Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Criminology and Criminal Justice Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

9062 Full-Text Articles 5458 Authors 4751743 Downloads 138 Institutions

All Articles in Criminology and Criminal Justice

Faceted Search

9062 full-text articles. Page 1 of 82.

The Legitimacy Of Global Legal Governance: Institutional Power And Human Rights Bias In International Criminal Justice, Martin J. Burke 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Legitimacy Of Global Legal Governance: Institutional Power And Human Rights Bias In International Criminal Justice, Martin J. Burke

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

As global legal governance institutions exercise increasing coercive power, including through the prosecution and incarceration of individuals, such institutions require greater legitimacy. An essential but often overlooked source is the right of the accused in mass-atrocity trials to effective legal protection, which constitutes a “legal legitimacy” based on liberal norms of criminal justice. The two most important sources of legal legitimacy are: “legality,” that is, the non-retroactive enforcement of crimes and punishment; and “defense parity,” institutional and procedural guarantees of substantive equality between the defense and prosecution before and during trial. The dissertation argues that the implementation of defendant rights ...


Exploring Mental Health In Justice Involved Youth: Relevance For Policy And Practice, Angelina Sarah MacLellan 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Exploring Mental Health In Justice Involved Youth: Relevance For Policy And Practice, Angelina Sarah Maclellan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Over the past two decades, awareness of the prevalence of mental health problems in young offenders (ages 12 to 17 years) has grown, with estimates suggesting significantly higher rates compared to the general population. While experiencing poverty does not cause crime, recent research drawing from the Social Psychology of Crime suggests that individuals who experience poverty tend to live in adverse social environments, which can facilitate exposure to modeling and/or reinforcement that is related to antisocial behaviour. In the present study, archival data were drawn from 281 young offenders’ files from an urban-based court clinic to examine how the ...


Mapping American Criminal Law An Exploration Of The Diversity Among The States: Ch. 20 Statutory Rape, Paul H. Robinson, Tyler Scot Williams 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Mapping American Criminal Law An Exploration Of The Diversity Among The States: Ch. 20 Statutory Rape, Paul H. Robinson, Tyler Scot Williams

Faculty Scholarship

It is common for criminal law scholars from outside the United States to discuss the “American rule” and compare it to the rule of other countries. As this volume makes clear, however, there is no such thing as an “American rule.” Because each of the states, plus the District of Columbia and the federal system, have their own criminal law, there are fifty-two American criminal codes.

American criminal law scholars know this, of course, but they too commonly speak of the “general rule” as if it reflects some consensus or near consensus position among the states. But the truth is ...


Mapping American Criminal Law An Exploration Of The Diversity Among The States: Ch. 5 Felony-Murder Rule, Paul H. Robinson, Tyler Scot Williams 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Mapping American Criminal Law An Exploration Of The Diversity Among The States: Ch. 5 Felony-Murder Rule, Paul H. Robinson, Tyler Scot Williams

Faculty Scholarship

It is common for criminal law scholars from outside the United States to discuss the “American rule” and compare it to the rule of other countries. As this volume makes clear, however, there is no such thing as an “American rule.” Because each of the states, plus the District of Columbia and the federal system, have their own criminal law, there are fifty-two American criminal codes.

American criminal law scholars know this, of course, but they too commonly speak of the “general rule” as if it reflects some consensus or near consensus position among the states. But the truth is ...


Mapping American Criminal Law An Exploration Of The Diversity Among The States: Ch. 14 Insanity Defense, Paul H. Robinson, Tyler Scot Williams 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Mapping American Criminal Law An Exploration Of The Diversity Among The States: Ch. 14 Insanity Defense, Paul H. Robinson, Tyler Scot Williams

Faculty Scholarship

It is common for criminal law scholars from outside the United States to discuss the “American rule” and compare it to the rule of other countries. As this volume makes clear, however, there is no such thing as an “American rule.” Because each of the states, plus the District of Columbia and the federal system, have their own criminal law, there are fifty-two American criminal codes.

American criminal law scholars know this, of course, but they too commonly speak of the “general rule” as if it reflects some consensus or near consensus position among the states. But the truth is ...


Strict Liability's Criminogenic Effect, Paul H. Robinson 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Strict Liability's Criminogenic Effect, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship

It is easy to understand the apparent appeal of strict liability to policymakers and legal reformers seeking to reduce crime: if the criminal law can do away with its traditional culpability requirement, it can increase the likelihood of conviction and punishment of those who engage in prohibited conduct or bring about prohibited harm or evil. And such an increase in punishment rate can enhance the crime-control effectiveness of a system built upon general deterrence or incapacitation of the dangerous. Similar arguments support the use of criminal liability for regulatory offenses. Greater punishment rates suggest greater compliance.

But this analysis fails ...


