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A Content Analysis Of Section 1983 Litigation Against Reserve Police Officers, Michael Broadus 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

A Content Analysis Of Section 1983 Litigation Against Reserve Police Officers, Michael Broadus

Master's Theses

Police studies have well developed a demonstrative framework for detailing risks which generate financially-detrimental civil litigation – particularly regarding 42 U.S.C. §1983. Conversely, though, police studies have given little attention to the often-used but differentially-trained reserve police officer. Primarily replicating the methodologies of Kappeler, Kappeler, and del Carmen (1993) and Ross (2000), this descriptive study sought to fill this void via a manifest content approach to purposively select a sample of Section 1983 cases decided by U.S. District Courts over a 16-year period (2001-2016) to determine: (1) if significant liability was generated by reserve officers, (2) the main ...


Juvenile Hackers: An Empirical Test Of Self-Control Theory And Social Bonding Theory, Sinchul Back, Sadhika Soor, Jennifer LaPrade 2018 Florida International University

Juvenile Hackers: An Empirical Test Of Self-Control Theory And Social Bonding Theory, Sinchul Back, Sadhika Soor, Jennifer Laprade

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

In accordance with a similar growth in information technology, computer hacking has become a pervasive issue as a form of crime worldwide in recent years. Self-control theory and social bonding theory have frequently been employed to explain various types of crimes, but rarely to explore computer hacking. Drawing from Gottfredson and Hirschi’s (1990) self-control theory and Hirschi’s (1969) social bonding theory, the purpose of this study is to empirically examine the suitability of these two theories in explaining juvenile computer hacking offenses. The self-report survey data utilized for the present study was derived from middle school and high ...


A Failure To Regulate? The Demands And Dilemmas Of Tackling Illegal Content And Behaviour On Social Media, Majid Yar 2018 Bridgewater State University

A Failure To Regulate? The Demands And Dilemmas Of Tackling Illegal Content And Behaviour On Social Media, Majid Yar

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The proliferation and user uptake of social media applications has brought in its wake a growing problem of illegal and harmful interactions and content online. Recent controversy has arisen around issues ranging from the alleged online manipulation of the 2016 US presidential election by Russian hackers and ‘trolls’, to the misuse of users’ Facebook data by the political consulting firm Cambridge Analytica (Hall 2018; Swaine & Bennetts 2018). These recent issues notwithstanding, in the UK context, ongoing concern has focused in particular upon (a) sexually-oriented and abusive content about or directed at children, and (b) content that is racially or religiously ...


Architecture Of Aggression In Cyberspace. Testing Cyber Aggression In Young Adults In Hungary, Katalin Parti, Tibor Kiss, Gergely Koplányi 2018 National Institute of Criminology Hungary

Architecture Of Aggression In Cyberspace. Testing Cyber Aggression In Young Adults In Hungary, Katalin Parti, Tibor Kiss, Gergely Koplányi

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

In order to test whether and how violence is exacerbated in online social networking sites, we utilized the BryantSmith Aggression Scale (Bryant & Smith, 2001), and included examples in the questionnaire offering solutions for 7 different hypothetical cases occurring online (Kiss, 2017). The questionnaire was sent to social work and law school students in Hungary. Prevalence and levels of aggression and its manifestation as violence online proved to be not more severe than in offline social relations. Law students were more aware than students of social work that online hostile acts are discrediting. Students of social work were significantly more prone ...


Welcoming Remarks From The Ijcic Honorary Editor, Peter Grabosky 2018 Australian National University

Welcoming Remarks From The Ijcic Honorary Editor, Peter Grabosky

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

No abstract provided.


The Present And Future Of Cybercrime, Cyberterrorism, And Cybersecurity, Kyung-shick Choi, Claire Seungeun Lee 2018 Bridgewater State University

The Present And Future Of Cybercrime, Cyberterrorism, And Cybersecurity, Kyung-Shick Choi, Claire Seungeun Lee

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Cybercriminology combines knowledge from criminology, psychology, sociology, computer science, and cybersecurity to provide an in-depth understanding of cybercrime. Cybercrime and cybersecurity are interconnected across many places, platforms, and actors. Cybercrime issues are continuously and expeditiously changing and developing, especially with the advent of new technologies. The International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime (IJCIC) aims to contribute to the growing field of cybercriminology and cybersecurity. The IJCIC is eager to work with scholars, policy analysts, practitioners, and others to enhance theory, methods, and practice within cybercrime and cybersecurity at the regional, national, and international levels.


