Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Forensic Science and Technology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

997 Full-Text Articles 1,338 Authors 783,788 Downloads 71 Institutions

All Articles in Forensic Science and Technology

Faceted Search

997 full-text articles. Page 1 of 41.

Investigating The Mechanisms Driving Mercury Reduction And Emissions In Soil, Hamil Patel 2022 CUNY John Jay College

Investigating The Mechanisms Driving Mercury Reduction And Emissions In Soil, Hamil Patel

Student Theses

The water-induced emission of mercury from soil has been studied, but a complete understanding of the mechanisms driving mercury reduction and emission in soil has not been reached. The current understanding is an immediate expulsion of soil gaseous mercury upon water treatment and an upward transport of dissolved soil ionic mercury as the water evaporates. We analyzed emissions from several types of samples using various methods to further our understanding on the mechanisms involved. Light-induced emissions from aqueous samples of humic acid (HA) spiked with mercury (II) chloride (HgCl2) showed that at higher concentrations of HA, less mercury was ...


An Interview With Dr. Steven Lee: Scientist, Jazz Musician, Athlete, Wine Connoisseur, And Founder And Former Director Of The Forensic Science Program At Sjsu, Steven Lee 2022 San Jose State University

An Interview With Dr. Steven Lee: Scientist, Jazz Musician, Athlete, Wine Connoisseur, And Founder And Former Director Of The Forensic Science Program At Sjsu, Steven Lee

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

No abstract provided.


Increasing Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection Sensitivity For Carfentanyl Detection: An Examination Of Procaine At Different Concentrations And Split Ratios, Sonalia T. Balli 2022 CUNY John Jay College of Criminal Justice

Increasing Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection Sensitivity For Carfentanyl Detection: An Examination Of Procaine At Different Concentrations And Split Ratios, Sonalia T. Balli

Student Theses

An opioid abuse crisis in recent years has contributed to many overdoses and overdose-related deaths in the United States. In 2017, fentanyl and fentanyl analogs contributed to more than half of NYC’s overdose deaths in 2017. Carfentanyl – an extremely dangerous fentanyl analogue 100 times more potent than fentanyl – is very difficult to detect in drug samples because it is typically present in concentrations lower than analytical instruments can detect at standard settings. In this work, I hypothesize that gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), when optimized for the detection of carfentanyl by adjusting the split ratio, is more sensitive than ...


Effect Of Coastal Environments On The Post Mortem Interval Of A Pig Carrion: Implications For Human Decomposition, Morgan Hough 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

Effect Of Coastal Environments On The Post Mortem Interval Of A Pig Carrion: Implications For Human Decomposition, Morgan Hough

Honors Theses

Forensic taphonomy involves the use of forensic techniques to determine the post mortem interval of a corpse. There are many factors that are known to influence the rate of decomposition, such as the temperature, season, soil type, moisture potential of the soil, and presence of insects or other decomposers. Previous studies in this field have focused primarily on decomposition patterns in mountainous environments in terms of terrestrial habitats or strictly aquatic environments, leaving this particular aspect of coastal settings to be unexplored.

To study these effects, the superior portion of a female pig was buried in sandy soil in mid-October ...


Disaster Victim Identification Competencies: A Comparison Of Dental Hygiene And Dental Assistant Students, Samantha Clara Vest 2022 Old Dominion University

Disaster Victim Identification Competencies: A Comparison Of Dental Hygiene And Dental Assistant Students, Samantha Clara Vest

Dental Hygiene Theses & Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess cognitive and affective learning outcomes of allied dental students following a disaster victim identification (DVI) multi-media learning experience. Methods: A convenience sample (n=41) of senior dental hygiene and dental assisting students from two institutions completed an IRB-exempt DVI learning experience which included a multimedia intervention with a pretest/posttest survey to assess cognitive and affective changes. The multimedia intervention was a PowerPoint presentation with educational text, audio/video recordings, and presented in a virtual synchronous format by one of the researchers. After completing the learning experience, participants were presented with ...


Development Of A Non-Invasive Dna Extraction Method From Teeth, Monalisa Heng 2022 University of Mississippi

Development Of A Non-Invasive Dna Extraction Method From Teeth, Monalisa Heng

Honors Theses

Forensic dentistry has evolved from simple morphological investigations to genetic and molecular analysis. One of the most important techniques is DNA analysis which requires viable samples from an individual or crime site. The orofacial region can be a good source for DNA samples because the tissues can resist environmental, thermal, electrical, and mechanical challenges. Teeth are especially useful as a source of genetic material because the DNA located in the pulp is surrounded by protective mineral tissue. The DNA in the pulp tissue is currently accessed through destructive methods involving crushing, pulverization, and splitting the tooth. Unfortunately, destructive methods destroy ...


Bci Validation: Yfiler Plus Kit Validation, Chloe Koon 2022 Bowling Green State University

Bci Validation: Yfiler Plus Kit Validation, Chloe Koon

Honors Projects

In order to have access and use the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), it is required by the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Quality Assurance Standards (FBI-QAS) for Forensic DNA Units to complete comprehensive validation studies on all equipment, materials, and methods used in the process of DNA analysis. This study continues validation previous done within the Ohio Bureau of Criminal Investigation (BCI). YFiler Plus is a DNA amplification kit that is used in cases where it is most useful to examine only male DNA profile(s) within a sample by amplifying loci only on the Y-Chromosome. Components of this ...


Stigma Towards Offenders Diagnosed With Mental Illness, Christina N. Yocca 2022 CUNY John Jay College

Stigma Towards Offenders Diagnosed With Mental Illness, Christina N. Yocca

Student Theses

Mental health stigma is a key factor to what makes members of the community who are diagnosed with mental illness feel like outcasts to the “normal” population. This study investigated the relationship between right-winged beliefs and offenders diagnosed with mental illness. Sigma as it relates to mental health, offenders, and right-winged beliefs have been studied separately before, but there is a lack of information on the stigma that the public has towards offenders who struggle with their mental health and the possible predictors of stigma towards this group. Overall, this study aimed to further research in the intersectionality of stigmatized ...


Understanding Cybercrime Offending And Victimization Patterns From A Global Perspective, Jin R. Lee 2022 George Mason University

Understanding Cybercrime Offending And Victimization Patterns From A Global Perspective, Jin R. Lee

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Cybercrime research within criminology and criminal justice sciences has increased over the past few decades, improving the knowledge and evidence-base around cybercrime offending and victimization generally. While earlier cybercrime studies were based primarily in the United States, there has been a recent surge in studies using international samples and multidisciplinary approaches to understand cybercrime patterns. The current issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime consists of four articles that seek to advance our understanding of cybercrime behaviors from a global perspective. To that end, the objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the ...


The Relationship Between Parenting Practices And Cyberbullying Perpetration: The Mediating Role Of Moral Beliefs, Jaeyong Choi, Seungmug (Zech) Lee, Layne Dittmann 2022 University of Texas at Arlington

The Relationship Between Parenting Practices And Cyberbullying Perpetration: The Mediating Role Of Moral Beliefs, Jaeyong Choi, Seungmug (Zech) Lee, Layne Dittmann

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Criminologists and psychologists have long recognized that parenting practices can affect childhood outcomes and the development of moral beliefs in children. Another body of literature provides evidence that morality is a key cause of antisocial behavior. Yet, a noticeable gap in this line of work has been testing the mediation effects of parenting practices on cyberbullying via moral beliefs. Using a sample of South Korean adolescents, we tested whether moral beliefs mediate the relationships between parenting practices and cyberbullying perpetration. Results show that parental supervision and excessive parenting can influence cyberbullying perpetration and that the impact of parenting practices is ...


