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The Advanced Spectroscopic Analysis Of Organic Gunshot Residue And Explosives, Jennifer M. Leonard 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Advanced Spectroscopic Analysis Of Organic Gunshot Residue And Explosives, Jennifer M. Leonard

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

With the prevalence of shooting cases and terrorist attacks/or threats that plague the current state of the criminal justice system, it is of paramount importance to be able to detect, identify and interpret the presence of gunshot residue or explosives material. This concern is seen in law enforcement agencies and the media throughout the United States and abroad.

Currently, the typical method of analyzing gunshot residue in most crime laboratories serves to identify the inorganic constituents of the primer residue, namely lead, barium and antimony. However, it is possible that the organic matter from the propellant could provide different ...


Bayesian Approach To Toolmark Analysis, Antonio W. Del Valle 2017 CUNY John Jay College

Bayesian Approach To Toolmark Analysis, Antonio W. Del Valle

Student Theses

Statistical analysis of toolmarks using frequentist methods can be problematic for assorted reasons. Thus, in order to analyze toolmarks whilst avoiding these issues, a Bayesian approach is taken. Specifically for this thesis we discuss the computation of a specific Likelihood Ratio for toolmark comparisons. This Bayesian based approach involves using data already at hand in conjunction with a probability model in order to establish an estimate for its “value”, i.e. the “weight of evidence”. Making the calculations to obtain a Likelihood Ratio is very cumbersome and time consuming. Also many commercial software packages hide the process and underlying assumptions ...


Optimizing Collection Of Trace Biological Samples From Vehicle Headrests, Kevin Tang, Jesse Ramirez, John Bond, Jocelyn Weart, Yvette DeLaTorre, Ian Fitch, Steven Lee 2017 San Jose State University

Optimizing Collection Of Trace Biological Samples From Vehicle Headrests, Kevin Tang, Jesse Ramirez, John Bond, Jocelyn Weart, Yvette Delatorre, Ian Fitch, Steven Lee

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

Tape-lifting and swabbing are two methods commonly used for collecting biological samples in the United Kingdom and United States to investigate vehicle crimes. Determining the optimal collection method may lead to an increase in generating DNA profiles and crime-solving. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of adhesive tape and the double-swab collection methods for investigating vehicle crimes with possible touch DNA samples. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of tape-lifts and swabs on spiked common vehicle fabric materials. The efficiency of recovery between the two collection methods was performed using qPCR. The results from ...


Physical Match: Unique Fracture Patterns In Wooden Popsicle Sticks, Yiu Ming Sunny Lau 2017 San Jose State University

Physical Match: Unique Fracture Patterns In Wooden Popsicle Sticks, Yiu Ming Sunny Lau

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

Physical match (or physical fit) evidence was considered reliable in court for years, until the Daubert case, which required standardized scientific methodology on all forensic evidence. Physical matching faces the same criticism as other forms of physical evidence (specifically, that it lacks a scientific foundation). Physical matching is based on the idea that when an object is fractured, the shape of each fragment is unique and it is not possible to recreate a fragment that is identical to any other. In this study, fifty wooden popsicle sticks were broken in half, the pieces were mixed, and then reconstructed using physical ...


Minimum Education Requirements For Crime Scene Investigators, Araseli Saldivar 2017 San Jose State University

Minimum Education Requirements For Crime Scene Investigators, Araseli Saldivar

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

The initial crime scene investigation is critical since it is the primary step in the investigative process; therefore, individuals assigned to process a scene should be highly educated. Improperly educated (or uneducated) crime scene investigators (CSIs) can mishandle evidence during an investigation, affecting the outcome of cases. The minimum education requirement for CSIs should transition from a high school diploma—the current requirement—toward a bachelor’s degree. The importance of acquiring a college-level education is observed in a study conducted on crime scene examiners in Australia. To determine the educational requirement for CSIs in the United States, information was ...


Forensics’ Fight: A Need For Aggressive Strategies Against Confirmation Bias, Madison McGowan 2017 San Jose State University

Forensics’ Fight: A Need For Aggressive Strategies Against Confirmation Bias, Madison Mcgowan

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

In 2009, the National Academy of Sciences produced a lengthy report illuminating significant weaknesses present within the forensic community. One complex fault found in forensics was conformation bias. Since it is within human nature to make decisions based on contextual information, assumptions, and pre-held opinions, confirmation bias is an issue that will continue to persist. Therefore, stronger efforts must be made to recognize and abate the problem of bias within the field of forensics in order to preserve the notion that forensic science exists to serve principles of both truth and justice. Accordingly, this paper argues for the fight against ...


An Evaluation Of Escience Lab Kits For Online Learning, Diana Orozco 2017 San Jose State University

An Evaluation Of Escience Lab Kits For Online Learning, Diana Orozco

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

Higher education online science courses generally lack the hands-on components essential in understanding theories, methods, and techniques in chemistry and biology. Companies like eScience Labs construct kits to facilitate online learning, which provide students with hands-on activities relevant to their science courses. In order to evaluate ease, efficacy, and comprehension of the forensic science kits by eScience Labs was completed while writing observations of the activities during and after completion; the lab manual learning objectives were compared to results of activities and two stopwatches took elapsed time of each activity to compare with the stated times in the kit manual ...


Jurisdiction, Privacy, And Ownership: Dna Technology And Field Dynamics In Conflict-Related Mass Fatalities, Stefan Schmitt, Dallas Mazoori 2017 Independent Researcher

Jurisdiction, Privacy, And Ownership: Dna Technology And Field Dynamics In Conflict-Related Mass Fatalities, Stefan Schmitt, Dallas Mazoori

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article explores the dynamics and challenges of undertaking human identifications in states experiencing armed conflict or emerging therefrom. It emphasises the integral role of the State in human identifications and the need for the legal acts of the State in identifying an individual and confirming their death to be integrated into any humanitarian response to repatriating the dead. Conflict-related mass fatalities occur in uncontrolled circumstances, making DNA-based human identifications necessary. In states lacking the necessary forensic infrastructure, the promise of expedited human identifications through outsourcing DNA work can lead to the State abdicating the necessary jurisdiction and scientific transparency ...


Chemical Identification Of Synthetic Cannabinoids In Herbal Incense Products, Karol F. Alvarez Heredia 2017 CUNY John Jay College

Chemical Identification Of Synthetic Cannabinoids In Herbal Incense Products, Karol F. Alvarez Heredia

Student Theses

The emergence of synthetic cannabinoids is an ongoing challenge for forensic, clinical analytical chemists and toxicologists. Different analogs are continuously introduced in the market to circumvent the legislation and to enhance their pharmacological activity. In the present project, a total of seven synthetic cannabinoids were identified in four herbal incense products by employing GCMS, and LC-TOF. Fractional collection of four out of the seven synthetic cannabinoids was performed using HPLC followed by the collection of FTIR-ATR spectra. Five out of seven synthetic cannabinoids were classified as indazole carboxamide derivatives, which include 5Fluoro-EMB-Pinaca, 5Fluoro-AMB, MA-Chminaca, AB-Chminaca, and 5Fluoro-AKB-48. The remaining two ...


Table Of Contents, 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Table Of Contents

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Front Matter

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

No abstract provided.


Special Issue Of Best Papers From The 11th International Conference On Systematic Approaches To Digital Forensic Engineering (Sadfe 2016), 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Special Issue Of Best Papers From The 11th International Conference On Systematic Approaches To Digital Forensic Engineering (Sadfe 2016)

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

The SADFE series feature the different editions of the International Conference on Systematic Approaches to Digital Forensics Engineering. Now in its eleventh edition, SADFE has established itself as the premier conference for researchers and practitioners working in Systematic Approaches to Digital Forensics Engineering.

SADFE 2016, the eleventh international conference on Systematic Approaches to Digital Forensic Engineering was held in Kyoto, Japan, September 20 - 22, 2016.

Digital forensics engineering and the curation of digital collections in cultural institutions face pressing and overlapping challenges related to provenance, chain of custody, authenticity, integrity, and identity. The generation, analysis and sustainability of digital evidence ...


A Forensic Email Analysis Tool Using Dynamic Visualization, Johannes Stadlinger, Andreas Dewald 2017 University of Erlangen-Nuremberg

A Forensic Email Analysis Tool Using Dynamic Visualization, Johannes Stadlinger, Andreas Dewald

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Communication between people counts to the most important information of today’s business. As a result, in case of forensic investigations in big companies, analysis of communication data in general and especially email, as the still most widely used business communication platform with an immense and still growing volume, is a typical task in digital forensics. One of the challenges is to identify the relevant communication partners and structures in the suspects surrounding as quickly as possible in order to react appropriately and identify further targets of evaluation. Due to the amount of emails in typical inboxes, reading through all ...


Find Me If You Can: Mobile Gps Mapping Applications Forensic Analysis & Snavp The Open Source, Modular, Extensible Parser, Jason Moore, Ibrahim Baggili, Frank Breitinger 2017 University of New Haven

Find Me If You Can: Mobile Gps Mapping Applications Forensic Analysis & Snavp The Open Source, Modular, Extensible Parser, Jason Moore, Ibrahim Baggili, Frank Breitinger

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

The use of smartphones as navigation devices has become more prevalent. The ubiquity of hand-held navigation devices such as Garmins or Toms Toms has been falling whereas the ownership of smartphones and their adoption as GPS devices is growing. This work provides a comprehensive study of the most popular smartphone mapping applications, namely Google Maps, Apple Maps, Waze, MapQuest, Bing, and Scout, on both Android and iOS. It details what data was found, where it was found, and how it was acquired for each application. Based on the findings, the work allowed for the construction of a tool capable of ...


Compression Of Virtual-Machine Memory In Dynamic Malware Analysis, James E. Fowler Ph.D. 2017 Mississippi State University

Compression Of Virtual-Machine Memory In Dynamic Malware Analysis, James E. Fowler Ph.D.

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Lossless compression of memory dumps from virtual machines that run malware samples is considered with the goal of significantly reducing archival costs in dynamic-malware-analysis applications. Given that, in such dynamic-analysis scenarios, malware samples are typically run in virtual machines just long enough to activate any self-decryption or other detection- avoidance maneuvers, the virtual-machine memory typically changes little from that of the baseline state, with the difference being attributable in large degree to the loading of additional executables and libraries. Consequently, delta coding is proposed to compress the current virtual-machine memory dump by coding its differences with respect to a predicted ...


Science 108-001 Essentials Of Forensic Science Fall 2015, Christina Beatty 2017 Parkland College

Science 108-001 Essentials Of Forensic Science Fall 2015, Christina Beatty

Christina Beatty

No abstract provided.


Innovative Silver-Based Catalyst For Oxidation Of Methane To Methanol, Ashley Gordon 2017 Long Island University

Innovative Silver-Based Catalyst For Oxidation Of Methane To Methanol, Ashley Gordon

Post & Beyond

Methane is a main component of many natural gas reserves. It is fundamental for an effective method to be developed for inexpensive and abundant methane to be converted to value added chemicals, such as methanol, formaldehyde, acetic acid, carbon monoxide, and fuel. The primary goal of this research is for the development of an innovative silver-based catalyst for effective conversion of methane to methanol. The Ag-based solution we developed can be tuned to be either acidic or basic to adapt to different catalyst support. The solution was characterized by Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and the Ag adsorption was determined. The heterogeneous catalyst ...


Development Of A Novel Cu-Zn Based Heterogeneous Catalyst For Direct Methane Conversion, Wan Yee Lam 2017 Long Island University

Development Of A Novel Cu-Zn Based Heterogeneous Catalyst For Direct Methane Conversion, Wan Yee Lam

Post & Beyond

Many researchers are working on an efficient method to convert methane into methanol because the main cause of global warming is due to the burning of petroleum, which emits greenhouse gases. The extraction of crude oil would pollute our environment. The present method of methanol production is inefficient and generally yields less than 5%. Moreover, the traditional two-step process is very expensive and energy intensive. Therefore, the primary objective of my research is to develop a novel Cu-Zn based heterogeneous catalyst to enhance the catalytic conversion of methane for the synthesis of value added chemical such as methanol. The Cu-Zn-based ...


Neuroscience Evidence In Forensic Contexts: Ethical Concerns, Stephen J. Morse 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Neuroscience Evidence In Forensic Contexts: Ethical Concerns, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship

This is a chapter in a volume, Ethics Dilemmas in Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology Practice, edited by Ezra E. H. Griffith, M.D. and to be published by Columbia University Press. The chapter addresses whether the use of new neuroscience techniques, especially non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the data from studies employing them raise new ethical issues for forensic psychiatrists and psychologists. The implicit thesis throughout is that if the legal questions, the limits of the new techniques and the relevance of neuroscience to law are properly understood, no new ethical issues are raised. A major ethical lapse ...


Find Me If You Can: Mobile Gps Mapping Applications Forensic Analysis & Snavp The Open Source, Modular, Extensible Parser, Jason Moore, Ibrahim Baggili, Frank Breitinger 2016 University of New Haven

Find Me If You Can: Mobile Gps Mapping Applications Forensic Analysis & Snavp The Open Source, Modular, Extensible Parser, Jason Moore, Ibrahim Baggili, Frank Breitinger

Electrical & Computer Engineering and Computer Science Faculty Publications

The use of smartphones as navigation devices has become more prevalent. The ubiquity of hand-held navigation devices such as Garmins or Toms Toms has been falling whereas the ownership of smartphones and their adoption as GPS devices is growing. This work provides a comprehensive study of the most popular smartphone mapping applications, namely Google Maps, Apple Maps, Waze, MapQuest, Bing, and Scout, on both Android and iOS. It details what data was found, where it was found, and how it was acquired for each application. Based on the findings, the work allowed for the construction of a tool capable of ...


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