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Out Of The Prison And Onto The Streets: The Trafficking Of Incarcerated Women (A Trans-Disciplinary Media Research Project), Mei-Ling McNamara 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

Out Of The Prison And Onto The Streets: The Trafficking Of Incarcerated Women (A Trans-Disciplinary Media Research Project), Mei-Ling Mcnamara

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

Women are being actively targeted for the sex trafficking trade within US prisons and are recruited by a network of fellow inmates who are given "finders fees" for supplying victims. In prisons from Florida to North Carolina, Ohio to Massachusetts, women are promised housing and food in exchange for work upon release but instead are deceived and prostituted for the human trafficking trade. Some traffickers stalk their victims through public-access profiles from statewide prison websites, then groom them over months through correspondence and phone calls.

Inside the largest women’s prison in the United States, the Florida Lowell Correctional Institution ...


Ordinary 'Worthiness': Sex Work, Police Raids, And Human Rights Violence In Sonagachhi, Simanti Dasgupta 2017 University of Dayton

Ordinary 'Worthiness': Sex Work, Police Raids, And Human Rights Violence In Sonagachhi, Simanti Dasgupta

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

Based upon ethnographic research with Durbar Mahila Samanwaya Committee (DMSC), a grass-roots sex workers organization in Sonagachhi, the iconic red light district in Kolkata, India, this paper explores the relationship between police raids and human rights violation. It especially focuses on the nature of violence initiated by the construction of “corrupt” evidence to justify a raid, which in this case is not solely a state initiative; the police usually work in tandem with other rescue missions such as the International Justice mission (IJM). The raid involves a practice and a narrative commonly referred to by both the police and the ...


Once Bitten, Thrice Wise: The Varying Effects Of Victimization On Routine Activities And Risk Management, J. Michael Vecchio 2017 Loyola University Chicago

Once Bitten, Thrice Wise: The Varying Effects Of Victimization On Routine Activities And Risk Management, J. Michael Vecchio

J. Michael Vecchio

While the relationship between offending and victimization is well established, less is understood about what contributes to the varied effects of victimization on future behavior. Drawing on qualitative interviews from a sample of at-risk men, the study explores recognized and unrecognized effects of victimization on subsequent behavior and management of lifestyle risks both within and across narratives. Findings demonstrate a range of perceived effects on behavior and risk management, with the presence or absence of substantive effects related to whether the event was both severe and directly attributable to involvement in at-risk behavior. Consequences for the victimization–termination hypothesis are ...


Youth Gangs: An Overview Of Key Findings And Directions For The Future, Terrance J. Taylor, J. Michael Vecchio 2017 University of Missouri - St Louis

Youth Gangs: An Overview Of Key Findings And Directions For The Future, Terrance J. Taylor, J. Michael Vecchio

J. Michael Vecchio

Youth gangs have received considerable attention for many decades. Undoubtedly, their disproportionate involvement in violence is one main reason for this attention. While gang members spend most of their lives engaging in the same types of behaviors as other youth (sleeping, eating, playing video games, going to school), they are also much more likely than non-gang members to be involved in violence and other criminal activity. Indeed, scholars have often highlighted the functional nature of violence as it pertains to gangs. Gangs come in a variety of forms: prison gangs, outlaw motorcycle gangs, extremist groups, and drug trafficking organizations, among ...


“Messin’ With Drugs…You Could Lose Your Life”: The Effect Of Victimization On Routine Activities And Risk Management, J. Michael Vecchio 2017 Loyola University Chicago

“Messin’ With Drugs…You Could Lose Your Life”: The Effect Of Victimization On Routine Activities And Risk Management, J. Michael Vecchio

J. Michael Vecchio

Decades of research have helped to identify that victims and offenders are not opposing parts of the crime equation (Esbensen & Huizinga, 1991), but often are intertwined as part of a homogeneous population (Lauritsen & Laub, 2007). Those with the greatest likelihood of experiencing personal or property victimization are those who report offending or substance using behaviors (Gottfredson, 1984; Jensen & Brownfield, 1986; Sampson & Lauritsen, 1990). This increased victimization risk is commonly related to the amount of time spent in situations with greater proximity to motivated offenders and a lack of supervision (Cohen & Felson, 1979; Hindelang, Gottfredson, & Garofalo, 1978; Jensen & Brownfield, 1986). Individuals who are particularly at-risk for victimization are those involved in substance use and abuse and street offending (Anderson, 1999; Biernacki, 1986; Decker & Van Winkle, 1996; Jacobs, 2000; Jacques & Wright, 2008; Sutherland, 1937; Waldorf, 1973). Victimization experiences can have disparate affects on individuals‘ perceptions and behaviors (Ferraro, 1995; Hindelang et al., 1978). These effects can range from no perceived effects (Hindelang et al., 1978), subtle effects (Hindelang et al., 1978), and significant effects (Decker & Lauritsen, 2002; Jacques & Wright, 2008; Sutherland, 1937) on individual behavior. In particular, the effect of exposure to crime and victimization may influence risk management techniques. The current study will attempt ...


Leaving The Gang: A Review And Thoughts On Future Research, Dena C. Carson, J. Michael Vecchio 2017 Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis

Leaving The Gang: A Review And Thoughts On Future Research, Dena C. Carson, J. Michael Vecchio

J. Michael Vecchio

Researchers have examined aspects of gangs and their members for almost a century. This work, however, focuses primarily on youth prior to joining as well as during gang involvement. While comparatively less is known about the leaving processes, work in this area has been increasing in recent years. This chapter will discuss the growing body of research on the processes associated with leaving the gang. Specifically, it will review difficulties associated with defining gang desistance, theoretical perspectives on desistance, variations in motives, methods, and consequences of leaving, barriers to desistance, as well as make recommendations for policy and future research.


Study Methodology, Jody Miller, Mark DeBarr, Hyan Namgung, J. Michael Vecchio, Stephanie Wiley 2017 Loyola University Chicago

Study Methodology, Jody Miller, Mark Debarr, Hyan Namgung, J. Michael Vecchio, Stephanie Wiley

J. Michael Vecchio

Data for this investigation come from 36 qualitative in-depth interviews completed between February and April 2010. The aim of the research was to conduct a process evaluation of Gateway Foundation programming for state probation and parole clients in St. Louis and jointly produce a final report for the organization. The specific research questions focused on (1) the challenges men face as they attempt to overcome substance abuse; (2) how those challenges are related to past experiences with crime, including offending and victimization; and (3) the effectiveness of Gateway programming, from the points of view of program participants, including whether there ...


The Federal Rules Of Inmate Appeals, Catherine T. Struve 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Federal Rules Of Inmate Appeals, Catherine T. Struve

Faculty Scholarship

The Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure turn fifty in 2018. During the Rules’ half-century of existence, the number of federal appeals by self-represented, incarcerated litigants has grown dramatically. This article surveys ways in which the procedure for inmate appeals has evolved over the past 50 years, and examines the challenges of designing procedures with confined litigants in mind. In the initial decades under the Appellate Rules, the most visible developments concerning the procedure for inmate appeals arose from the interplay between court decisions and the federal rulemaking process. But, as court dockets swelled, the circuits also developed local case management ...


Forensic Linguist Tej Bhatia On The Hunt For The Unabomber, Tej K. Bhatia 2017 Syracuse University

Forensic Linguist Tej Bhatia On The Hunt For The Unabomber, Tej K. Bhatia

Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics

From article: [Editor’s note: Discovery Channel’s new 8-part series MANHUNT: UNABOMBER is about the FBI investigator Jim Fitzgerald who identified the Unabomber as Ted Kaczynski based on his writings–pioneering the use of what is now called forensic linguistics. The series stars Sam Worthington and Paul Bettany, and also features Chris Noth, Elizabeth Reaser, and Brian F. O’Byrne. Science & Film commissioned Syracuse University linguistics professor Dr. Tej Bhatia to write about the case. The series is available via Netflix and Amazon.]


Conceptualizing Justice: Police Responses To Sex Crimes In Partnership With Canadian Police Departments, Keyanna Drakes 2017 Western University

Conceptualizing Justice: Police Responses To Sex Crimes In Partnership With Canadian Police Departments, Keyanna Drakes

MA Research Paper

Justice exists in and through interpretations of past laws and legal procedures. Justice for sex crimes, however, is particularly complex due to the differences between victim needs and the operations of the criminal justice system. This study, using 70 semi-structured interviews and 2 focus groups from Canadian police departments, shows procedural and distributive justice as the two most prevalent forms of justice police officers use when dealing with sex crimes. The commonalities between the two forms of justice support the notion that police officers have adapted to using multiple methods of justice that are more compassionate to victims of sexual ...


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 42: Police Shootings, Tasers, And Community Efforts To Improve Police Accountability, Philip M. Stinson 2017 Bowling Green State University - Main Campus

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 42: Police Shootings, Tasers, And Community Efforts To Improve Police Accountability, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This episode of the Police Integrity Lost Podcast features an interview of Professor Phil Stinson by Eugene Puryear that originally aired on the Radio Sputnik show By Any Means Necessary on August 31, 2017.


Brief Of Amici Curiae Of 11 Addiction Experts In Support Of Appellee, Gene M. Heyman, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Stephen J. Morse, Sally L. Satel 2017 Boston College

Brief Of Amici Curiae Of 11 Addiction Experts In Support Of Appellee, Gene M. Heyman, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Stephen J. Morse, Sally L. Satel

Faculty Scholarship

This brief is a critique of the brain disease model and many supposed implications of that model. It begins with a brief history of the model and moves to a discussion of the motivations behind the characterization of addiction as a “chronic and relapsing brain disease.” We follow with an enumeration of fallacious inferences based upon the brain disease model, including the very notion that addiction becomes a “brain disease” simply because it has neurobiological correlates. Regardless of whether addiction is labeled a brain disease, the real question, we contend, is whether the behavioral manifestations of addiction are unresponsive to ...


The New American Slavery: Capitalism And The Ghettoization Of American Prisons As A Profitable Corporate Business, David A. Liburd 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The New American Slavery: Capitalism And The Ghettoization Of American Prisons As A Profitable Corporate Business, David A. Liburd

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The labor of enslaved Africans and Black Americans played a large part in the history of colonial America, with the American plantation being the epicenter for all that was to be produced. While the two have never been completely tied together, capitalism and modern day slavery have been linked with one another. Some analysis sees slavery as a remote form of capitalism, a substitute, to an antiquated form of labor in the modern world.

Slave plantations adopted a new concentration in size and management, referred to by W.E. DuBois as a change "from a family institution to an industrial ...


Volume 1, Issue 1.1, 2017 James Madison University

Volume 1, Issue 1.1

International Journal on Responsibility

Contents:

1 – 4 Terry Beitzel, Who is Responsible to do what for Whom? A letter from the Editor-in-Chief.

5 – 20 Arun Gandhi, What Does Responsibility Mean to Me?

21 – 37 Bhikhu Parekh, Moral Responsibility in a Democratic Society.

38 – 59 T.Y. Okosun, Political Flip-flopping, Political Responsibility, Current Governance, and the Disenfranchised.

60 – 71 Hal Pepinsky, Resolving the Paradox of Holding People Responsible.

72 – 87 Sabiha Shala & Gjylbehare Muharti, Who is Responsible for Ethical Legal Education, for what and to whom? Case of Kosovo.

88 Acknowledgments.

89 - 90 Call for papers for forthcoming issues of the International Journal on Responsibility ...


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 41: Police Body Cameras And The Planting Of Evidence, Philip M. Stinson 2017 Bowling Green State University - Main Campus

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 41: Police Body Cameras And The Planting Of Evidence, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This episode of the Police Integrity Lost Podcast features an interview of Professor Phil Stinson by Eugene Puryear that originally aired on the Radio Sputnik show By Any Means Necessary on August 11, 2017.


Tragedy, Outrage & Reform: Crimes That Changed Our World: 1983 – Thurman Beating - Domestic Violence, Paul H. Robinson, Sarah M. Robinson 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Tragedy, Outrage & Reform: Crimes That Changed Our World: 1983 – Thurman Beating - Domestic Violence, Paul H. Robinson, Sarah M. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship

Can a crime make our world better? Crimes are the worst of humanity’s wrongs but, oddly, they sometimes do more than anything else to improve our lives. As it turns out, it is often the outrageousness itself that does the work. Ordinary crimes are accepted as the background noise of our everyday existence but some crimes make people stop and take notice – because they are so outrageous, or so curious, or so heart-wrenching. These “trigger crimes” are the cases that this book is about.

They offer some incredible stories about how people, good and bad, change the world around ...


Trigger Crimes & Social Progress: The Tragedy-Outrage-Reform Dynamic In America, Paul H. Robinson, Sarah M. Robinson 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Trigger Crimes & Social Progress: The Tragedy-Outrage-Reform Dynamic In America, Paul H. Robinson, Sarah M. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship

Can a crime make our world better? Crimes are the worst of humanity’s wrongs but, oddly, they sometimes do more than anything else to improve our lives. It is often the outrageousness itself that does the work. Ordinary crimes are accepted as the background noise of everyday existence but some crimes make people stop and take notice – because they are so outrageous or so heart-wrenching.

This brief essay explores the dynamic of tragedy, outrage, and reform, illustrating how certain kinds of crimes can trigger real social progress. Several dozen such “trigger crimes” are identified but four in particular are ...


The Triple-C Impact: Responding To Childhood Exposure To Crime And Violence, Michal Gilad 2017 University of Pennsylvania

The Triple-C Impact: Responding To Childhood Exposure To Crime And Violence, Michal Gilad

Faculty Scholarship

The article is the first to take an inclusive look at the monumental problem of crime exposure during childhood, which is estimated to be one of the most damaging and costly public health and public safety problem in our society today. It takes-on the challenging task of ‘naming’ the problem by coining the term Comprehensive Childhood Crime Impact or in short the Triple-C Impact. Informed by scientific findings, the term embodies the full effect of direct and indirect crime exposure on children due to their unique developmental characteristics, and the spillover effect the problem has on our society as a ...


The Divinity Of Crime: How Spirituality Can Strengthen The Resilience Of Criminal Organizations, David R. Vegvari 2017 CUNY John Jay College

The Divinity Of Crime: How Spirituality Can Strengthen The Resilience Of Criminal Organizations, David R. Vegvari

Student Theses

This thesis conducts a systematic analysis of open source data that discusses ideational factors of resilience in criminal organizations. It does this by looking at the role of spirituality – referred to as an individual’s moral or ethical codes influenced by cultural, ethnic, and religious values – and its effects on an organization’s durability, impenetrability, and adaptability. To understand spirituality as a factor of resilience in criminal organizations, it is delineated into four Dimensions of Spiritual Influence (DoSI). They are (1) trust, (2) spiritual neutralization, (3) strategic arenas, and (4) the logistical use of spiritual institutions. In order to analyze ...


Are Dhs Technology Grants For Local Police Departments An Effective Tool Against Terrorism?, Erika McGinty 2017 CUNY John Jay College

Are Dhs Technology Grants For Local Police Departments An Effective Tool Against Terrorism?, Erika Mcginty

Student Theses

This paper examines the effectiveness of allocating funds to the nation’s police departments for the prevention of domestic terrorism, as is done annually through the Department of Homeland Security’s Homeland Security Grants Program. The program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Administration, has distributed billions of dollars since its 2003 inception in equipment, software, and technology services based on the recipient police agencies’ own risk assessments of local terrorism. Much of the technology desired by police consists of systems of mass surveillance; this thesis focuses on implementations of surveillance video cameras or CCTV, license plate readers, and unmanned ...


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