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Examining Victimization In South Korea 1993-2010: A Comparative Application Of Ecological Theories Of Crime, Jisun Choi 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Examining Victimization In South Korea 1993-2010: A Comparative Application Of Ecological Theories Of Crime, Jisun Choi

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Theoretical approaches aimed at the understanding of population level criminal offending and victimization generally revolve around two major criminological theories: Social disorganization and routine activities/lifestyle theories. These theoretical frameworks were developed and have been examined extensively in a Western context (primarily in the U.S.) and provide evidence of both individual and aggregate indicators for the explanation of variations in crime. More recently, these approaches have been extended to the Eastern context as increasing numbers of studies have been conducted outside of the U.S. This application is relatively recent and the literature has yet to find conclusive supporting ...


Characteristics Of Newly-Hired Members Of The New York City Police Department As Predictors Of Subsequent Job Performance, Francis E. Spangenberg 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Characteristics Of Newly-Hired Members Of The New York City Police Department As Predictors Of Subsequent Job Performance, Francis E. Spangenberg

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

It would be advantageous for law enforcement agencies if it could be determined which applicants for employment were most likely to provide superior performance over the course of their careers. In order to do this, it is necessary to determine a) what constitutes superior performance by police officers, b) what measurements can be used to record such performance, and c) if there are characteristics known about newly-hired police recruits that can serve as predictors of superior performance over an extended career. This study looked at the career histories of the 1,707 members of the New York City Police Department ...


Exploring Gender-Based Disparities In Legal Protection, Education, Health, Political Empowerment, And Employment In Failing And Fragile States, Laurie A. Gould 2016 Georgia Southern University

Exploring Gender-Based Disparities In Legal Protection, Education, Health, Political Empowerment, And Employment In Failing And Fragile States, Laurie A. Gould

Laurie A. Gould

Gender inequalities in legal protection, education, health, employment, and political empowerment have been of special interest to researchers for many years. Hausmann, Tyson, and Zahidi (2010, p. 3) noted, “Although gender-based inequalities exist in the majority of the world's cultures, religions, nations, and income groups, there are differences in the way these disparities manifest themselves and how they evolve over time.” The degree of governmental stability is a salient aspect of the process through which gender-based disparities manifest. Although all citizens are doubtlessly affected when states fail, women are especially marginalized and experience governmental failure in a fundamentally different ...


The Discipline Of Difference: Ethnolinguistic Heterogeneity And Corporal Punishment, Matthew Pete, Laurie A. Gould 2016 University of Albany

The Discipline Of Difference: Ethnolinguistic Heterogeneity And Corporal Punishment, Matthew Pete, Laurie A. Gould

Laurie A. Gould

The minority threat hypothesis contends that growth in the size of a given minority population along with the ensuing competition for social and political resources will threaten existing social power arrangements. Regarding punishment specifically, the hypothesis states that dominant groups will support coercive measures to keep minority populations sufficiently oppressed. Using the minority threat hypothesis as our theoretical foundation, we posit that the more heterogeneous a population, the more social control will be necessary to maintain societal equilibrium for those in power. In effect a more personal, physical, and visceral response to criminal behavior will be deemed necessary in countries ...


On The General Relationship Between Victimization And Offending: Examining Cultural Contingencies, Chad Posick, Laurie A. Gould 2016 Georgia Southern University

On The General Relationship Between Victimization And Offending: Examining Cultural Contingencies, Chad Posick, Laurie A. Gould

Laurie A. Gould

Culture has been implicated in a wide range of individual behaviors. However, empirical investigation of how culture impacts violent behavior is limited. In particular, the well-established finding that there is an overlap between offenders and victims has not been examined in a culturally comparative context - limiting the ability to generalize current findings across cultures.

Purpose

This study uses data from the second International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD-II), a large school-based sample of adolescents in grades 7-9, and three measures from the Hofstede Dimensions of National Culture dataset to investigate how culture might moderate the relationship between victimization and offending.

Methods ...


Cheating Around The World: A Cross-National Analysis Of Principal Reported Cheating, Bryan Lee Miller, Laura E. Agnich, Chad Posick, Laurie A. Gould 2016 Georgia Southern University

Cheating Around The World: A Cross-National Analysis Of Principal Reported Cheating, Bryan Lee Miller, Laura E. Agnich, Chad Posick, Laurie A. Gould

Laurie A. Gould

An increasing problem of great concern for academic institutions around the world is the pervasiveness of academic cheating among students. However, there is a dearth of prior research on cheating in cross-national contexts. The present study examines the relationships between structural measures of strain and principals’ reports of problematic cheating in schools across 35 nations, derived from the 2007 Trends in International Math and Science Studies survey. The study employs multilevel logistic regression analysis to evaluate whether indicators of economic disadvantage, educational achievement, and educational inequalities influence the level of problematic cheating reported by school principals cross-nationally. Additionally, we identify ...


Risk And Revocation In Community Corrections: The Influence Of Gender, Laurie A. Gould, Matthew Pate, Mary Sarver 2016 Georgia Southern University

Risk And Revocation In Community Corrections: The Influence Of Gender, Laurie A. Gould, Matthew Pate, Mary Sarver

Laurie A. Gould

Actuarial risk assessment instruments have become integral to the functioning of the correctional systems in North America, the United Kingdom, and many other parts of the world. While research on the classification of female offenders has been ongoing since the 1980s, there is still more work to be done. Adding to the growing body of literature, the present study analyses agency records from a Community Supervision Department located in a Southwestern state in the United States. Findings reveal the Wisconsin Risk/Needs Assessment instrument has predictive validity for both male and female probationers. Further, successful completion rates for males and ...


Psychological Victimization Among College Students, Shanna Felix, Christina Policastro, Laura E. Agnich, Laurie Gould 2016 Georgia Southern University

Psychological Victimization Among College Students, Shanna Felix, Christina Policastro, Laura E. Agnich, Laurie Gould

Laurie A. Gould

According to the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, approximately 1 in 5 women and 1 in 7 men will experience stalking, physical violence, and/or rape by an intimate partner in their lifetimes, and almost half of U.S. men and women have been the victim of psychological abuse by an intimate during their lives (Black et al. 2011). These behaviors can be considered as indicative of ‘‘coercive control,’’ a pattern of abusive behavior that can lead a victimized person to feel trapped in an intimate relationship characterized by a loss of power and control (see Stark ...


Restorative Resources: A New Theory In Juvenile Offender Control ~ Examining The Successes Of Restorative Resources In Sonoma County And The Impact It Had On One Police Sergeant’S Journey, Stephen Wayne Cramer 2016 St. Mary's College of California, and University of San Francisco

Restorative Resources: A New Theory In Juvenile Offender Control ~ Examining The Successes Of Restorative Resources In Sonoma County And The Impact It Had On One Police Sergeant’S Journey, Stephen Wayne Cramer

The International Undergraduate Journal For Service-Learning, Leadership, and Social Change

No abstract provided.


Parental Substance Use And The Need For Family Dependency Treatment Court In Taylor County, Rebekah Rich 2016 Abilene Christian University

Parental Substance Use And The Need For Family Dependency Treatment Court In Taylor County, Rebekah Rich

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The impact of parental substance use and the need for Family Dependency Treatment Court in Taylor County are qualitatively explored and described, analyzing interviews of identified key informants. The areas explored are the current practices and process in Taylor County when a substance use issue is identified in a parent during a child welfare case, the impact of parental substance use on the child welfare system, knowledge and opinions regarding treatment options, and knowledge and opinions of Family Dependency Treatment Court. The sample size was 8 professionals who worked as attorney ad litems, Department of Family and Protective Services workers ...


The Verdict On The Csi Effect: A Study Of The Effect In Monroe County Courtrooms, Paige Monachino 2016 The College at Brockport

The Verdict On The Csi Effect: A Study Of The Effect In Monroe County Courtrooms, Paige Monachino

Senior Honors Theses

This senior honors thesis looks at a phenomenon known as the “CSI Effect”. The CSI Effect is a greatly debated topic with many different opinions as to its existence. The immediate objective of this study is to determine whether the CSI Effect is present in Monroe County, New York courtrooms. A survey distributed to judges, prosecutors, public defenders, and private defense attorneys, practicing in Monroe Country, New York, gives information regarding their experience with the CSI Effect, helping to come to a conclusion about the Effect’s existence. The results of this study show that the CSI Effect does exist ...


Student Perceptions Of Mentally Ill Offenders, Kimberly Nicole Rayborn 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Student Perceptions Of Mentally Ill Offenders, Kimberly Nicole Rayborn

Master's Theses

Since deinstitutionalization, the responsibility for mentally ill members of society has shifted to the criminal justice system in a process of trans-institutionalization or “criminalization of mental illness” (Slate & Johnson, 2008). Though various groups have been studied to ascertain their perception of mentally ill individuals and offenders, previous research focuses largely on students of psychology, social work, and medicine. Little research has been conducted regarding the perceptions of students of criminal justice toward mental illness, despite the increasing involvement of the criminal justice system in treating and handling mentally ill individuals in the past thirty years. This exploratory research serves as ...


Mass Shootings And Mass Media: The Discrepancies Between Workplace And School Shootings, Nicole A. Wheeler 2016 The College at Brockport

Mass Shootings And Mass Media: The Discrepancies Between Workplace And School Shootings, Nicole A. Wheeler

Senior Honors Theses

Workplace shootings and school shootings have a variety of differences and similarities. However, each are unique to other mass shooting types. This study analyzes 42 workplace shootings and 50 school shootings that were highly publicized and occurred between 1965 and 2015. Through my analysis, I was able to uncover the similarities and differences between the two sub-types of mass shootings. 100 school articles and 72 workplace articles from The New York Times, Washington Post, Chicago Tribune, and Los Angeles Times were utilized and coded to uncover the differences in adjectives used in reports. Because workplace shootings receive much less media ...


Submission To The Queensland Taskforce On Organised Crime Legislation (Inquiry Area 5), Terry Goldsworthy 2016 Bond University

Submission To The Queensland Taskforce On Organised Crime Legislation (Inquiry Area 5), Terry Goldsworthy

Terry Goldsworthy

In response to a request from the Executive Director of the Commission the following submissions provide Dr. Goldsworthy’s responses as they relate to each term of reference:

1. If provisions in the 2013 legislation are effectively facilitating the successful detection, investigation, prevention and deterrence of organised crime

2. If provisions in the 2013 legislation are effectively facilitating the successful prosecution of individuals

3. If the 2013 legislation strikes an appropriate balance between ensuring the safety, welfare and good order of the community and protecting individual civil liberties, including in relation to the anti‐association provisions in the 2013 legislation ...


Rape And Sexual Violence: Questionable Inevitability And Moral Responsibility In Armed Conflict, Katherine W. Bogen 2016 Clark University, University of Pittsburgh

Rape And Sexual Violence: Questionable Inevitability And Moral Responsibility In Armed Conflict, Katherine W. Bogen

Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark

Wartime sexual violence is a critical human rights issue that usurps the autonomy of its victims as well as their physical and psychological safety. It occurs in both ethnic and non-ethnic wars, across geographic regions, against both men and women, and regardless of the “official” position of commanders, states, and armed groups on the use of rape as tactic of war. This problem is current, pervasive, and global in spite of the status of wartime sexual violence perpetration as a crime against humanity and the capacity of the international criminal court to indict offenders. Though some scholars have argued that ...


Soliciting Body Warn Cameras In Camden (Presentation Slides From Nacole Symposium 2016 Held At John Jay College), Maria Ponomarenko, Barry Friedmann 2016 New York University Law School

Soliciting Body Warn Cameras In Camden (Presentation Slides From Nacole Symposium 2016 Held At John Jay College), Maria Ponomarenko, Barry Friedmann

Faculty Publications and Research

Throughout its Final Report, the Presidential Task Force on 21st Century Policing repeatedly called for a new form of civilian oversight: for police departments to involve community members in the process of developing and reviewing department policies on a variety of topics from use of new technologies to police training. The Task Force stressed that this sort of engagement is essential to promoting external legitimacy and building trust between policing agencies and the communities they serve. Yet as a number of police officials have acknowledged, community engagement around matters of policy raises a number of difficult questions—and there are ...


Early Warning/Intervention Systems (Presentation Slides From Nacole Symposium 2016 Held At John Jay College), Jennifer Helsby, Samuel Carton, Kenneth Joseph, Ayesha Mahmud, Youngsoo Park, Joe Walsh, Lauren Haynes 2016 University of Chicago

Early Warning/Intervention Systems (Presentation Slides From Nacole Symposium 2016 Held At John Jay College), Jennifer Helsby, Samuel Carton, Kenneth Joseph, Ayesha Mahmud, Youngsoo Park, Joe Walsh, Lauren Haynes

Faculty Publications and Research

Adverse interactions between police and the public harm police legitimacy and produce high costs due to harms to both officers and the public as well as litigation. Early intervention systems (EIS) that flag officers considered most likely to be involved in one of these adverse situations are an important tool for police supervision and for targeting of interventions such as counseling or training. However, the EIS that exist are often not data-driven and are based on supervior intuition. We have developed a prototype data-driven EIS that uses a diverse set of data sources from the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department and machine ...


Social Psychology Of Public Defenders: A Qualitative Study, Michael W. Firmin, Kari E. Barnhill, Hannah W. Foster, Ying-Ruey Chuang, D. Elise Lawrence 2016 Cedarville University

Social Psychology Of Public Defenders: A Qualitative Study, Michael W. Firmin, Kari E. Barnhill, Hannah W. Foster, Ying-Ruey Chuang, D. Elise Lawrence

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The right to an attorney is a one to which all U.S. citizens are entitled, in conjunction with the constitution's sixth amendment. Difficulty arose when people who were unable to provide necessary funds to hire a lawyer and, subsequently, went into trial pro se. Resolution was met with the creation of the public defense system -- a system which is unfortunately understudied, and sometimes regarded in a negative light, including a negative perception that public defense is a broken system. This belief sometimes bleeds into the minds of potential clients who may believe a public defender is not sufficiently ...


The Benefits Of Child Contact While In Prison On Educational Program Participation And Employment Outcomes, Deshane Velasquez 2016 Georgia State University

The Benefits Of Child Contact While In Prison On Educational Program Participation And Employment Outcomes, Deshane Velasquez

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Chicago Homicides Completed With A Firearm From 1971 To 1993: A Lens Of Social Disorganization Theory And Firearm Legislation, Andrew Dehart 2016 University of Texas at Tyler

Chicago Homicides Completed With A Firearm From 1971 To 1993: A Lens Of Social Disorganization Theory And Firearm Legislation, Andrew Dehart

Criminal Justice Theses

Firearm legislation is a hotly debated topic in the light of recent mass shootings in Newtown, Connecticut and elsewhere. President Obama has introduced a firearm policy directed at curtailing firearm homicide. The literature on gun laws and their effect on crime are mixed. Some jurisdictions operate under strict firearm policies and others believe greater access to guns will deter potential criminals. This study uses social disorganization theory to test the effect of restrictive firearm policy in Chicago, Illinois from 1971 to 1993.

In particular, this thesis seeks to determine the rate of firearm homicides in the eleven years prior to ...


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