Cybersecurity Risk In U.S. Critical Infrastructure: An Analysis Of Publicly Available U.S. Government Alerts And Advisories, Zachary Lanz 2022 University at Albany, State University of New York

Cybersecurity Risk In U.S. Critical Infrastructure: An Analysis Of Publicly Available U.S. Government Alerts And Advisories, Zachary Lanz

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

As threat actor operations become increasingly sophisticated and emphasize the targeting of critical infrastructure and services, the need for cybersecurity information sharing will continue to grow. Escalating demand for cyber threat intelligence and information sharing across the cybersecurity community has resulted in the need to better understand the information produced by reputable sources such as U.S. CISA Alerts and ICS-CERT advisories. The text analysis program, Profiler Plus, is used to extract information from 1,574 U.S. government alerts and advisories to develop visualizations and generate enhanced insights into different cyber threat actor types, the tactics which can be ...


Social Construction Of Internet Fraud As Innovation Among Youths In Nigeria, Austin Ayodele Mr., Jonathan Kehinde Oyedeji, Huthman Olamide Badmos 2022 Department of Sociology, University of Ibadan

Social Construction Of Internet Fraud As Innovation Among Youths In Nigeria, Austin Ayodele Mr., Jonathan Kehinde Oyedeji, Huthman Olamide Badmos

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The proliferation of internet technologies has shaped interactions in contemporary society. Despite the pivotal importance of the internet to the global economy, it has several negative consequences such as internet fraud. This study examined the perception that young adults in Nigeria hold about internet fraud as an innovative means to economic survival rather than as a criminal enterprise. Robert Merton’s Anomie/Strain Theory (AST) was adopted as the theoretical thrust of the study. Adopting a qualitative data collection method, 15 participants were selected using the non-probabilistic purposive and snowballing techniques while opinions were sampled through in-depth interviews in different ...


Scientific Development Of An Integrated Workflow For Latent Print, Questioned Document, And Dna Processing Of Paper Evidence, Ashley Morgan 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Scientific Development Of An Integrated Workflow For Latent Print, Questioned Document, And Dna Processing Of Paper Evidence, Ashley Morgan

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Touch paper evidence could be the source of probative human DNA but recovery is challenging and forensic laboratories instead prioritize processing by the Latent Print and Questioned Document disciplines. Recent advances in DNA collection methods and the increased sensitivity of STR typing kits have improved success rates for DNA testing of paper evidence; but prior to implementing DNA collection, laboratories have to decide in which order to examine paper for the different types of forensic evidence. This thesis developed and tested a multi-discipline workflow for processing paper evidence by DNA, Latent Prints and Questioned Documents experts. Preliminary sampling studies indicated ...


Core Point Pixel-Level Localization By Fingerprint Features In Spatial Domain, Xueyi Yi, Yuzhong Shen, Maosheng Zeng, Yirui Liu, Huahua Chen, Zhijing Zhao 2022 Old Dominion University

Core Point Pixel-Level Localization By Fingerprint Features In Spatial Domain, Xueyi Yi, Yuzhong Shen, Maosheng Zeng, Yirui Liu, Huahua Chen, Zhijing Zhao

Computational Modeling & Simulation Engineering Faculty Publications

Singular point detection is a primary step in fingerprint recognition, especially for fingerprint alignment and classification. But in present there are still some problems and challenges such as more false-positive singular points or inaccurate reference point localization. This paper proposes an accurate core point localization method based on spatial domain features of fingerprint images from a completely different viewpoint to improve the fingerprint core point displacement problem of singular point detection. The method first defines new fingerprint features, called furcation and confluence, to represent specific ridge/valley distribution in a core point area, and uses them to extract the innermost ...


