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Islamic Terrorism In The United States – The Association Of Religious Fundamentalism With Social Isolation & Paths Leading To Extreme Violence Through Processes Of Radicalization., Shay Shiran 2018 Shay Shiran

Islamic Terrorism In The United States – The Association Of Religious Fundamentalism With Social Isolation & Paths Leading To Extreme Violence Through Processes Of Radicalization., Shay Shiran

Student Theses

This exploratory study focuses on identifying motivations for religious terrorism and Islamic terrorism in the United States in particular. Terrorism is a crime of extreme violence with the end purpose of political influence. This crime is challenging to encounter for its multi-faced characteristics, the unusual motivations of its actors, and their semi-militant conduct. The hypothesis of this study asserts that religious terrorists are radicalized by passing from fundamental to extreme devout agendas, caused by isolation from the dominant society, and resulted in high potential to impose those agendas by extreme violence. Under the theoretical framework of subculture in criminology, this ...


Bait Questions As Source Of Misinformation In Police Interviews: Does Race Or Age Of The Suspect Increase Jurors' Memory Errors?, Matilde Ascheri 2018 CUNY John Jay College

Bait Questions As Source Of Misinformation In Police Interviews: Does Race Or Age Of The Suspect Increase Jurors' Memory Errors?, Matilde Ascheri

Student Theses

Bait questions—hypothetical questions about evidence, often used by detectives during interrogations—can activate the misinformation effect and alter jurors’ perceptions of the evidence of a case. Here, we were interested in investigating whether mock jurors’ implicit biases could amplify the magnitude of the misinformation effect. We accomplished this by manipulating the age and race of the suspect being interrogated. As an extension of Luke et al. (2017), we had participants read a police report describing evidence found at a crime scene, then read a transcript of a police interrogation where the detective used bait questions to introduce new evidence ...


Can We Learn From Hackers To Protect Victims?, Nicholas Marshall Chavez 2018 California State University – San Bernardino

Can We Learn From Hackers To Protect Victims?, Nicholas Marshall Chavez

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This project examines the protection methods suggested by hackers to guard against online victimization through the lens of Situation Crime Prevention. Data were collected from 85 webpages representing three categories of electronic communications: forums, blogs, and fan pages. The goal of this project was to identify which of the 25 opportunity reduction techniques the hacking community recommend most often, as well as, what level of expertise was associated with the suggested security measures. Results indicate that the technique most recommended by the hacking community was to remove targets with 27% of the total codings. From the results three themes were ...


Social Work Students’ Attitudes And Beliefs About Mental Health Courts, Nicholas Bettosini, Conrad Paul Akins-Johnson 2018 California State University, San Bernardino

Social Work Students’ Attitudes And Beliefs About Mental Health Courts, Nicholas Bettosini, Conrad Paul Akins-Johnson

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Mental Health Courts (MHCs) are a diversion program for mentally ill offenders in lieu of incarceration. The Substance Abuse and Mental Services Administration (SAMHSA) developed these specialized court programs in the 1990’s to assist mentally ill offenders in overcoming barriers to treatment. While new laws have begun to change the way mentally ill offenders are viewed from a law enforcement standpoint, social workers’ attitudes and beliefs about these programs have not been studied. This quantitative study’s purpose was to examine Master of Social Work (MSW) Graduate students’ attitudes and beliefs of mentally ill offenders and MHCs. Social work ...


Does Mental Illness Affect Societal Perception Of Sex Offenders?, Keely A. Bartram 2018 CUNY John Jay College

Does Mental Illness Affect Societal Perception Of Sex Offenders?, Keely A. Bartram

Student Theses

Although mental illness is common in the sex offender population, it has never been examined how evidence of such may influence societal perception. In comparison to the non-sex offender population, it was hypothesized that participants would consider mental illness less mitigating for sex offenders, would be less likely to support the mental health treatment of sex offenders while incarcerated, and would consider certain mental illnesses (schizophrenia and substance abuse disorders) as particularly aggravating for this group of offenders. Respondents were asked to read a short vignette and then respond to a series of questions about culpability, sentencing decisions, and mental ...


