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Palladium Catalyzed Cascade Reaction With N-Tosylhydrazones, Michelle Pyz, Monique Uppal 2017 Long Island University

Palladium Catalyzed Cascade Reaction With N-Tosylhydrazones, Michelle Pyz, Monique Uppal

Post & Beyond

Virtually all of the top pharmaceuticals sold today require the use of organic

synthesis, the development of new strategies to construct complex molecules

from readily synthesized starting materials is essential to the field

of organic chemistry and drug design. In pharmaceutical design there is a

continuing trend toward precise synthetic operations because single atoms

and single functional groups often make the difference between benefit and

harm. The overarching goal of this research project is to develop a novel,

precise, and powerful method for the construction of carbon-carbon bonds.

In particular, our research focuses on using palladium metal as catalyst in ...


Development Of Supported Zn-Cu Bimetallic And Zn-Cu-Mo Trimetallic Heterogeneous Catalysts For Dry Reforming Of Co2 With Methane, Erin Gordon 2017 Long Island University

Development Of Supported Zn-Cu Bimetallic And Zn-Cu-Mo Trimetallic Heterogeneous Catalysts For Dry Reforming Of Co2 With Methane, Erin Gordon

Post & Beyond

Development of Supported Zn-Cu Bimetallic and Zn-Cu-Mo Trimetallic

Heterogeneous Catalysts for Dry Reforming of CO2 with Methane

Global warming caused by greenhouse gas emission has been becoming

more of an issue as the years progress. CO2 and methane are two major

greenhouse gas and methane is a major component of the aboundant natural

gas. Combinng CO2 and CH4 in a single process to produce value added

chemicals is very desirable. The primary objective of this study is to develope

novel Zn based catalysts to enhance the reaction of CO2 with CH4. The

heterogeneous Zn-based bimetallic and ...


Forensic Linguist Tej Bhatia On The Hunt For The Unabomber, Tej K. Bhatia 2017 Syracuse University

Forensic Linguist Tej Bhatia On The Hunt For The Unabomber, Tej K. Bhatia

Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics

From article: [Editor’s note: Discovery Channel’s new 8-part series MANHUNT: UNABOMBER is about the FBI investigator Jim Fitzgerald who identified the Unabomber as Ted Kaczynski based on his writings–pioneering the use of what is now called forensic linguistics. The series stars Sam Worthington and Paul Bettany, and also features Chris Noth, Elizabeth Reaser, and Brian F. O’Byrne. Science & Film commissioned Syracuse University linguistics professor Dr. Tej Bhatia to write about the case. The series is available via Netflix and Amazon.]


An Overview Of The Usage Of Default Passwords, Brandon Knierem, Xiaolu Zhang, Philip Levine, Frank Breitinger, Ibrahim Baggili 2017 University of New Haven

An Overview Of The Usage Of Default Passwords, Brandon Knierem, Xiaolu Zhang, Philip Levine, Frank Breitinger, Ibrahim Baggili

Electrical & Computer Engineering and Computer Science Faculty Publications

The recent Mirai botnet attack demonstrated the danger of using default passwords and showed it is still a major problem. In this study we investigated several common applications and their password policies. Specifically, we analyzed if these applications: (1) have default passwords or (2) allow the user to set a weak password (i.e., they do not properly enforce a password policy). Our study shows that default passwords are still a significant problem: 61% of applications inspected initially used a default or blank password. When changing the password, 58% allowed a blank password, 35% allowed a weak password of 1 ...


Use Of Soil Chemical Analysis To Detect Commercial Wildlife Game Baits, Aaron Haines, Angela Fetterolf, Meta Griffin, Tristan Conrad, Steven Kennedy 2017 Millersville University of Pennsylvania

Use Of Soil Chemical Analysis To Detect Commercial Wildlife Game Baits, Aaron Haines, Angela Fetterolf, Meta Griffin, Tristan Conrad, Steven Kennedy

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Hunters and poachers often use commercially-available, nutrient-rich baits to attract wildlife game animals. We used atomic absorption spectroscopy and ion selective electrochemical analysis techniques to determine whether two common proprietary baits (Deer Cane and Acorn Rage) would leave detectable chemical signatures in soil (i.e., Na+, Cl-, and Ca+2). Our goal was to evaluate low cost tests which could be replicated by wildlife conservation officers in the field. To complete the evaluation we randomly placed two commercial baits on 3 sites in The Millersville University Biological Preserve in Millersville, PA. We collected soils samples from each site over the ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Protein And Peroxidase Blood Enhancement Reagents Following Laundering And Their Impact On Dna Recovery, Gabrielle Hartley, Claire L. Glynn 2017 University of New Haven

A Comparative Analysis Of Protein And Peroxidase Blood Enhancement Reagents Following Laundering And Their Impact On Dna Recovery, Gabrielle Hartley, Claire L. Glynn

Forensic Science Publications

Blood is a commonly encountered biological fluid in criminal investigations concerning a violent incident, and visual traces of the fluid on a suspect’s clothing can be diminished through laundering. This study aims to analyze the effects of laundering and the application of commercially available blood enhancement reagents commonly used to improve visualization of dilute bloodstains and their impact on DNA recovery. Enhancement reagents Hungarian Red, Coomassie Blue, Amido Black, luminol, Bluestar® Forensic Magnum, and aqueous Leuco Crystal Violet (LCV) were used to enhance human blood on cotton, polyester, denim, and wool following laundering. DNA was extracted from these samples ...


Tracking The Sexual Assault Kit Backlog, Kallie Crawford, Lyndsie Ferrara 2017 Duquesne University

Tracking The Sexual Assault Kit Backlog, Kallie Crawford, Lyndsie Ferrara

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

The backlog of untested sexual assault kits is a national problem. Numerous federal funding opportunities offer the forensic science and law enforcement communities valuable resources needed to test the kits, but issues still remain. The majority of resources are focused on the collection and testing of sexual assault kits, but the tracking of the kits has not been a primary focus. This research highlights improvements that can be made to better understand the current backlog and improve the future processing and tracking of kits. Given the lack of a universal evidence tracking database among agencies, tracking sexual assault kits seems ...


Forensic State Acquisition From Internet Of Things (Fsaiot): A General Framework And Practical Approach For Iot Forensics Through Iot Device State Acquisition, Christopher S. Meffert, Devon R. Clark, Ibrahim Baggili, Frank Breitinger 2017 University of New Haven

Forensic State Acquisition From Internet Of Things (Fsaiot): A General Framework And Practical Approach For Iot Forensics Through Iot Device State Acquisition, Christopher S. Meffert, Devon R. Clark, Ibrahim Baggili, Frank Breitinger

Electrical & Computer Engineering and Computer Science Faculty Publications

IoT device forensics is a difficult problem given that manufactured IoT devices are not standardized, many store little to no historical data, and are always connected; making them extremely volatile. The goal of this paper was to address these challenges by presenting a primary account for a general framework and practical approach we term Forensic State Acquisition from Internet of Things (FSAIoT). We argue that by leveraging the acquisition of the state of IoT devices (e.g. if an IoT lock is open or locked), it becomes possible to paint a clear picture of events that have occurred. To this ...


Digital Anti-Forensics: An Implementation And Examination, Stephanie Dachs 2017 CUNY John Jay College

Digital Anti-Forensics: An Implementation And Examination, Stephanie Dachs

Student Theses

The rise of computer use and technical adeptness by the general public in the last two decades are undeniable. With greater use comes a greater possibility for misuse, evidenced by today’s incredible number of crimes involving computers as well as the growth in severity from that of cyber hooliganism to cyber warfare. Although frequently utilized for privacy and security purposes, the vast range of anti-forensic techniques has contributed to the ability for hackers and criminals to obstruct computer forensic investigations.

Understanding how anti-forensics may alter important and relevant data on an electronic device will prove useful for the success ...


