Jurors And Social Loafing: Factors That Reduce Participation During Jury Deliberations, 2010 University at Albany, State University of New York
Jurors And Social Loafing: Factors That Reduce Participation During Jury Deliberations, Cynthia J. Najdowski
Psychology Faculty Scholarship
The American jury system rests on the fundamental assumption that jurors will engage in a thorough analysis of facts and robust debate to ensure that verdicts are reliable. Research demonstrates, however, that this expectation is rarely met. All jurors do not participate equally in deliberations. This may be explained in part by social loafing, or the withdrawal of effort that may occur when an individual works in a group relative to when the individual works alone. Despite evidence that jurors do not participate equally during jury deliberations, an analysis of factors contributing to participation, or the lack thereof, has not …
Alcohol-Related Help Seeking In Problem Drinking Women Sexual Assault Survivors, 2010 The University of Illinois at Chicago
Alcohol-Related Help Seeking In Problem Drinking Women Sexual Assault Survivors, Sarah E. Ullman, Cynthia J. Najdowski
Psychology Faculty Scholarship
Correlates of alcohol-related help seeking were studied in women sexual assault survivors who were current problem drinkers (N = 526) in a large metropolitan area in 2002-2003. Volunteer participants completed several valid and reliable instruments, which assessed alcohol use and misuse and related help seeking (i.e., the TWEAK, GFM, and MAST). Data were analyzed using logistic regression models. Results suggest that correlates of women survivors’ alcohol-related help seeking vary depending on the specific source. Limitations and implications are noted and recommendations for future research are made. This study was funded by the National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
Constructing Commons In The Cultural Environment, 2010 University of Pittsburgh School of Law
Constructing Commons In The Cultural Environment, Michael J. Madison, Brett M. Frischmann, Katherine J. Strandburg
This Essay considers the problem of understanding intellectual sharing/pooling arrangements and the construction of cultural commons arrangements. We argue that an adaptation of the approach pioneered by Elinor Ostrom and collaborators to commons arrangements in the natural environment may provide a template for the examination of constructed commons in the cultural environment. The approach promises to lead to a better understanding of how participants in commons and pooling arrangements structure their interactions in relation to the environment(s) within which they are embedded and with which they share interdependent relationships. Such an improved understanding is critical for obtaining a more complete …
Law Enforcement And Intelligence Gathering In Muslim And Immigrant Communities After 9/11, 2010 University of Pittsburgh School of Law
Law Enforcement And Intelligence Gathering In Muslim And Immigrant Communities After 9/11, David A. Harris
Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, law enforcement agencies have actively sought partnerships with Muslim communities in the U.S. Consistent with community-based policing, these partnerships are designed to persuade members of these communities to share information about possible extremist activity. These cooperative efforts have borne fruit, resulting in important anti-terrorism prosecutions. But during the past several years, law enforcement has begun to use another tactic simultaneously: the FBI and some police departments have placed informants in mosques and other religious institutions to gather intelligence. The government justifies this by asserting that it must take a pro-active stance in order …
Taser Use: Report Of The Use Of Force Working Group Of Allegheny County, 2010 University of Pittsburgh School of Law
Taser Use: Report Of The Use Of Force Working Group Of Allegheny County, David A. Harris
The Use of Force Working Group was convened in October of 2008 to study police use of electronic control devices, better known as Tasers. Allegheny County (Pa.) District Attorney Stephen A. Zappala, Jr. appointed the Working Group in the wake of an incident in which a person died following a Taser exposure at the hands of local police officers.
This Report concludes that Tasers can be worthwhile and safe weapons in the police arsenal, but only if they are used consistent with proper policy, training, supervision and accountability. Anything less makes the use of these weapons a risky choice from …
Ua12/8 Annual Report, 2010 Western Kentucky University
Ua12/8 Annual Report, Wku Police
WKU Archives Records
A statement of current campus policies regarding procedures for students and others to report criminal actions or other emergencies occurring on campus and policies concerning the institution's response to such reports.