Understanding The Nexus Between Cryptocurrencies And Transnational Crime Operations, Sarah Durrant 2018 CUNY John Jay College

Understanding The Nexus Between Cryptocurrencies And Transnational Crime Operations, Sarah Durrant

Student Theses

Cryptocurrencies are private, decentralized currencies that operate via the Internet and have attracted criminals because of the convenience and virtual anonymity they offer. While there are many descriptive accounts of cryptocurrencies and their use both in legal and illegal operations, to date there is no empirical research to understand the use of cryptocurrencies in transnational crime operations, specifically why transnational criminals may find them attractive to either conduct business or to launder their illicit proceeds. Using the environmental criminological framework, this study analyzed 100 cases of cryptocurrency use in transnational crime activities identified through various secondary sources, including online newspaper ...


Volume 1, Issue 2, 2018 James Madison University

Volume 1, Issue 2

International Journal on Responsibility

Contents:

1 – 5 Howard Zehr, Restorative Justice and the Gandhian Tradition.

6 – 34 Richard E. Rubenstein, Responsibility for Peacemaking in the Context of Structural Violence.

35 – 90 Marc Pufong, Terror, Insecurity, State Responsibility and Challenges: Yesterday and Today?

91 – 108 Ron Kraybill, Responsibility, Community and Conflict Resolution in an Age of Polarization.

109 – 136 John Fairfield, Beyond non-violence to courtship.

139 Call for papers for forthcoming issues of the International Journal on Responsibility and instructions for authors.


Identity, Discourse, And Rehabilitation In Parole Hearings In The United States, Danielle Lavin-Loucks, Kristin M. Levin 2018 Valparaiso University

Identity, Discourse, And Rehabilitation In Parole Hearings In The United States, Danielle Lavin-Loucks, Kristin M. Levin

Journal of Prison Education and Reentry

Research on parole in the United States has primarily followed a deterministic approach, favoring an examination of variables contributing to release. However, a great deal of prior research neglects a central aspect of the parole process: mainly the hearing. Adopting an ethnographically informed conversation analytic approach, this article addresses one tactic offenders utilize to appeal to a state parole board for release– claiming rehabilitated status. Offenders appealing for parole attempt to establish, in a performative space, their identity as rehabilitated. More globally, this article addresses how individual manage, assert, and negotiate identity in the course of interaction. The achievement of ...


The Conduits And Barriers To Reentry For Formerly Incarcerated Individuals In San Bernardino, Annika Anderson, Noe J. Nava, Patricia Cortez 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Conduits And Barriers To Reentry For Formerly Incarcerated Individuals In San Bernardino, Annika Anderson, Noe J. Nava, Patricia Cortez

Journal of Prison Education and Reentry

Numerous scholars have noted that the majority of prisoners will be reincarcerated within three years of their release. However, while there has been extensive research on recidivism, much less attention has been paid to the reentry process in the sociological and criminological literature. Given the high rates of former prisoners reentering society with struggles that may affect their friends, family members, and communities, policymakers and practitioners should understand the successful methods for their reintegration. In this paper, we explore the conduits and barriers to reentry for a sample of San Bernardino county callers using United Way’s 211 Reentry Call ...


A Brief Summary And Critique Of Criminal Liability Rules For Intoxicated Conduct, Paul H. Robinson 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School

A Brief Summary And Critique Of Criminal Liability Rules For Intoxicated Conduct, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship

This essay provides an overview of the legal issues relating to intoxication, including the effect of voluntary intoxication in imputing to an offender a required offense culpable state of mind that he may not actually have had at the time of the offense; the effect of involuntary intoxication in providing a defense by negating a required offense culpability element or by satisfying the conditions of a general excuse; the legal effect of alcoholism or addiction in rendering intoxication involuntary; and the limitation on using alcoholism or addiction in this way if the offender can be judged to be reasonably responsible ...