The Effect Of Fabric Type And Laundering Conditions On The Detection Of Semen Stains, Tyler G. Schlagetter, Claire L. Glynn 2017 University of New Haven

The Effect Of Fabric Type And Laundering Conditions On The Detection Of Semen Stains, Tyler G. Schlagetter, Claire L. Glynn

Forensic Science Publications

There has been little research into the effect of fabric type and different laundering conditions on the ability to detect semen stains on washed fabrics. This study aimed to investigate three potential factors affecting semen identification on laundered clothing: fabric type, water temperature during washing, and whether the stain was dry at the time of washing. Following laundering, semen stains on four fabric types (cotton, polyester, denim, and wool) were examined and tested with three common methods used to detect semen; screening with an alternate light source, acid phosphatase press test, and histological staining of spermatazoa. It was determined that ...


The Advanced Spectroscopic Analysis Of Organic Gunshot Residue And Explosives, Jennifer M. Leonard 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Advanced Spectroscopic Analysis Of Organic Gunshot Residue And Explosives, Jennifer M. Leonard

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

With the prevalence of shooting cases and terrorist attacks/or threats that plague the current state of the criminal justice system, it is of paramount importance to be able to detect, identify and interpret the presence of gunshot residue or explosives material. This concern is seen in law enforcement agencies and the media throughout the United States and abroad.

Currently, the typical method of analyzing gunshot residue in most crime laboratories serves to identify the inorganic constituents of the primer residue, namely lead, barium and antimony. However, it is possible that the organic matter from the propellant could provide different ...


Bayesian Approach To Toolmark Analysis, Antonio W. Del Valle 2017 CUNY John Jay College

Bayesian Approach To Toolmark Analysis, Antonio W. Del Valle

Student Theses

Statistical analysis of toolmarks using frequentist methods can be problematic for assorted reasons. Thus, in order to analyze toolmarks whilst avoiding these issues, a Bayesian approach is taken. Specifically for this thesis we discuss the computation of a specific Likelihood Ratio for toolmark comparisons. This Bayesian based approach involves using data already at hand in conjunction with a probability model in order to establish an estimate for its “value”, i.e. the “weight of evidence”. Making the calculations to obtain a Likelihood Ratio is very cumbersome and time consuming. Also many commercial software packages hide the process and underlying assumptions ...


Optimizing Collection Of Trace Biological Samples From Vehicle Headrests, Kevin Tang, Jesse Ramirez, John Bond, Jocelyn Weart, Yvette DeLaTorre, Ian Fitch, Steven Lee 2017 San Jose State University

Optimizing Collection Of Trace Biological Samples From Vehicle Headrests, Kevin Tang, Jesse Ramirez, John Bond, Jocelyn Weart, Yvette Delatorre, Ian Fitch, Steven Lee

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

Tape-lifting and swabbing are two methods commonly used for collecting biological samples in the United Kingdom and United States to investigate vehicle crimes. Determining the optimal collection method may lead to an increase in generating DNA profiles and crime-solving. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of adhesive tape and the double-swab collection methods for investigating vehicle crimes with possible touch DNA samples. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of tape-lifts and swabs on spiked common vehicle fabric materials. The efficiency of recovery between the two collection methods was performed using qPCR. The results from ...


Physical Match: Unique Fracture Patterns In Wooden Popsicle Sticks, Yiu Ming Sunny Lau 2017 San Jose State University

Physical Match: Unique Fracture Patterns In Wooden Popsicle Sticks, Yiu Ming Sunny Lau

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

Physical match (or physical fit) evidence was considered reliable in court for years, until the Daubert case, which required standardized scientific methodology on all forensic evidence. Physical matching faces the same criticism as other forms of physical evidence (specifically, that it lacks a scientific foundation). Physical matching is based on the idea that when an object is fractured, the shape of each fragment is unique and it is not possible to recreate a fragment that is identical to any other. In this study, fifty wooden popsicle sticks were broken in half, the pieces were mixed, and then reconstructed using physical ...


Minimum Education Requirements For Crime Scene Investigators, Araseli Saldivar 2017 San Jose State University

Minimum Education Requirements For Crime Scene Investigators, Araseli Saldivar

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

The initial crime scene investigation is critical since it is the primary step in the investigative process; therefore, individuals assigned to process a scene should be highly educated. Improperly educated (or uneducated) crime scene investigators (CSIs) can mishandle evidence during an investigation, affecting the outcome of cases. The minimum education requirement for CSIs should transition from a high school diploma—the current requirement—toward a bachelor’s degree. The importance of acquiring a college-level education is observed in a study conducted on crime scene examiners in Australia. To determine the educational requirement for CSIs in the United States, information was ...