Spreading Propaganda In Cyberspace: Comparing Cyber-Resource Usage Of Al Qaeda And Isis, Kyung-shick Choi, Claire Seungeun Lee, Robert Cadigan 2018 Bridgewater State University

Spreading Propaganda In Cyberspace: Comparing Cyber-Resource Usage Of Al Qaeda And Isis, Kyung-Shick Choi, Claire Seungeun Lee, Robert Cadigan

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Terrorists in cyberspace are increasingly utilizing social media to promote their ideologies, recruit new members, and justify terrorist attacks and actions. This study explores the ways in which types of social media, message contents, and motives for spreading propaganda take shape in cyberspace. In order to empirically test these relations, we created a dataset with annual terrorism reports from 2011 to 2016. In our global cyberterrorism dataset, we used and connected cyber-resources (Facebook, online forum, Twitter mentions, websites, and YouTube videos) and legal documents of individual cases that were mentioned in the reports. The results show that YouTube videos were ...


An Argument For Interdisciplinary Programs In Cybersecurity, Dennis Giever 2018 New Mexico State University

An Argument For Interdisciplinary Programs In Cybersecurity, Dennis Giever

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

In this commentary Dr. Giever presents a compelling argument for interdisciplinary programs in cybersecurity at the university level. He argues that we no longer have the luxury of allowing barriers to exist between those tasked with IT security and those who provide physical security. He recommends that any security program take an “all possible paths” or “balanced approach” to the protection of assets within an organization. Students in computer science, criminal justice, business, human resources, and others should work collaboratively within education programs learning these necessary skills. A team effort is needed to accomplish the myriad of tasks necessary to ...


An Assessment Of Sentencing Disparities Among American Indians Within The Eighth, Ninth, And Tenth Federal Circuit Courts, Makenzie Laron Aaby 2018 Portland State University

An Assessment Of Sentencing Disparities Among American Indians Within The Eighth, Ninth, And Tenth Federal Circuit Courts, Makenzie Laron Aaby

Dissertations and Theses

Assessing the effect of race on crime is an important topic of criminology and criminal justice research. Prior investigations have sought to uncover if racial disparities exist within certain aspects of the criminal justice system, such as arrests, trials, and sentencing. The existing scholarship, however, has largely focused on assessing differences between Black and Hispanic offenders in relation to White offenders. There has been little academic exploration to examine if racial disparities exist among American Indian offenders during criminal justice processing. To address this gap in knowledge, this study analyzes data collected from the United States Sentencing Commission to assess ...


An Experimental Study On The Impact Of Informal Rape Myth Education To Alter Rape Myth Acceptance Scores In A Non-Student Sample, Leah Noelle Reddy 2018 Portland State University

An Experimental Study On The Impact Of Informal Rape Myth Education To Alter Rape Myth Acceptance Scores In A Non-Student Sample, Leah Noelle Reddy

Dissertations and Theses

Sexual assault has come to the forefront in terms of prevention and education for many social institutions such as college campuses. However, with a growing body of research highlighting the importance and effectiveness of interventions, research examining the impact of rape-related education on altering rape myth acceptance (RMA) among non-student populations is severely lacking. This is a problematic gap given the issue of sexual assault in the United States extends well beyond academia. The current study aimed to fill this gap by employing an experimental design with repeated measures. To detect changes in RMA after a short rape myth education ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Justice Reinvestment Legislation In Oregon: Analyses Of State And County Implementation, Christopher Wade Dollar 2018 Portland State University

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Justice Reinvestment Legislation In Oregon: Analyses Of State And County Implementation, Christopher Wade Dollar

Dissertations and Theses

Sentencing reform and "tough on crime" policies have assisted in the inflation of the United States' prison population by nearly 400% over the last 50 years. In 2003, justice reinvestment was conceptualized as a way to decrease recidivism and remedy the exorbitant correctional spending by reinvesting funds on rehabilitation and reentry assistance to those leaving custodial institutions. Early implementations of justice reinvestment in Connecticut and Texas achieved both savings and reductions in prison populations. This led to the creation of the Justice Reinvestment Initiative by the U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance in 2010. Officials of the Justice Reinvestment Initiative ...