Ua12/8 Wku Police - Campus Security Report, 2008, 2010 Western Kentucky University
Ua12/8 Wku Police - Campus Security Report, 2008, Wku Police
WKU Archives Records
This report is designed to provide students, potential students, parents, facility and staff with crime statistics and information on university services and crime prevention programs. These programs are designed to help inform our campus communities about safety practices that will help you reduce the risk of being a crime victim. I feel hat these lessons can give people information that they can carry with them beyond college and will help keep them safe for the rest of their lives.
Ua12/8 Wku Police - Campus Security Report, 2009, 2010 Western Kentucky University
Ua12/8 Wku Police - Campus Security Report, 2009, Wku Police
WKU Archives Records
This report is designed to provide students, potential students, parents, facility and staff with crime statistics and information on university services and crime prevention programs. These programs are designed to help inform our campus communities about safety practices that will help you reduce the risk of being a crime victim. I feel that these lessons can give people information that they can carry with them beyond college and will help keep them safe for the rest of their lives.
The Myth Of The Female Sex Offender, 2010 Bridgewater State University
The Myth Of The Female Sex Offender, Chelsea Horrocks
More than 300,000 women and nearly 100,000 men were forcibly raped in 1995 (Tjaden & Thoennes, 2006). The National Violence Against Women (NVAW) Survey, the last nationwide survey on rape, which had 8,000 male and 8,000 female participants, found that one of every six women and one of every thirty-three men is raped at some point in their lifetime. Thirty-two percent of the women and sixteen percent of the men were injured during their rape. In another nationwide telephone survey, twenty-two percent of 3,000 adults reported being sexually abused (Vandiver, 2002).
Campus Rape Phenomenon, 2010 Bridgewater State University
Campus Rape Phenomenon, Keriann Speranza
Rape is a serious crime affecting all colleges and universities, but it is rarely brought to the attention of the media, administrators, faculty, students, and community. Research shows that between 14% and 27.5% of college women have been sexually assaulted (Humphrey & Kahn, 2000). The 2005 Bureau of Justice Statistics Report on violent victimization of college students indicates that between the years 2000 and 2004, 74% of rapes and sexual assaults were committed by someone known to the victim (Gross, Winslett, Roberts, Gohm, 2006). This report also suggested that campus rape is the most underreported violent crime in the United …
The Impact Of Crime Outcomes On Public Opinions On Sentencing: In Particular Regards To Recent "One Punch" Legislation, 2010 Edith Cowan University
The Impact Of Crime Outcomes On Public Opinions On Sentencing: In Particular Regards To Recent "One Punch" Legislation, Teneke Kuek
Theses : Honours
Australia has recently experienced a punitive swing in sentencing policies and legislation. Consequently, politicians have responded favourably to popular demands for harsher sentencing. A comprehensive review of the current literature has been undertaken to understand why the community has adopted such a punitive position. It has been suggested that the media have hypersensitised the public into believing that crime is much more prevalent than it actually is, resulting in the individual fearing becoming a victim of crime. The public then chooses to elect politicians who appear to be concerned with their safety and the associated legislation. Expectancy/value theory contends that …
Public Opinion On The Sentencing Of Mentally Ill Female Offenders; Factors That Influence People's Perceptions Of Appropriate Punishments And The Impact Of Personal Experience On Sentencing Judgements, 2010 Edith Cowan University
Public Opinion On The Sentencing Of Mentally Ill Female Offenders; Factors That Influence People's Perceptions Of Appropriate Punishments And The Impact Of Personal Experience On Sentencing Judgements, Claire Adams
Theses : Honours
The aim of the current study was to explore public opinion on mentally ill female offenders in Western Australia, and the influence of these views on sentencing decisions. This study aimed to determine whether the mental health of a female offender influenced how people view a crime and the punishment they consider most appropriate for an offender. In addition, it aimed to investigate whether knowing someone with a mental illness influences people's perception of a crime and the sentencing decisions favoured for a mentally ill female offender. The study involved a between-subjects design comprising 118 participants, who received one version …
Do Ugly Criminals Receive Harsher Sentences? An Analysis Of Lookism In The Criminal Justice System, 2010 Ursinus College
Do Ugly Criminals Receive Harsher Sentences? An Analysis Of Lookism In The Criminal Justice System, Kelly Beck
Business and Economics Honors Papers