Forensics’ Fight: A Need For Aggressive Strategies Against Confirmation Bias, Madison McGowan 2017 San Jose State University

Forensics’ Fight: A Need For Aggressive Strategies Against Confirmation Bias, Madison Mcgowan

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

In 2009, the National Academy of Sciences produced a lengthy report illuminating significant weaknesses present within the forensic community. One complex fault found in forensics was conformation bias. Since it is within human nature to make decisions based on contextual information, assumptions, and pre-held opinions, confirmation bias is an issue that will continue to persist. Therefore, stronger efforts must be made to recognize and abate the problem of bias within the field of forensics in order to preserve the notion that forensic science exists to serve principles of both truth and justice. Accordingly, this paper argues for the fight against ...


An Evaluation Of Escience Lab Kits For Online Learning, Diana Orozco 2017 San Jose State University

An Evaluation Of Escience Lab Kits For Online Learning, Diana Orozco

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

Higher education online science courses generally lack the hands-on components essential in understanding theories, methods, and techniques in chemistry and biology. Companies like eScience Labs construct kits to facilitate online learning, which provide students with hands-on activities relevant to their science courses. In order to evaluate ease, efficacy, and comprehension of the forensic science kits by eScience Labs was completed while writing observations of the activities during and after completion; the lab manual learning objectives were compared to results of activities and two stopwatches took elapsed time of each activity to compare with the stated times in the kit manual ...


Chemical Identification Of Synthetic Cannabinoids In Herbal Incense Products, Karol F. Alvarez Heredia 2017 CUNY John Jay College

Chemical Identification Of Synthetic Cannabinoids In Herbal Incense Products, Karol F. Alvarez Heredia

Student Theses

The emergence of synthetic cannabinoids is an ongoing challenge for forensic, clinical analytical chemists and toxicologists. Different analogs are continuously introduced in the market to circumvent the legislation and to enhance their pharmacological activity. In the present project, a total of seven synthetic cannabinoids were identified in four herbal incense products by employing GCMS, and LC-TOF. Fractional collection of four out of the seven synthetic cannabinoids was performed using HPLC followed by the collection of FTIR-ATR spectra. Five out of seven synthetic cannabinoids were classified as indazole carboxamide derivatives, which include 5Fluoro-EMB-Pinaca, 5Fluoro-AMB, MA-Chminaca, AB-Chminaca, and 5Fluoro-AKB-48. The remaining two ...


Moral Time And Homicide Investigations., David Stuart Lapsey Jr. 2017 University of Louisville

Moral Time And Homicide Investigations., David Stuart Lapsey Jr.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Previous literature explores the many dimensions of homicide investigations, including case and individual characteristics, evidence and investigative activities. However, little research delves into situational characteristics and their relationship to specific homicides, charge severity sought by prosecutors and sentence length given to homicide offenders. The current study sampled homicide cases (N=68) to gather baseline information and data regarding judicial outcomes. Donald Black’s Theory of Moral Time (2011) is tested and utilized as the study’s conceptual framework for the study’s hypotheses.


Jurisdiction, Privacy, And Ownership: Dna Technology And Field Dynamics In Conflict-Related Mass Fatalities, Stefan Schmitt, Dallas Mazoori 2017 Independent Researcher

Jurisdiction, Privacy, And Ownership: Dna Technology And Field Dynamics In Conflict-Related Mass Fatalities, Stefan Schmitt, Dallas Mazoori

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article explores the dynamics and challenges of undertaking human identifications in states experiencing armed conflict or emerging therefrom. It emphasises the integral role of the State in human identifications and the need for the legal acts of the State in identifying an individual and confirming their death to be integrated into any humanitarian response to repatriating the dead. Conflict-related mass fatalities occur in uncontrolled circumstances, making DNA-based human identifications necessary. In states lacking the necessary forensic infrastructure, the promise of expedited human identifications through outsourcing DNA work can lead to the State abdicating the necessary jurisdiction and scientific transparency ...


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