Anti-Lgb Hate Crimes: Political Threat Or Political Legitimization?, Johanna R. Shreve 2018 Portland State University

Anti-Lgb Hate Crimes: Political Threat Or Political Legitimization?, Johanna R. Shreve

Dissertations and Theses

While activists and others have argued that the legitimization of biased attitudes and stereotypes by political leaders foments violence against minority groups, criminological research in the U.S. has focused more on "threat" hypotheses that view hate crime as a retaliatory response to perceived gains or encroachment of targeted groups. Another view suggests that heightened public visibility of hate crimes or other bias issues, usually in the form of media coverage, increases hate crimes. This study compares the effect on anti-LGB crimes of events representing political threat (a court decision legalizing marriage equality) and political legitimization of bias (passage of ...


Risk Factors Associated With Sexual Assault Among Asian Immigrant Women In Massage Parlors, Daun Jung 2018 CUNY John Jay College

Risk Factors Associated With Sexual Assault Among Asian Immigrant Women In Massage Parlors, Daun Jung

Student Theses

Over the past decade, Asian immigrant women have had an increasing presence in the massage parlor industry. Despite that, little is known about the risk to women in these settings. Previous research has addressed health and physical risk factors, yet there are no specific studies on risk factors for sexual assault among Asian immigrant females who engage in sexual services in massage parlors. Thus, this study aims to examine the prevalence and risk factors for sexual assault against Asian immigrant women in massage parlors. Using existing interview data to examine the relationship between these factors and sexual assault (Chin et ...


Islamic Terrorism In The United States – The Association Of Religious Fundamentalism With Social Isolation & Paths Leading To Extreme Violence Through Processes Of Radicalization., Shay Shiran 2018 Shay Shiran

Islamic Terrorism In The United States – The Association Of Religious Fundamentalism With Social Isolation & Paths Leading To Extreme Violence Through Processes Of Radicalization., Shay Shiran

Student Theses

This exploratory study focuses on identifying motivations for religious terrorism and Islamic terrorism in the United States in particular. Terrorism is a crime of extreme violence with the end purpose of political influence. This crime is challenging to encounter for its multi-faced characteristics, the unusual motivations of its actors, and their semi-militant conduct. The hypothesis of this study asserts that religious terrorists are radicalized by passing from fundamental to extreme devout agendas, caused by isolation from the dominant society, and resulted in high potential to impose those agendas by extreme violence. Under the theoretical framework of subculture in criminology, this ...


Bait Questions As Source Of Misinformation In Police Interviews: Does Race Or Age Of The Suspect Increase Jurors' Memory Errors?, Matilde Ascheri 2018 CUNY John Jay College

Bait Questions As Source Of Misinformation In Police Interviews: Does Race Or Age Of The Suspect Increase Jurors' Memory Errors?, Matilde Ascheri

Student Theses

Bait questions—hypothetical questions about evidence, often used by detectives during interrogations—can activate the misinformation effect and alter jurors’ perceptions of the evidence of a case. Here, we were interested in investigating whether mock jurors’ implicit biases could amplify the magnitude of the misinformation effect. We accomplished this by manipulating the age and race of the suspect being interrogated. As an extension of Luke et al. (2017), we had participants read a police report describing evidence found at a crime scene, then read a transcript of a police interrogation where the detective used bait questions to introduce new evidence ...


Does Mental Illness Affect Societal Perception Of Sex Offenders?, Keely A. Bartram 2018 CUNY John Jay College

Does Mental Illness Affect Societal Perception Of Sex Offenders?, Keely A. Bartram

Student Theses

Although mental illness is common in the sex offender population, it has never been examined how evidence of such may influence societal perception. In comparison to the non-sex offender population, it was hypothesized that participants would consider mental illness less mitigating for sex offenders, would be less likely to support the mental health treatment of sex offenders while incarcerated, and would consider certain mental illnesses (schizophrenia and substance abuse disorders) as particularly aggravating for this group of offenders. Respondents were asked to read a short vignette and then respond to a series of questions about culpability, sentencing decisions, and mental ...


