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The Effects Of Juvenile Life Sentences On Family Relationships, Antoinette Pigatt 2018 Walden University

The Effects Of Juvenile Life Sentences On Family Relationships, Antoinette Pigatt

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Juveniles serving adult sentences are separated from their families for extensive amounts of time. During incarceration, youths attempt to maintain close relationships with family members, but are faced with challenges. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore adult incarceration of youthful offenders and its effect on family relationships using Bowen's family systems theory as the theoretical foundation. Three Maryland families who have first-hand experience with the phenomenon were selected to share their stories. Through this study, to the family unit was given voice to assist understanding the experience from multiple perspectives. Interviews were conducted with each ...


Incarceration Of Nonviolent Offenders At The High Court In Oyo State, Nigeria, Olugbenga Rotimi Akanji 2018 Walden University

Incarceration Of Nonviolent Offenders At The High Court In Oyo State, Nigeria, Olugbenga Rotimi Akanji

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The nonuse of community correction in the Nigeria criminal justice system has led to increased recidivism, contributed to prison congestion, introduced the risk of prison victimization, and lacked the provision of a rehabilitative structure for nonviolent offenders. The purpose of this phenomenological research study was to explore Nigerian judges' use of alternatives to incarcerations for nonviolent offenders. Dolinko retributive punishment theory provided the theoretical framework for this study. Ten participant judges comprised the study sample from a purposeful and criterion random sampling method. Data were collected from participants through structured interviews and were coded manually, sorted, and analyzed using the ...


Postmodern Social Control: Dividuals And Surveillance, Ernest M. Oleksy 2017 Cleveland State University

Postmodern Social Control: Dividuals And Surveillance, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

As a society's foundational philosophy changes, so, too, will its forms of social control. By using the works of thinkers like Deleuze and Foucault as pivot points, the dynamic nature of social interactions and the agents to mediate those actions shall be investigated. This article includes findings from archival analysis written in a journalistic prose for simplicity of consumption.


Edward A. Ross: Social Development And Social Control, Ernest M. Oleksy 2017 Cleveland State University

Edward A. Ross: Social Development And Social Control, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

With a foundation in philosophy and history, core concepts of sociology and criminology that were initially posited over a century ago are still useful in understanding the workings of today's society. The contributions of Edward A. Ross have helped latter day researchers centralize their studies of polycentric topics by using social control as an omnipresent social fact. By comparing Ross's descriptions of 19th century society and the researcher's descriptions of 21st century society, a continuous understanding of a heavily pluralistic discipline comes to life.


Out Of The Prison And Onto The Streets: The Trafficking Of Incarcerated Women (A Trans-Disciplinary Media Research Project), Mei-Ling McNamara 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

Out Of The Prison And Onto The Streets: The Trafficking Of Incarcerated Women (A Trans-Disciplinary Media Research Project), Mei-Ling Mcnamara

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

Women are being actively targeted for the sex trafficking trade within US prisons and are recruited by a network of fellow inmates who are given "finders fees" for supplying victims. In prisons from Florida to North Carolina, Ohio to Massachusetts, women are promised housing and food in exchange for work upon release but instead are deceived and prostituted for the human trafficking trade. Some traffickers stalk their victims through public-access profiles from statewide prison websites, then groom them over months through correspondence and phone calls.

Inside the largest women’s prison in the United States, the Florida Lowell Correctional Institution ...


Ordinary 'Worthiness': Sex Work, Police Raids, And Human Rights Violence In Sonagachhi, Simanti Dasgupta 2017 University of Dayton

Ordinary 'Worthiness': Sex Work, Police Raids, And Human Rights Violence In Sonagachhi, Simanti Dasgupta

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

Based upon ethnographic research with Durbar Mahila Samanwaya Committee (DMSC), a grass-roots sex workers organization in Sonagachhi, the iconic red light district in Kolkata, India, this paper explores the relationship between police raids and human rights violation. It especially focuses on the nature of violence initiated by the construction of “corrupt” evidence to justify a raid, which in this case is not solely a state initiative; the police usually work in tandem with other rescue missions such as the International Justice mission (IJM). The raid involves a practice and a narrative commonly referred to by both the police and the ...


Occupational Profiles Of At-Risk Youth: A Multi-Case Study, Abigail Catalano 2017 Duquesne University

Occupational Profiles Of At-Risk Youth: A Multi-Case Study, Abigail Catalano

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Occupational therapy’s work with at-risk and adjudicated youth is a practice area currently possessing a limited base of evidence. One significant need in this body of literature is for examination of evidence-based evaluation practices. This project describes implementation and results of an evaluation protocol, Primary Occupations for Work and Employment Readiness (POWER), designed to elicit comprehensive occupational profiles from participants. POWER consists of five assessment tools, supplemented by clinical observations and program data. The assessments included are the Occupational Self-Assessment (OSA), Model of Human Occupation Screening Tool (MOHOST), Double OT (DOT), Kawa River Model, and Role Checklist Version 3 ...