Mafia And Globalization: The Consequences Of Economic Integration Without Legal Symmetry, Benjamin White 2018 University of San Diego

Mafia And Globalization: The Consequences Of Economic Integration Without Legal Symmetry, Benjamin White

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This project will examine the relationship between mafia and globalization through the lenses of two case studies, focusing on the Calabrian criminal organization known as ‘Ndrangheta. The first case study revolves around the Port of Gioia Tauro, which serves as the drug trafficking hub of ‘Ndrangheta and is emblematic of the overall trends in global commercial traffic and security deficits. The purpose of this case study is to demonstrate how ‘Ndrangheta exploits the advanced economic integration that began in the 1990s and continues to exist in the gap between frantic commercial activity and limited government oversight. This case study begins ...


Violence In Prostitution, Serena Maszak 2018 CUNY John Jay College

Violence In Prostitution, Serena Maszak

Student Theses

It is estimated that the majority of prostitutes are victims of violence, including rape and homicide. Some research has suggested that the clients of sex workers perpetrate most of these acts of violence. While several qualitative studies have examined specific incidents of violence, the prevalence and causes of violence in prostitution remain largely unaddressed by the existing literature. This study compares attitudes towards sexual violence and prostitution between men who have purchased sexual services and those who have not. Participants were 170 men recruited online, with 35 (20.6%) participants self-identifying as those who had previously purchased sex. Overall, a ...


The Impacts Of Green Spaces On Crime In New York City, Matthew Edward Iannone Jr. 2018 Fordham University

The Impacts Of Green Spaces On Crime In New York City, Matthew Edward Iannone Jr.

Student Theses 2015-Present

From the early 1960s through the mid-1990s, crime in New York City ran rampant. With a gradually dwindling police during this time, a high unemployment rate, and an rapidly increasing metropolitan population, crime peaked in the early 1990s, with the murder rate hitting a record-high of 2,245 in 1990. When Mayor Rudy Giuliani took office in 1994 and appoint Bill Bratton as the NYPD police commissioner, these rates immediately plunged. Numerous factors may have contributed to this sudden decline in crime: the police force grew significantly through the 1990s, more criminals were placed and held in prison, and the ...


The Effects Of Media Exposure On Perceptions Of Residence Restrictions, Stephanie Simeone 2018 CUNY John Jay College

The Effects Of Media Exposure On Perceptions Of Residence Restrictions, Stephanie Simeone

Student Theses

Public perceptions impact the formation of sex offender policy, yet much of what the public knows about sex crimes is based in stereotypical narratives provided by the media. The present study investigated the effects of media exposure on perceptions of sexual offending and the efficacy of residence restrictions. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three media exposure groups and then asked about their opinions about sexual offending and residence restrictions. Results indicated that participants who viewed sensationalized media reports were more likely than individuals who viewed informed media and no media to endorse more stereotypical views of individuals convicted ...


Police Perceptions On False Accusations Of Sexual Assault, Danielle Ostrander 2018 East Tennessee State University

Police Perceptions On False Accusations Of Sexual Assault, Danielle Ostrander

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to expand current literature regarding police officers’ perceptions on false accusations of sexual assault; specifically, focusing on perceptions of the frequency of false accusations, rape myths and behavior displayed by women reporting sexual assault. Police officers’ perceptions on false accusations of sexual assault were examined by administering a 21-question survey consisting of close-ended and open-ended questions. The survey included questions about police perceptions, false accusations, rape myths, training, and behaviors of women reporting sexual assault. The sample consisted of 40 sworn law enforcement officers from different municipal police departments in Tennessee. The results showed ...


The American And Swedish Criminal Justice System: A Comparative Study, Josefin Hedstrom 2018 East Tennessee State University

The American And Swedish Criminal Justice System: A Comparative Study, Josefin Hedstrom

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hosting 22 percent of the world’s prison population, the United States is the number one country in the world regarding incarceration rates where 1 in 109 adults are locked up behinds bars and about two-thirds of offenders will recidivate within three years of their release (Durose, Coope, & Snyder, 2014; Kaeble, Glaze, Tsoutis, & Minton, 2016; U.S. Census Bureau, 2015; Walmsley, 2013). Sweden has one of the lowest recidivism and incarceration rates in the world where only 29 percent reoffend and 1 in 2,278 of their total population is behind bars (Kriminalvården, 2017; The World Bank, 2016). The purpose of this study is ...