Understanding The Nexus Between Cryptocurrencies And Transnational Crime Operations, Sarah Durrant 2018 CUNY John Jay College

Understanding The Nexus Between Cryptocurrencies And Transnational Crime Operations, Sarah Durrant

Student Theses

Cryptocurrencies are private, decentralized currencies that operate via the Internet and have attracted criminals because of the convenience and virtual anonymity they offer. While there are many descriptive accounts of cryptocurrencies and their use both in legal and illegal operations, to date there is no empirical research to understand the use of cryptocurrencies in transnational crime operations, specifically why transnational criminals may find them attractive to either conduct business or to launder their illicit proceeds. Using the environmental criminological framework, this study analyzed 100 cases of cryptocurrency use in transnational crime activities identified through various secondary sources, including online newspaper ...


Badges And Brothels: Police Officers’ Attitudes Toward Prostitution, Cody Jorgensen 2018 Boise State University

Badges And Brothels: Police Officers’ Attitudes Toward Prostitution, Cody Jorgensen

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications and Presentations

There is a gap in the literature regarding police officers’ attitudes about vice, specifically prostitution. Scholars should study this topic because police are interacting with drug dealers and drug users, prostitutes, and Johns, and gamblers and bookies regularly. Additionally, how police perceive prostitution is likely to influence how they enforce laws prohibiting it. This paper presents survey items measuring police officers’ attitudes about prostitution related offenses and examines the relationships between officers’ attitudes toward prostitution and their personal as well as professional characteristics. Responding officers displayed fairly serious and punitive attitudes toward prostitution offenses. Respondents believed that prostitution was a ...


Imagination Or Proof: The Use Of Imagery And False Evidence In Eliciting Internalized False Confessions, Kendall McMillen 2018 CUNY John Jay College

Imagination Or Proof: The Use Of Imagery And False Evidence In Eliciting Internalized False Confessions, Kendall Mcmillen

Student Theses

Rates of internalized false confessions has become increasingly salient through the use of DNA evidence in exonerating those who have been wrongfully convicted. False confessions also carry heavy legal consequences, and internalized false confessions (Appleby & Kassin, 2016; Kassin & Neumann, 1997; Kassin & Wrightsman, 1980), where the individual actually believes they committed a crime, may be especially damning (Kassin S., 2007). The presentation of false evidence has been found to be extremely influential in eliciting a false confession (Horselenberg, Merckelbach, & Josephs, 2003; Kassin & Kiechel, 1996; Nash & Wade, 2009), as well as imagery (Garry, Manning, Loftus, & Sherman, 1996; Garry & Wade, 2005; Nash, Wade, & Lindsay, 2009; Shaw & Porter, 2015), but they have not been directly compared in previous literature. This was an exploratory study replicating the gambling paradigm created by Nash and Wade (2008), aimed at examining and directly comparing the effects of different forms of false evidence (i.e., shown-doctored video footage, told-doctored video footage, shown-eyewitness, told-eyewitness) and imagery, and their rates in ...


Social Work Students’ Attitudes And Beliefs About Mental Health Courts, Nicholas Bettosini, Conrad Paul Akins-Johnson 2018 California State University, San Bernardino

Social Work Students’ Attitudes And Beliefs About Mental Health Courts, Nicholas Bettosini, Conrad Paul Akins-Johnson

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Mental Health Courts (MHCs) are a diversion program for mentally ill offenders in lieu of incarceration. The Substance Abuse and Mental Services Administration (SAMHSA) developed these specialized court programs in the 1990’s to assist mentally ill offenders in overcoming barriers to treatment. While new laws have begun to change the way mentally ill offenders are viewed from a law enforcement standpoint, social workers’ attitudes and beliefs about these programs have not been studied. This quantitative study’s purpose was to examine Master of Social Work (MSW) Graduate students’ attitudes and beliefs of mentally ill offenders and MHCs. Social work ...


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