Factors Related To Police Staffing, James E. McCabe, Paul E. O'Connell 2017 Sacred Heart University

Factors Related To Police Staffing, James E. Mccabe, Paul E. O'Connell

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

This study explores data related to police staffing through a convenience sample of 68 American police departments. The relationship between police officer staffing, and exogenous variables such as crime, population, calls for service, and endogenous variables such as workload, response time, patrol deployment and service times was explored. The results indicate that the percentage of officers assigned to patrol, violent crime, the rate of calls for service, and summer response time are significantly related to the size of a police department. In addition, the study introduces workload variables that could be useful in understanding service demands and staffing decisions in ...


Exploring And Understanding Differences Between Deliberate And Impulsive Male And Female Burglars, Amber N. Sanders, Joseph B. Kuhns, Kristie R. Blevins 2017 The Pennsylvania State University

Exploring And Understanding Differences Between Deliberate And Impulsive Male And Female Burglars, Amber N. Sanders, Joseph B. Kuhns, Kristie R. Blevins

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Relying on rational choice theory, we compare burglars’ varying levels of offense planning to understand differences among types of burglars. Surveys were collected from a sample of incarcerated male and female burglars in three states. Participants answered questions detailing aspects of a burglary including motivations, target selection, deterrents, and techniques. Comparisons were made between 119 deliberate (32%) and 257 impulsive (68%) burglars. Deliberate burglars focused on obtaining cash, whereas impulsive burglars were more motivated by drug habits. Impulsive burglars were more easily dissuaded from a target when multiple obstacles are present. Burglars consider how many obstacles they may have to ...


The Effectiveness Of Treatment As Policy For Sex Offenders, Brooke Mayfield 2017 University of Missouri, St. Louis

The Effectiveness Of Treatment As Policy For Sex Offenders, Brooke Mayfield

Dissertations

The public’s perception of individuals who commit sexual offenses is much different than for other types of offenders. This can be seen in the passing of legislation targeting interventions specific to this population as a way to protect the public and reduce recidivism. In some states, sex offenders are required to participate in treatment as a condition for early release from prison. The impact of this policy is not well understood, and mandatory treatment is growing in popularity. This dissertation explores the impact of mandatory treatment for individuals incarcerated for sexual offenses on their recidivism over time. Missouri statute ...


What Counts As Domestic Violence? A Conceptual Analysis, Michelle Madden Dempsey 2017 Villanova University School of Law

What Counts As Domestic Violence? A Conceptual Analysis, Michelle Madden Dempsey

Michelle Madden Dempsey

This article analyzes the conceptual structure of domestic violence and critiques various influential accounts of domestic violence operating in the criminal justice system, legal and sociological academia, and the domestic violence advocacy community. Part I presents a preliminary philosophical analysis of domestic violence with the goal of furthering our understanding of the correct use of this concept. This analysis centers around three key elements of domestic violence: violence, domesticity, and structural inequality. Part II develops an explanatory model of domestic violence based upon these key elements. Part III examines and critiques four principal accounts of domestic violence, each of which ...


Self-Control And Crime: Theory, Research, And Remaining Puzzles, Michael Rocque, Chad Posick, Alex R. Piquero 2017 Bates College

Self-Control And Crime: Theory, Research, And Remaining Puzzles, Michael Rocque, Chad Posick, Alex R. Piquero

Chad Posick

No abstract provided.


Juvenile Violence, A. J. Fox, Michael Rocque, Chad Posick 2017 Bates College

Juvenile Violence, A. J. Fox, Michael Rocque, Chad Posick

Chad Posick

No abstract provided.


Once Bitten, Thrice Wise: The Varying Effects Of Victimization On Routine Activities And Risk Management, J. Michael Vecchio 2017 Loyola University Chicago

Once Bitten, Thrice Wise: The Varying Effects Of Victimization On Routine Activities And Risk Management, J. Michael Vecchio

J. Michael Vecchio

While the relationship between offending and victimization is well established, less is understood about what contributes to the varied effects of victimization on future behavior. Drawing on qualitative interviews from a sample of at-risk men, the study explores recognized and unrecognized effects of victimization on subsequent behavior and management of lifestyle risks both within and across narratives. Findings demonstrate a range of perceived effects on behavior and risk management, with the presence or absence of substantive effects related to whether the event was both severe and directly attributable to involvement in at-risk behavior. Consequences for the victimization–termination hypothesis are ...