Pain That Only She Must Bear: On The Invisibility Of Women In Judicial Abortion Rhetoric, Francesca Laguardia 2022 Montclair State University

Pain That Only She Must Bear: On The Invisibility Of Women In Judicial Abortion Rhetoric, Francesca Laguardia

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The graphic and bodily facts of a legal question of rights are relevant to the courts, particularly in questions that directly implicate physical bodies and pain, such as right to die cases, or what level of search may be allowable and when. However, in the case of abortion, or more specifically the bodily ramifications of pregnancy and childbirth, this detail is conspicuously absent. This article, relying on a content analysis of over 220 legal opinions on abortion rights, documents this absence of rhetoric. Particularly in the context of other discussions of pain and physical health risks in these very same ...


Development Of A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (Lamp) Assay For Detection Of Mirnas, Alisha B. Whelan 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Development Of A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (Lamp) Assay For Detection Of Mirnas, Alisha B. Whelan

Master of Science in Forensic Science Directed Research Projects

Body fluid identification serves a vital role in contextualizing biological evidence received in forensic laboratories. While several fluids can be presumptively detected using immunological or catalytic tests, these tests are susceptible to false results and have limited sensitivity. True confirmatory testing is still somewhat limited in forensic laboratories. With the advancement of DNA typing technologies, laboratories can develop DNA profiles from trace amounts of sample, increasing the demand for sensitive and accurate body fluid detection. This project proposes using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as a method to rapidly detect microRNAs (miRNAs) that are differentially expressed in various body fluids with ...


Anatomical Diagrams And Dolls: Guidelines For Their Usage In Forensic Interviews And Courts Of Law, Victor Vieth 2022 Mitchell Hamline School of Law

Anatomical Diagrams And Dolls: Guidelines For Their Usage In Forensic Interviews And Courts Of Law, Victor Vieth

Mitchell Hamline Law Review

No abstract provided.


Deepfakes, Shallowfakes, And The Need For A Private Right Of Action, Eric Kocsis 2022 Penn State Dickinson Law

Deepfakes, Shallowfakes, And The Need For A Private Right Of Action, Eric Kocsis

Dickinson Law Review

For nearly as long as there have been photographs and videos, people have been editing and manipulating them to make them appear to be something they are not. Usually edited or manipulated photographs are relatively easy to detect, but those days are numbered. Technology has no morality; as it advances, so do the ways it can be misused. The lack of morality is no clearer than with deepfake technology.

People create deepfakes by inputting data sets, most often pictures or videos into a computer. A series of neural networks attempt to mimic the original data set until they are nearly ...


Death Scene Insect Succession In Nebraska: A Guidebook, Erin Bauer, Larry Barksdale, Emma Sidel, Justine LaViolette 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Death Scene Insect Succession In Nebraska: A Guidebook, Erin Bauer, Larry Barksdale, Emma Sidel, Justine Laviolette

Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology

Insect behavior can be helpful to law enforcement in determining time of death, manner of death, location, and environment related to human or other animal victims found at a death scene. They may also provide clues about other aspects associated with an investigation (i.e., fly specks, suspect DNA). The study of how insects and related arthropods can aid in legal investigations is known as forensic entomology. Although this includes both civil applications, such as urban (i.e., maggots in mortuaries or insect structural damage) or stored product (i.e., illness from food contamination) entomology, this manual focuses on criminal ...


Cognitive And Other Types Of Biases Affecting Forensic Evidence: Research Analysis And Expert Conclusions, Sukhmanpreet Kaur 2022 San Jose State University

Cognitive And Other Types Of Biases Affecting Forensic Evidence: Research Analysis And Expert Conclusions, Sukhmanpreet Kaur

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

This paper identifies the issue of cognitive bias, with emphasis on confirmation bias, and its implications within the forensic science field. Biased thinking or processing of forensic evidence can have significant effects on an investigation process. The literature analyzed discusses the consequences of providing contextual or irrelevant ancillary information to forensic experts. Following this discussion, the opinions held by forensic professionals with regards to confirmation bias and erroneous conclusions will likewise be evaluated. It is important that the forensic science field continues to listen to its experts in order to develop solutions for dealing with and preventing instances of confirmation ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress