their identity from their relationships to other dispositional properties. Conversely, categorical properties have an identity that exists outside of their relationship to other properties and do not depend on the existence of other properties to derive their identity. The dispositional monist theory claims that all properties are dispositional. In this paper, I present the dispositional monist theory by explaining an account given by Alexander Bird in his ...


A Journey To Finding Space In The Tension: Experience Of Instructors' Relationship With Religion And Spirituality In Doctoral Psychology Programs, Samantha McGee 2022 Antioch University Seattle

A Journey To Finding Space In The Tension: Experience Of Instructors' Relationship With Religion And Spirituality In Doctoral Psychology Programs, Samantha Mcgee

Antioch University Full-Text Dissertations & Theses

Religion and spirituality, when viewed through a holistic lens, can reflect important aspects of a person’s identity. It can be a source of well-being and also struggle. The fields of religion, spirituality and psychology have had a history of being polarized, with some efforts to integrate the two fields. Tensions exist at multiple ecological levels around the topic of religion and spirituality, which can make it easier to avoid discussing it in classrooms and therapy rooms. It is important to address and create room for discussion of experiences around religion and spirituality in classrooms that are training psychologists so ...


Sameness, Difference And Environmental Concern In The Metaphysics And Ethics Of Spinoza And Chan Buddhism, Michael HEMMINGSEN 2021 San Jose State University

Sameness, Difference And Environmental Concern In The Metaphysics And Ethics Of Spinoza And Chan Buddhism, Michael Hemmingsen

Comparative Philosophy

In this paper I contrast the metaphysical philosophies of Benedict de Spinoza and the ‘sudden enlightenment’ tradition of Chan Buddhism. Spinoza’s expressivist philosophy, in which everything can be conceived via a lineage of finite causes terminating in substance as a metaphysical ground of all things, emphasises the relative sameness of all entities. By contrast, Chan’s philosophy of emptiness, which rests on the dependent co-origination of all entities, renders such comparison fundamentally meaningless. Having no source beyond dependent co-origination to generate a thing’s distinct nature leads to a metaphysics in which, rather than being relatively similar or different ...


The Yi-Jing Cosmic Model As A Framework For Comparative Philosophy, Harry DONKERS 2021 San Jose State University

The Yi-Jing Cosmic Model As A Framework For Comparative Philosophy, Harry Donkers

Comparative Philosophy

Based on the symbolism of the trigrams, the Yi-Jing cosmic model offers possibilities in a coordinate system with eight octants to discuss different philosophical developments in parallel. It forms a framework for further elaboration of theory and methodology of comparative philosophy. This paper is restricted to extracting, analyzing and comparing common features from the perspectives of the Yi-Jing model. Achieving harmony is the subject of a new paper under construction. The philosophical developments in the quadrants, Naturalism, Moralism, Rationalism and Humanism, are characterized by a fundamental difference between subject and object. This difference remains intact in the octants, but specified ...


Appearance And Momentariness: The Nature Of Being Between Nāgārjuna, The Sarvāstivādins And Neo-Parmenidism, Federico DIVINO 2021 San Jose State University

Appearance And Momentariness: The Nature Of Being Between Nāgārjuna, The Sarvāstivādins And Neo-Parmenidism, Federico Divino

Comparative Philosophy

In this article I will try to demonstrate the existence of points in common between the eternalist instances of Parmenidean philosophy and the Buddhist formulations made by some parts of the Abhidhamma, Nāgārjuna, and the Sarvāstivādins. These three philosophies have numerous points in common with Emanuele Severino’s formulations from the point of view of what is defined as neo-Parmenidism. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the points in common between these systems of thought are due to a basic affinity which, despite having led them to emphasize different themes, present similar reasoning and logical consequences, which ...


A Leap Into Communion: Kierkegaard And Spiritual Practices In _To The Wonder_, Madeleine Hall 2021 Harding University

A Leap Into Communion: Kierkegaard And Spiritual Practices In _To The Wonder_, Madeleine Hall

Honors Theses

The study of metaethics contains the question of where value comes from. Different theories of goodness encourage tracing goodness back to God, saying that goodness is that which is like God (the resemblance thesis) or that which perfects nature (the perfection thesis). Kierkegaard participates in these questions of goodness, and in Fear and Trembling concludes that the moral absolute of the akedah reveals a good, Divine mystery. Fear and Trembling is a work of Christian existentialism that encourages an internal faith that embraces mystery rather than attempting to conquer it. Rather than trying to understand exactly who God is, Kierkegaard ...


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