Youth Gangs: An Overview Of Key Findings And Directions For The Future, Terrance J. Taylor, J. Michael Vecchio 2017 University of Missouri - St Louis

Youth Gangs: An Overview Of Key Findings And Directions For The Future, Terrance J. Taylor, J. Michael Vecchio

J. Michael Vecchio

Youth gangs have received considerable attention for many decades. Undoubtedly, their disproportionate involvement in violence is one main reason for this attention. While gang members spend most of their lives engaging in the same types of behaviors as other youth (sleeping, eating, playing video games, going to school), they are also much more likely than non-gang members to be involved in violence and other criminal activity. Indeed, scholars have often highlighted the functional nature of violence as it pertains to gangs. Gangs come in a variety of forms: prison gangs, outlaw motorcycle gangs, extremist groups, and drug trafficking organizations, among ...


“Messin’ With Drugs…You Could Lose Your Life”: The Effect Of Victimization On Routine Activities And Risk Management, J. Michael Vecchio 2017 Loyola University Chicago

“Messin’ With Drugs…You Could Lose Your Life”: The Effect Of Victimization On Routine Activities And Risk Management, J. Michael Vecchio

J. Michael Vecchio

Decades of research have helped to identify that victims and offenders are not opposing parts of the crime equation (Esbensen & Huizinga, 1991), but often are intertwined as part of a homogeneous population (Lauritsen & Laub, 2007). Those with the greatest likelihood of experiencing personal or property victimization are those who report offending or substance using behaviors (Gottfredson, 1984; Jensen & Brownfield, 1986; Sampson & Lauritsen, 1990). This increased victimization risk is commonly related to the amount of time spent in situations with greater proximity to motivated offenders and a lack of supervision (Cohen & Felson, 1979; Hindelang, Gottfredson, & Garofalo, 1978; Jensen & Brownfield, 1986). Individuals who are particularly at-risk for victimization are those involved in substance use and abuse and street offending (Anderson, 1999; Biernacki, 1986; Decker & Van Winkle, 1996; Jacobs, 2000; Jacques & Wright, 2008; Sutherland, 1937; Waldorf, 1973). Victimization experiences can have disparate affects on individuals‘ perceptions and behaviors (Ferraro, 1995; Hindelang et al., 1978). These effects can range from no perceived effects (Hindelang et al., 1978), subtle effects (Hindelang et al., 1978), and significant effects (Decker & Lauritsen, 2002; Jacques & Wright, 2008; Sutherland, 1937) on individual behavior. In particular, the effect of exposure to crime and victimization may influence risk management techniques. The current study will attempt ...


Study Methodology, Jody Miller, Mark DeBarr, Hyan Namgung, J. Michael Vecchio, Stephanie Wiley 2017 Loyola University Chicago

Study Methodology, Jody Miller, Mark Debarr, Hyan Namgung, J. Michael Vecchio, Stephanie Wiley

J. Michael Vecchio

Data for this investigation come from 36 qualitative in-depth interviews completed between February and April 2010. The aim of the research was to conduct a process evaluation of Gateway Foundation programming for state probation and parole clients in St. Louis and jointly produce a final report for the organization. The specific research questions focused on (1) the challenges men face as they attempt to overcome substance abuse; (2) how those challenges are related to past experiences with crime, including offending and victimization; and (3) the effectiveness of Gateway programming, from the points of view of program participants, including whether there ...


Leaving The Gang: A Review And Thoughts On Future Research, Dena C. Carson, J. Michael Vecchio 2017 Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis

Leaving The Gang: A Review And Thoughts On Future Research, Dena C. Carson, J. Michael Vecchio

J. Michael Vecchio

Researchers have examined aspects of gangs and their members for almost a century. This work, however, focuses primarily on youth prior to joining as well as during gang involvement. While comparatively less is known about the leaving processes, work in this area has been increasing in recent years. This chapter will discuss the growing body of research on the processes associated with leaving the gang. Specifically, it will review difficulties associated with defining gang desistance, theoretical perspectives on desistance, variations in motives, methods, and consequences of leaving, barriers to desistance, as well as make recommendations for policy and future research.


The Scale Of Imprisonment In The United States: Twentieth Century Patterns And Twenty-First Century Prospects, Franklin E. Zimring 2017 Selected Works

The Scale Of Imprisonment In The United States: Twentieth Century Patterns And Twenty-First Century Prospects, Franklin E. Zimring

Franklin E. Zimring

No abstract provided.


The Federal Rules Of Inmate Appeals, Catherine T. Struve 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Federal Rules Of Inmate Appeals, Catherine T. Struve

Faculty Scholarship

The Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure turn fifty in 2018. During the Rules’ half-century of existence, the number of federal appeals by self-represented, incarcerated litigants has grown dramatically. This article surveys ways in which the procedure for inmate appeals has evolved over the past 50 years, and examines the challenges of designing procedures with confined litigants in mind. In the initial decades under the Appellate Rules, the most visible developments concerning the procedure for inmate appeals arose from the interplay between court decisions and the federal rulemaking process. But, as court dockets swelled, the circuits also developed local case management ...


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