Tradition And Culture In Africa: Practices That Facilitate Trafficking Of Women And Children, Norah Hashim Msuya 2017 Mzumbe University

Tradition And Culture In Africa: Practices That Facilitate Trafficking Of Women And Children, Norah Hashim Msuya

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Many states in Africa have adopted legislative, administrative and institutional measures to combat trafficking in human beings. These measures include, among other things, the formulation and implementation of both national and regional action plans by African states to provide for comprehensive and coordinated interventions. Many African countries have also enacted an anti-trafficking legislation at the country level. Despite these measures, African women and children have been trafficked annually worldwide for purposes of forced labor, sexual exploitation, and domestic servitude. Additionally, women and children are trafficked within their countries from rural to urban areas. Misconception and abuse of African tradition and ...


Contemporary Soviet Criminal Law: An Analysis Of The General Principles And Major Institutions Of Post-1958 Soviet Criminal Law, Chris Osakwe 2016 Tulane University School of Law

Contemporary Soviet Criminal Law: An Analysis Of The General Principles And Major Institutions Of Post-1958 Soviet Criminal Law, Chris Osakwe

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Teaching Subjectively: Interdisciplinary Insights, Stacy Douglas, Betina Kuzmarov, Karen Schwartz, Mira Sucharov, Sarah L. Todd 2016 Carleton University

Teaching Subjectively: Interdisciplinary Insights, Stacy Douglas, Betina Kuzmarov, Karen Schwartz, Mira Sucharov, Sarah L. Todd

The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

This article of linked, short essays reflecting on the experiences of five female scholars across three disciplines — law, social work and political science - draws upon Britzman’s (1991) notion of the “dialogic discourse” to explore how these professors’ sense of self is constituted through interplay with colleagues and their perceptions of students within the classroom. The authors explore the teacher/learner relationship as a dialogue within which learners and educators shape each other as they come to understand how and what they know. What the collection makes explicit is what is often only implicit, that the ways in which professors ...


Police Education And Training: A Comparative Analysis Of Law Enforcement Preparation In The United States And Canada., Citlali Alexandra Déverge 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Police Education And Training: A Comparative Analysis Of Law Enforcement Preparation In The United States And Canada., Citlali Alexandra Déverge

Master's Theses

Police academy training for newly hired officers varies across locations and regions in regard to both training process and training content. The needs and demands of modern-day societies have evolved, and it is very important for police training academies to keep up with the practice of the police profession. Higher education adds value to police training as it reinforces the development of critical thinking skills and the necessary values needed to face the needs and demands of society, particularly in terms of accountability, professionalism, and legitimacy. This research presents a case study of two police training academies located in a ...


Testing Specific Deterrence In The National Basketball Association: An Application Of Beccaria's Theory Of Deterrence, Michael McCutcheon 2016 East Tennessee State University

Testing Specific Deterrence In The National Basketball Association: An Application Of Beccaria's Theory Of Deterrence, Michael Mccutcheon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

While the concept of deterrence has been applied to punishment in America’s criminal justice system, the empirical data is mixed on whether is effectively deters crime. This lack of consensus may be a result of missing elements from deterrence theory; namely, that punishment is often neither swift nor certain. Similar to the criminal justice system, professional sports leagues aim to control behavior of athletes by having guidelines that, when violated, result in punishment. However, these punishments are delivered much quicker and there is a higher level of certainty. The current study examines specific deterrence in the National Basketball Association ...


Policing Postsecondary Education: University Police Legitimacy And Fear Of Crime On Campus, Christina N. Barker 2016 East Tennessee State University

Policing Postsecondary Education: University Police Legitimacy And Fear Of Crime On Campus, Christina N. Barker

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Assessing the perceptions that students have of the university police officers charged with ensuring student safety is important to maintaining the overall safety of the campus. The current study sought to assess the relationship between student perceptions of university police and the fear of crime felt by students while on campus. Data collection was conducted through a survey methodology using a convenient sample of students in which a self-report survey was sent to the university email addresses of all students enrolled in a southeastern university (n=260). Through the employment of a scale developed to assess the perceptions of university ...


Crossing Borders: Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations Influence On Interstate Gang Structure, Stacey Michelle Goldberg 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

Crossing Borders: Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations Influence On Interstate Gang Structure, Stacey Michelle Goldberg

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Not only has gang membership been expanding, but the formation of cooperative ties with Mexican drug trafficking organizations (MDTOs) has been increasing as well. Collaborative relationships with MDTOs appear to be the driving force behind the continuing gang expansion and its subsequent effects. Using social network analysis, this study examines the linkage between MDTOs and American-based gang activity and the potential influence that MDTOs may have in U.S. drug market through their associations with American street gangs. Findings show the MDTOs to be extensively linked to each other by their affiliations with U.S. gangs, and a high level ...


"I Can Haz Applicants": An Analysis Of Police Recruitment And Marketing Through Social Media, Kelly Lee Helldorfer 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

"I Can Haz Applicants": An Analysis Of Police Recruitment And Marketing Through Social Media, Kelly Lee Helldorfer

Master's Theses

In recent decades, the Internet has flourished with the advancement of social media: apps, blogs, social networking, multimedia sources, podcasts, and more. Consequently, the Millennial Generation has grown up immersed in both the Internet and social media networks differently than previous generations. Due to the rapid expansion of social media outlets and their effects on future employees, police departments must consider their agency “brand” and how effectively they market their departments to this generation for the purpose of recruitment both on the Internet and with social media platforms.