For many years, researchers have attempted to find a link between beauty and labor market outcomes. Although many important findings have been noted in these studies, the beauty analysis utilized was a subjective measurement. This subjective method, while important, may have external factors creating bias in the rating itself. In this study, the impact of beauty is applied to criminals and their sentences. Using a computer based symmetry measurement tool, an objective beauty measurement will be utilized. This study will seek to uncover whether or not criminals who are less attractive, measured through facial symmetry, receive harsher prison sentences than …
The Torture Of Alleged Terrorists Necessary For Public Safety Or A Criminal Act?, 2010 Bridgewater State University
The Torture Of Alleged Terrorists Necessary For Public Safety Or A Criminal Act?, Michaela Clark
Torture is defined in a variety of ways by many different sources. According to the World Medical Association’s (WMA) Declaration of Tokyo, torture is defined as, “the deliberate, systematic, or wanton infliction of physical or mental suffering by one or more people acting alone or on the orders of any authority, to force another person to yield information, to make a confession, or for any other reason.” The Declaration of Tokyo was passed in 1975 and updated many times, most recently in 2006. This is a landmark document that has been used as a model for other medical statutes. The …
Salvia Divinorum: Patterns Of Use, 2010 Bridgewater State University
Salvia Divinorum: Patterns Of Use, Christie Bowles
This study focuses on 13 salvia divinorum users, specifically seeking to understand the social, situational, and individual factors influencing their decision to use. Through semi-structured, in depth interviews, patterns such as the methods of use, settings of use, other frequently used drugs, and persistence or desistance of use are explored. Currently, there is limited research on salvia or the people who use this drug, and without this substantial research, the most effective way to address salvia use will remain unknown.
Guantanamo Bay Just Preventative Detention Of Terrorist Or A Fundamental Violation Of Due Process?, 2010 Bridgewater State University
Guantanamo Bay Just Preventative Detention Of Terrorist Or A Fundamental Violation Of Due Process?, Michelle Cubellis
In response to the terrorist attacks of 9/11, in October of 2001, the Bush Administration launched the “War on Terror,” an attempt to eliminate all terrorist threats to the United States. As part of this war, the Bush Administration began detaining individuals it believed were linked to terrorism. Instead of capturing these individuals giving them a trial to determine whether they were guilty or innocent, and either sentencing them or releasing them, the Bush Administration detained these individuals at Guantanamo. They were held without due process and without access to federal courts. The Bush Administration repeatedly claimed that is was …
A Moral Investigation Of Torture In The Post 9.11 World, 2010 Bridgewater State University
A Moral Investigation Of Torture In The Post 9.11 World, Joe Moloney
The field of philosophy is unique, as it allows one to logically examine issues in all disciplines, from science to politics to art. One further important discipline that philosophy examines is criminal justice. In this respect, one approach philosophy can take when examining criminal justice is to assess each issue by questioning its morality—that is, whether an action within the issue is right or wrong based upon a system of ethics. This approach concerns the subfield of philosophy known as ethics, a subfield that includes questions concerning what is morally good and morally bad. When one is faced with an …
A Review Of Rape Statistics, Theories, And Policy, 2010 Bridgewater State University
A Review Of Rape Statistics, Theories, And Policy, Gary Lowell
Rape is defined in the laws of Massachusetts as “[s]exual intercourse or unnatural sexual intercourse by a person with another person who is compelled to submit by force and against his will or by threat of bodily injury” (Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. ch. 277, § 39, 2009). Although traditional definitions of rape have been that only a female can be raped and only a male can rape, “courts have held that the rape statutes in their jurisdictions are gender-neutral and apply equally to perpetrators of either sex” (Lynton, 1995). Still, since male on female rape is more prevalent (see Gonzales, …
Lyondell: A Note Of Approbation, 2010 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School
Lyondell: A Note Of Approbation, William W. Bratton
Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law
No abstract provided.
New Perspectives On Brady And Other Disclosure Obligations: Report Of The Working Groups On Best Practices, 2010 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School
New Perspectives On Brady And Other Disclosure Obligations: Report Of The Working Groups On Best Practices, Stephanos Bibas, Jennifer Blasser, Keith A. Findley, Ronald F. Wright, Jennifer E. Laurin, Cookie Ridolfi
Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law
No abstract provided.