Is Corporal Punishment The Best Punishment? A Millennial Perspective, Zachary Rush 2018 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Is Corporal Punishment The Best Punishment? A Millennial Perspective, Zachary Rush

Honors Theses

Corporal punishment, defined as “physical force resulting in pain or discomfort, but not significant injury…meant to alter a child’s unfavorable behavioral patterns,” remains a much debated topic of conversation in the United States (Straus & Donnelly, 2001, p. 4). Straus and Stewart (1999) reported that 94% of parents have spanked their children by the time of their fifth birthday. Moreover, the same study identified that 52% of parents continued to employ corporal punishment when their children were teenagers (twelve to thirteen years old) and 20% up until their children were seventeen years of age. However, spanking and similar forms of discipline previously employed in the school setting have, through policy revisions, been excluded, and now some scholars are calling for the eradication of such punishment in the home (Cuddy & Reeves, 2014). This is primarily due to various studies asserting that corporal punishment produces harmful effects including, but not limited to, depression, poor school performance, intensification of introversion and aggression, and cognitive injury (Berlin et al., 2009; Gershoff, 2002; Gershoff et al., 2010; Gershoff & Grogan-Kaylor, 2016; Gunnoe & Mariner, 1997; Kandel, 1990; Pagani et al., 2004; Simons, Simons, & Su, 2013; Straus & Paschall, 2009). The existing literature on perceptions of corporal punishment is scant and many studies of corporal punishment more generally are quite dated. In order to add to this body of literature, the current study explores millennials’ perceptions of corporal punishment in order to determine whether this ...


Factors Affecting The Longevity Of Individual Terrorists, Madeline Brice 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Factors Affecting The Longevity Of Individual Terrorists, Madeline Brice

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to examine factors that affect the longevity of individual terrorists. Previous studies on terrorist group longevity have focused on the decisions terrorist groups have made rather than focusing on factors that help individuals evade capture. Literature also suggests that terrorists that manage to stay active may be able to use this as a valuable recruiting tool. This project examines six different relationships with longevity, including Attorney General (AG) Guidelines, demographics, ideology, level of participation, number of activities, and sophistication of attack. To examine these relationships, data will be used from the American Terrorism Study ...


Media Framing Of Wrongful Convictions, Eza B. Zakirova 2018 CUNY John Jay College

Media Framing Of Wrongful Convictions, Eza B. Zakirova

Student Theses

Wrongful convictions are a major issue hindering the effectiveness and legitimacy of the criminal justice system. The topic has become a focus of media attention. Among the issues raised are the contributing factors to wrongful convictions, such as false confessions, false or misleading forensic evidence, official misconduct, mistaken witness identification, and perjury or false accusations. The following study examines how media frames these contributing factors of wrongful convictions using Loseke's social constructionist framework, which is useful for deconstructing the issue’s diagnostic, motivational and prognostic frames -- that is, how media consumers assess the causes, solutions, and the reasons to ...


Revisiting Attitudes Toward The Police: The Impact Of Law Enforcement Simulations And Education On College Students, Selye Lee 2018 Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Revisiting Attitudes Toward The Police: The Impact Of Law Enforcement Simulations And Education On College Students, Selye Lee

Theses and Dissertations (All)

Understanding the public’s attitudes toward the police has been at the forefront of recent reform efforts because police organizations face growing governmental and public demands to deal with allegations of discrimination against minorities and of police misconduct. Increasing public confidence in law enforcement and enhancing relations between the police and the public has garnered the attention of criminal justice researchers and practitioners. The current study aims to extend our understanding of attitudes toward the police by examining how college students perceive the police and their services. Numerous variables have been identified from reviewing prior research as major predictors of ...


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