This research analysis employed a netnography to examine 500 police websites and ...


Punishing Genocide: A Comparative Empirical Analysis Of Sentencing Laws And Practices At The International Criminal Tribunal For Rwanda (Ictr), Rwandan Domestic Courts, And Gacaca Courts, Barbora Hola, Hollie Nyseth Brehm 2016 VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Punishing Genocide: A Comparative Empirical Analysis Of Sentencing Laws And Practices At The International Criminal Tribunal For Rwanda (Ictr), Rwandan Domestic Courts, And Gacaca Courts, Barbora Hola, Hollie Nyseth Brehm

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article compares sentencing of those convicted of participation in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. With over one million people facing trial, Rwanda constitutes the world’s most comprehensive case of criminal accountability after genocide and presents an important case study of punishing genocide. Criminal courts at three different levels— international, domestic, and local—sought justice in the aftermath of the violence. In order to compare punishment at each level, we analyze an unprecedented database of sentences given by the ICTR, the Rwandan domestic courts, and Rwanda’s Gacaca courts. The analysis demonstrates that sentencing varied across the three levels ...


The Inaugural Issue Of Dignity, Donna M. Hughes 2016 University of Rhode Island

The Inaugural Issue Of Dignity, Donna M. Hughes

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Delving Into The Heart Of Victimization Risk: Examining The Interactive Relationship Between Demographic Factors And Context, Amy Sheena Eggers 2016 University of South Florida

Delving Into The Heart Of Victimization Risk: Examining The Interactive Relationship Between Demographic Factors And Context, Amy Sheena Eggers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

My dissertation sought to expand the study of victimization by examining non-linear relationships across victim, offender, and offense characteristics within a routine activities theory framework. Moreover, my goals were to assess victimization risk using a more realistic approach through the implementation of a situational perspective approach and conjunctive analysis. Conjunctive analysis is an analytical with both quantitative and qualitative properties, which allowed for interpretations that were detail oriented and summative. Utilizing data from the National Crime Victimization Survey, several victim (e.g., demographic factors), offender (e.g., victim-offender relationship), and offense (contextual factors) characteristics were analyzed. Conjunctive analysis was estimated ...


The Guilty But Mentally Ill Verdict: Assessing The Impact Of Informing Jurors Of Dispositional Consequences, Erin Elizabeth Cotrone 2016 University of South Florida

The Guilty But Mentally Ill Verdict: Assessing The Impact Of Informing Jurors Of Dispositional Consequences, Erin Elizabeth Cotrone

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In response to public opposition to the insanity defense, the Guilty But Mentally Ill (GBMI) verdict was enacted with the intention of limiting the number of insanity acquittals and alleviating the public’s concerns. Prior research suggests, however, that many jurors are making verdict decisions with limited knowledge of the dispositional consequences of the GBMI and NGRI verdicts. Further, jurors may erroneously assume that the GBMI verdict is a compromise between a NGRI and guilty verdict, which mitigates punishment. In reality, the dispositional consequences of a GBMI verdict are equivalent to or more restrictive than a guilty verdict. The current ...


Perceived Risk Of Aids Among Prisoners Following Educational Intervention, Angela D. Crews, Randy Martin 2016 Marshall University

Perceived Risk Of Aids Among Prisoners Following Educational Intervention, Angela D. Crews, Randy Martin

Randy Martin

A pre/post quasi-experimental design was used to assess the impact of one state's AIDS education program on male (N = 75) and female (N= 65) inmates' perceived risk of HIV infection on the street and in prison. Post-test only comparison groups of male and female inmates were evaluated to control for the threat of testing. T-tests for paired samples were used to determine whether any significant changes occurred within groups (male & female), and t-tests for independent samples were used between groups to determine whether males or females experienced the greatest magnitude of change. Multiple regression analyses explored the relationships ...


Predictors Of Accessing Substance Abuse Services Among Individuals With Mental Disorders Released From Correctional Custody, Stephanie Hartwell, Xiaogang Deng, William Fisher, Julianne Siegfriedt, Kristen Roy-Bujnowski, Craig Johnson, Carl Fulwiler 2016 University of Massachusetts Boston

Predictors Of Accessing Substance Abuse Services Among Individuals With Mental Disorders Released From Correctional Custody, Stephanie Hartwell, Xiaogang Deng, William Fisher, Julianne Siegfriedt, Kristen Roy-Bujnowski, Craig Johnson, Carl Fulwiler

Stephanie W. Hartwell

Objective

In the context of an increasing correctional population and corresponding rates of mental illness and substance abuse among this population, this study focuses on describing the predictors of substance abuse service utilization for ex-inmates with dual disorders. Our aim is to assess the likelihood and characteristics of ex-inmates with mental disorders who access substance abuse treatment services within two years of correctional release.

Methods

Using merged administrative data on all ex-inmates with open mental health cases released from Massachusetts Department of Corrections and two County Houses of Corrections from 2007 to 2009 (N=2,280) and substance abuse treatment ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress