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2005

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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Eating Disorder Symptoms, Body Image Attitudes, And Risk Factors In Non-Traditional And Traditional Age Female College Students., Jennifer E. Caldwell Dec 2005

Eating Disorder Symptoms, Body Image Attitudes, And Risk Factors In Non-Traditional And Traditional Age Female College Students., Jennifer E. Caldwell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates whether there are certain age groups in college that are more susceptible to eating problems and the contributing factors for eating disorders. The participants were 144 college women divided into traditional and non-traditional age groups. The EDI-2, BSI, RSE, and additional items were administered. The results show that non-traditional age college women were as likely to have eating disorder symptoms and more likely to possess body dissatisfaction than traditional age college students. The data support body dissatisfaction, aging concerns, perfectionism, depression, anxiety, and having children as potential risk factors for eating disturbances. This study suggests that there …


Comparison Of The Stress Levels And Gpa Of African American College Students At Historically Black And Predominantly White Institutions., Yashica Dearcie Woods Dec 2005

Comparison Of The Stress Levels And Gpa Of African American College Students At Historically Black And Predominantly White Institutions., Yashica Dearcie Woods

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Stress levels of African American college students attending Historically Black and Predominantly White Institutions were compared. The GPAs of the students were correlated with their stress levels. Racism and social support were explored as factors contributing to stress. Results indicated that African American students attending the Predominantly White institution had higher stress than African American students attending the Historically Black institution and White students attending the Predominantly White institution. The results also indicated that GPA and stress were negatively correlated; as stress levels decreased, GPA increased. A negative correlation was found to be significant with social support and stress; as …


Parenting Style And Its Relationship To Interpretation Of The Bible And Worship Style In College Students., Geoffrey R. Mabe Dec 2005

Parenting Style And Its Relationship To Interpretation Of The Bible And Worship Style In College Students., Geoffrey R. Mabe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

To extend research on Baumrind’s parenting styles, a scenario study was conducted to determine if the gender of a stimulus child and the parenting style employed by stimulus parents would relate significantly to biblical interpretation style and preferred worship style. A 2x3 independent groups factorial design was employed for analysis in two different procedures. Respondents (152 undergraduate students) were provided with one of six scenarios, each of which varied by gender of stimulus child and by one of three parenting styles employed by the stimulus parent. Respondents were then directed to complete the Scriptural Literalism Scale (Hogge & Friedman, 1967) …


Journeying In The Way Of Love, Alan A. Mackenzie Dec 2005

Journeying In The Way Of Love, Alan A. Mackenzie

Alan A MacKENZIE

No abstract


The Significant Other Version Of The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (Pcs-S): Preliminary Validation, Annmarie Cano, Michelle T. Leonard, Aleda Franz Dec 2005

The Significant Other Version Of The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (Pcs-S): Preliminary Validation, Annmarie Cano, Michelle T. Leonard, Aleda Franz

Psychology Faculty Research Publications

Researchers have hypothesized that pain catastrophizing has a social function. Although work has focused on the catastrophizing of individuals with chronic pain (ICPs), little is known about the pain catastrophizing of their significant others. The purpose of this study was to test the validity of a revised version of the original PCS [Sullivan MJL, Bishop S, Pivik J. The pain catastrophizing scale: development and validation. Psychol Assess 1995; 7: 432–524.] in which individuals were instructed to report on their own catastrophizing about their significant other’s pain. In Study 1, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to determine the factor structure …


Multilevel Analysis Of Couple Congruence On Pain, Interference, And Disability, Annmarie Cano, Ayna B. Johansen, Aleda Franz Dec 2005

Multilevel Analysis Of Couple Congruence On Pain, Interference, And Disability, Annmarie Cano, Ayna B. Johansen, Aleda Franz

Psychology Faculty Research Publications

Couple congruence on ratings of pain severity and disability were examined using hierarchical linear modeling. Older community Individuals with Chronic Pain (ICPs) and their spouses completed the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (pain severity, interference, negative spouse responses to pain), Sickness Impact Profile (physical disability, psychosocial disability), and the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (psychological distress). Both spouses reported on ICPs' pain and disability as well as their own psychological distress. Spousal incongruence was observed on interference and physical disability such that ICPs reported greater disability than their spouses reported for them. No significant incongruence was observed in pain severity or psychosocial …


Ambivalent Sexism, Scriptural Literalism, And Religiosity, Shawn Meghan Burn, Julia Busso Dec 2005

Ambivalent Sexism, Scriptural Literalism, And Religiosity, Shawn Meghan Burn, Julia Busso

Psychology and Child Development

This correlational study explores the hypothesis that religiosity and scriptural literalism (the degree to which one interprets scriptures literally) are associated with sexism. Participants were female and male (N = 504) university students who anonymously completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske, 1996, 1997, 2001a, 2001b), the Scriptural Literalism Scale (Hogge & Friedman, 1967), and the Religious Orientation Scale–Revised (Gorsuch & McPherson, 1989). Intrinsic religiosity, extrinsic religiosity, and scriptural literalism were positively associated with benevolent, but not hostile, sexism. Intrinsic religiosity and scriptural literalism were positively related to the protective paternalism subscale, whereas extrinsic religiosity was related to the …


Désir Et Impuissance Dans Halfaouine Et Bye-Bye, Scott Homler Dec 2005

Désir Et Impuissance Dans Halfaouine Et Bye-Bye, Scott Homler

Présence Francophone: Revue internationale de langue et de littérature

The experience of adolescence and the trials of Arab and Beur masculinity are explored in the films of Férid Boughédir and Karim Dridi in order to reveal the psychology and the politics of masculinity in evolution. Studying two films, Halfaouine and Bye-Bye, as well as the autobiography of Abdelkébir Khatibi entitled La mémoire tatouée, we see that they reflect a number of discursive stages of an emergent identity of protest that is based on flight and self-destruction.


Tips, Volume 25, No. 4, 5 & 6, 2005/2006, Wolf P. Wolfensberger Dec 2005

Tips, Volume 25, No. 4, 5 & 6, 2005/2006, Wolf P. Wolfensberger

Training Institute Publication Series (TIPS)

• Marriage & the Family

• The Situation--Often the Plight--of Children

• The Nature of Human Nature

• Religion in Society

• The "Separation" of Church & State

• Religious Persecution-- Here and Abroad

• The Religion(s) in & of Modernism

• Rewriting of Scripture

• Outright Idolatry

• Miscellaneous News About Religion

• The Priestly Sex Scandal, Continued

• Religion in Human Services

• Morality--or the Lack Thereof--in Society, Government, & Human Services

• Poverty, & Especially the Growing Gulf Between Rich & Poor

• The Transfer--Often, the Theft--of Wealth From the Lower to the Upper Classes

• Philanthropy …


“Texts Memorized, Texts Performed: A Reconsideration Of The Role Of Paritta In Sri Lankan Monastic Education.”, Jeffrey Samuels Dec 2005

“Texts Memorized, Texts Performed: A Reconsideration Of The Role Of Paritta In Sri Lankan Monastic Education.”, Jeffrey Samuels

Philosophy & Religion Faculty Publications

During the past twenty years there has been a growing interest in monastic education within the larger field of Buddhist studies. Within the last ten years in particular, a number of monographs and articles examining the training and education of monks in Korea (Buswell [1992]), Tibet/India (Dreyfus [2003]), Thailand/Laos (Collins [1990], McDaniel [2002, 2003]), and Sri Lanka (Blackburn [1999a, 1999b, 2001] Samuels [2002]), have been published. Many of those works have paid particular attention to the texts used in monastic training, as well as to how the information contained in those very texts is imparted to and embodied by monks …


Personnel Selection In The Transportation Sector: An Investigation Of Personality Traits In Relation To The Job Performance Of Delivery Drivers, Mark Andrew Tichon Dec 2005

Personnel Selection In The Transportation Sector: An Investigation Of Personality Traits In Relation To The Job Performance Of Delivery Drivers, Mark Andrew Tichon

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of a pre-employment selection instrument for predicting occupational success of delivery drivers. A criterion-based concurrent validation study was performed on a customized version of the Personal Style Inventory , a work-based personality measurement system based on the Five Factor model of personality (Lounsbury & Gibson, 2000). Relationships between both broad and narrow bandwidth personality dimensions and important job performance criterion measures were examined. Four traits were found to be correlated with Overall Performance Rating of delivery drivers: Agreeableness, Comfort with Procedures, Attention to Detail, and Preference for Long Tenure. A …


An Investigation Of The Predictive Validity Of Broad And Narrow Personality Traits In Relation To Academic Achievement, Jessica A. Dunsmore Dec 2005

An Investigation Of The Predictive Validity Of Broad And Narrow Personality Traits In Relation To Academic Achievement, Jessica A. Dunsmore

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to determine the ability of broad and narrow personality traits to predict academic achievement over time in adolescence. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 1328 adolescents from an archival data set. Students were in grades 6, 9, and 12 at time one, and measures were assessed over three consecutive annual testing occasions. Results from correlational analyses showed that all Big Five traits predicted academic performance at Time One and Time Two. All Big Five traits except for Openness predicted academic performance at Time Three. Additional correlational analyses demonstrated that the narrow traits of …


Conceptual Representations Of Action In The Lateral Temporal Cortex, Joseph W. Kable, Irene P Kan, Ashley Wilson, Sharon L. Thompson-Schill, Anjan Chatterjee Dec 2005

Conceptual Representations Of Action In The Lateral Temporal Cortex, Joseph W. Kable, Irene P Kan, Ashley Wilson, Sharon L. Thompson-Schill, Anjan Chatterjee

Departmental Papers (Psychology)

Retrieval of conceptual information from action pictures causes greater activation than from object pictures bilaterally in human motion areas (MT/MST) and nearby temporal regions. By contrast, retrieval of conceptual information from action words causes greater activation in left middle and superior temporal gyri, anterior and dorsal to the MT/MST. We performed two fMRI experiments to replicate and extend these findings regarding action words. In the first experiment, subjects performed conceptual judgments of action and object words under conditions that stressed visual semantic information. Under these conditions, action words again activated posterior temporal regions close to, but not identical with, the …


The Devil You Know: The Effects Of Identifiability On Punishment, Deborah A. Small, George Loewenstein Dec 2005

The Devil You Know: The Effects Of Identifiability On Punishment, Deborah A. Small, George Loewenstein

Marketing Papers

Prior research has confirmed Thomas Schelling's observation that people are more sympathetic and hence generous toward specific identified victims than toward “statistical” victims who are yet to be identified. In the study presented in this article we demonstrate an equivalent effect for punitiveness. We find that people are more punitive toward identified wrongdoers than toward equivalent, but unidentified, wrongdoers, even when identifying the wrongdoer conveys no meaningful information about him or her. To account for the effect of identifiability on both generosity and punitiveness, we propose that affective reactions of any type are stronger toward an identified than toward an …


Children's Beliefs In Relation To The Essence Of Race, Rachel Wetton Dec 2005

Children's Beliefs In Relation To The Essence Of Race, Rachel Wetton

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The way in which children categorize race is a highly debatable topic for which a conclusive result has not yet been found. Researchers hold different views as to whether the concept of race is present at birth, or whether it is something that develops. Previous research has shown that children do not treat race in the same way as adults do. Even by fourth grade, children do not consistently believe in the essence of race (Glerum, 2002). This study more closely examines one of the potential factors for the point at which race is essentialized: knowledge of inheritance. Children were …


Memory And Fragmentation In Dissociative Identity Disorder, Margaret Rose Barlow '96 Dec 2005

Memory And Fragmentation In Dissociative Identity Disorder, Margaret Rose Barlow '96

Doctoral Dissertations

Dissociative identity disorder (DID), formerly called multiple personalities, is a condition in which aspects of experience and memory are separated from each other and from awareness. The current study adds to the literature in this area by utilizing a broad conceptualization of memory functioning in DID, combining ecologically valid memory tests with experimental paradigms, and examining shareability, switching, and integration. Eleven women with DID participated in a two-session experiment that included a variety of memory measures. Participants were given no instructions regarding switching among alters, but were later asked how often they had switched. They reported significantly higher levels of …


How The Justice System Responds To Juvenile Victims: A Comprehensive Model., David Finkelhor, Theodore P. Cross, Elise N. Cantor Dec 2005

How The Justice System Responds To Juvenile Victims: A Comprehensive Model., David Finkelhor, Theodore P. Cross, Elise N. Cantor

Crimes Against Children Research Center

The justice system handles thousands of cases involving juvenile victims each year. These victims are served by a complex set of agencies and institutions, including police, prosecutors, courts, and child protection agencies. Despite the many cases involving juvenile victims and the structure in place for responding to them, the juvenile victim justice system model presented in this Bulletin is a new concept. Although the juvenile victim justice system has a distinct structure and sequence, its operation is not very well understood. Unlike the more familiar juvenile offender justice system, the juvenile victim justice system has not been conceptualized as a …


Psychopathic Traits In College Students: Electrodermal Reactivity, Anxiety, Disinhibition, Risk-Taking, And Executive Functioning, Robert L. Bare Dec 2005

Psychopathic Traits In College Students: Electrodermal Reactivity, Anxiety, Disinhibition, Risk-Taking, And Executive Functioning, Robert L. Bare

Doctoral Dissertations

A robust finding is that psychopaths exhibit electrodermal hyporeactivity in the presence of stimuli that elicit anxiety in non-psychopathic samples. This finding has been associated with decreased anxiety, although recent research suggests the relationship between psychopathic traits and electrodermal hyporeactivity may be related to other correlates of psychopathy (i.e. decreased inhibitory control, risk-taking, and executive functioning deficits). The present study was a preliminary examination to assess electrodermal reactivity, disinhibition, risk-taking, and executive functioning in a sample of undergraduate students with varying degrees of psychopathic characteristics. Results generally did not support hypothesized relationships between psychopathic traits, physiological responsivity, and executive functioning …


Understanding Child Narrative Development Through The Lens Of Lessons And Dialogue In Mother-Child Interactions, Mary Clare Champion Dec 2005

Understanding Child Narrative Development Through The Lens Of Lessons And Dialogue In Mother-Child Interactions, Mary Clare Champion

Doctoral Dissertations

The current study explored the role oflessons and dialogue in communication between mothers and their children in an effort to better understand the processes that influence and support healthy child narrative development. Volunteers were recruited from an elementary school, and pairs ofmothers and their children were observed. Observations were coded for the presence oflessons and dialogue, and mother and child narratives were gathered. It was predicted that dialogue would be an important component ofthe communication between mother and child, and that its presence would correlate with mother and child narrative measures. It was also predicted that mother and child would …


Characteristics Of The Therapeutic Alliance In Couple Therapy: Perspectives From The Field, Nathan Daniel Tomcik Dec 2005

Characteristics Of The Therapeutic Alliance In Couple Therapy: Perspectives From The Field, Nathan Daniel Tomcik

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate practicing mental health care professionals’ perceptions of the most important components of the therapeutic alliance in couple therapy. 151 therapists responded to requests posted to professional listservs and completed an online survey asking them to rate 18 aspects of the alliance on relative importance for couple therapy and individual therapy. Therapists also were given space to write narratives asking them to provide their definition of the therapeutic alliance in couple therapy as well as to describe unique ruptures in the alliance that may occur in the course of couple therapy.

Therapists who …


Adolescent Sexual Behaviors: Analyses Of Context, Catherine Marie Grello Dec 2005

Adolescent Sexual Behaviors: Analyses Of Context, Catherine Marie Grello

Doctoral Dissertations

The three studies presented in this paper together examined personal, psychological, and relational variables and their association to adolescent sexual behaviors. By examining adolescent sexual behaviors in the context in which they are embedded and adding to our questions, non-coital sexual behaviors, the two studies presented here provide evidence that the relationship context is an important consideration. For some adolescents engaging in sexual behaviors is likely symptomatic; however, for others engaging in sexual behaviors is less problematic.


The Other-Directed Adolescent: Associated Personality Processes As Measured By The Rorschach, Elisabeth D. Scherpenisse Dec 2005

The Other-Directed Adolescent: Associated Personality Processes As Measured By The Rorschach, Elisabeth D. Scherpenisse

Doctoral Dissertations

Other-Directedness examines the extent to which a person sees his or her contemporaries as a source or guide for how to behave in a given situation. It has been linked with both adjustment difficulties and difficulties in interpersonal functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine underlying personality processes using the Rorschach in the late adolescent, college population and the hypotheses were three-fold. It was hypothesized that highly Other-Directed adolescents would have fewer psychological resources for coping with stress as indicated by a low Adjusted D score. It was hypothesized that highly Other-Directed adolescents would have less effective attitudes …


The Effect Of Specific Versus Generalized Supervisory Feedback On Counseling Self-Efficacy Of Counselors-In-Training, Sheri Lyn Clark Dec 2005

The Effect Of Specific Versus Generalized Supervisory Feedback On Counseling Self-Efficacy Of Counselors-In-Training, Sheri Lyn Clark

Doctoral Dissertations

This study assessed the effects of general and specific supervisory feedback on counselors’-in-training ratings of counseling self-efficacy (CSE). Fifty-four students in counseling-related graduate programs from two universities in the southeast and one in the mid-west volunteered as participants. Thirty-seven participants were female (68.5%), 14 were male (25.9%), and three did not indicate their sex (5.6%). Forty out of 54 participants (74.1%) indicated they were Caucasian-American, five were African-American (9.3%), one was Hispanic-American (1.9%), one was Asian-American (1.9%), and three indicated that they were best described as “other” (5.6%). The median number of months of previous clinical supervision for the participants …


An Investigation Of The Big Five And Narrow Personality Traits In Relation To Academic Performance, Craig Lancer Rogers Dec 2005

An Investigation Of The Big Five And Narrow Personality Traits In Relation To Academic Performance, Craig Lancer Rogers

Doctoral Dissertations

The present study investigated the relationship between the Big Five personality traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, extroversion, and openness), as well as the relationship of more narrow personality traits, with academic performance. The issue of narrow traits adding incremental validity to the Big Five in predicting academic performance was investigated, using archival data collected from 552 university students.

Results from a correlation analysis indicated that openness, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability were all significantly related to GPA (college grade-point average), while extroversion was not related. Due to a significant gender difference in college GPA, gender interaction terms with …


The Cerebral Response During Subjective Choice With And Without Self-Reference, Sterling C. Johnson, Taylor W. Schmitz, Tisha N. Kawahara-Baccus, Howard A. Rowley, Andrew L. Alexander, Jonghoon Lee, Richard J. Davidson Dec 2005

The Cerebral Response During Subjective Choice With And Without Self-Reference, Sterling C. Johnson, Taylor W. Schmitz, Tisha N. Kawahara-Baccus, Howard A. Rowley, Andrew L. Alexander, Jonghoon Lee, Richard J. Davidson

Brain and Mind Institute Researchers' Publications

The anterior medial prefrontal (AMPFC) and retrosplenial (RSC) cortices are active during self-referential decision-making tasks such as when participants appraise traits and abilities, or current affect. Other appraisal tasks requiring an evaluative decision or mental representation, such as theory of mind and perspective-taking tasks, also involve these regions. In many instances, these types of decisions involve a subjective opinion or preference, but also a degree of ambiguity in the decision, rather than a strictly veridical response. However, this ambiguity is generally not controlled for in studies that examine self-referential decision-making. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment with 17 healthy …


Gambling On A Simulated Slot Machine Under Conditions Of Repeated Play, Andrew Ellis Brandt Dec 2005

Gambling On A Simulated Slot Machine Under Conditions Of Repeated Play, Andrew Ellis Brandt

Masters Theses

Three experiments using a parametric, single-subject design investigated gambling behavior in eight adult humans on a slot-machine simulation. Participants were staked with credits exchangeable for money prior to each session. Experiment 1 a was a systematic replication of Weatherly and Brandt (2004), which investigated the effects of percentage payback (the amount of money gained as a proportion of the amount of money bet) on gambling. Percentage payback was varied from 50% to 110% across conditions. Consistent with Weatherly and Brandt, gambling did not vary systematically across percentage-payback conditions. Experiment 1 b replicated Experiment 1 a but also included forced-exposure sessions …


Potential Effects Of Aggressive Videogames On Young Adult’S Behavior And Physiology, Kent David Smallwood Dec 2005

Potential Effects Of Aggressive Videogames On Young Adult’S Behavior And Physiology, Kent David Smallwood

Masters Theses

Each year, interactive technology becomes more and more advanced, offering more lifelike environments, immersive experiences, and realistic situations. Additionally, the videogame industry has over doubled in size in less than ten years, now rivaling the box office industry. However, technological advances have quickly outpaced our understanding of the effects of certain types of adult content on the game player. To date, the majority of the research on the topic was conducted before the games themselves were technologically advanced enough to draw meaningful conclusions; the few studies conducted in the last few years, while offering promising methodological advancements from previous work, …


The Effects Of Feedback On Hourly Pay And Individual Monetary Incentives, Douglas A. Johnson Dec 2005

The Effects Of Feedback On Hourly Pay And Individual Monetary Incentives, Douglas A. Johnson

Masters Theses

The effects of performance feedback when individuals received fixed or individual incentive pay were examined. A 2 X 2 factorial design was used with approximately 30 college students in each group. Participants attended six experimental sessions. They entered the cash value of simulated bank checks presented on a computer screen. Monetary incentives increased the number of correctly completed checks (p = .000); however feedback had no effect (p = .825). Time spent working and rate of performance correlated strongly with the number of checks completed correctly, suggesting that both influenced the checks completed correctly. The results suggest that incentives increase …


Autism And Parental Marital Satisfaction: The Role Of Adequacy Of Resources, Geneeta Kaliah Chambers Dec 2005

Autism And Parental Marital Satisfaction: The Role Of Adequacy Of Resources, Geneeta Kaliah Chambers

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

The goal of the present study was to expand on the existing literature exploring families with children who have developmental disabilities, particularly autism. Previous studies have been constrained by univariate approaches that have failed to adequately capture the nuances of family functioning. Using an ecological/context approach, stemming from an ongoing research program conducted within a university-based treatment center, the present study attempted to improve on the conceptualization of interrelationships among family members and the role that contextual factors play within that dynamic. Specifically, the present study explored the influence of children’s level of autism on parents’ reports of their marital …


Assessing The Validity And Reliability Of The Spanish Translation Of Two Help-Seeking Instruments, Salvador Lopez-Arias Dec 2005

Assessing The Validity And Reliability Of The Spanish Translation Of Two Help-Seeking Instruments, Salvador Lopez-Arias

Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was twofold: (1) to translate two help-seeking scales (Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale (ATSPHHS) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Short Scale (ATSPPHS-S) into Spanish (S-ATSPPHS, S-ATSPPHS-S); and, (2) to examine indices of reliability and relationships to external correlates of the Spanish translations (acculturation, education, geographic background, socioeconomic status (SES), previous help-seeking, and, gender) to see whether the translated instruments measured the same help-seeking construct asthe English versions of the instruments.

In general, hypotheses on education, SES, and gender were not supported; hypotheses on acculturation and geographic background, while statistically significant, contradicted …