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2004

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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

The Sociopolitical Development Of Community And Labor Organizers Of Color: A Qualitative Study, Omar Guessous Dec 2004

The Sociopolitical Development Of Community And Labor Organizers Of Color: A Qualitative Study, Omar Guessous

Psychology Theses

This study applies qualitative methodology to the study of sociopolitical development (SPD) among community and labor organizers of color. Participant data (open-ended applications) were obtained from a long-standing training institution, span 18 years (n=200), and equally represent Black, Latino/a, and Asian individuals. This study sought to reveal important dimensions of SPD and to identify contributing life experiences. Three SPD themes emerged: (1) social analysis, (2) commitment, and (3) empowerment. An organizer thus exhibits multidimensional insight into social injustice, commitment to taking action, and genuine belief in his/her individual and collective abilities. Four experiential domains contributed to participants’ SPD: (a) family, …


Gender And Site-Name Recall Of Geographic Sites Varying In Distance., Joshua Sean Godsey Dec 2004

Gender And Site-Name Recall Of Geographic Sites Varying In Distance., Joshua Sean Godsey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research project was to replicate, refine, and extend research by Zinser et al. (in press) of the site-name, associative memory of male and female college students of nearby to very distant geographic sites. A test booklet included eight schematic aerial maps. The maps were of 20 to 50 geographic sites participants attempted to match with their names. The number of campus buildings, campus city sites, regional cities, U.S. cities, U.S. states, world cities, world countries, and world continents/bodies of water matched correctly were determined. A demographic questionnaire was also presented. Overall, men performed significantly better than …


The Relationships Among Perceptions Of Family Disharmony, Parent-Child Relationships, Disharmonious Family Experiences, And Adolescent Cigarette Smoking., Herbert F. Wolfe Dec 2004

The Relationships Among Perceptions Of Family Disharmony, Parent-Child Relationships, Disharmonious Family Experiences, And Adolescent Cigarette Smoking., Herbert F. Wolfe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among the following perspectives: perception of family disharmony, parent-child relationships, disharmonious family relationships, and adolescent cigarette smoking. Participants from a southeastern university reported about whether they smoke daily, weekly, monthly, never, or no longer smoke. The independent variable was smoking status of participants. Four to eight rating scales served as dependent variables for the three perspectives. Independent groups (smoking status) multivariate analyses of variance with unequal cell sizes were performed on the rating scale measures. Because none of the comparison tests were significant, the results were interpreted to suggest that …


Positive Self-Talk Statements As A Self-Esteem Building Technique Among Female Survivors Of Abuse., Fred Jackson Teaster Iii Dec 2004

Positive Self-Talk Statements As A Self-Esteem Building Technique Among Female Survivors Of Abuse., Fred Jackson Teaster Iii

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this integrated review of literature was to explore the relationship between and among females in abusive relationships, self-esteem, and positive self-talk. Various models are discussed that provide possible explanations in the understanding of the complex social and psychological nature of cyclic abuse. These models are: learned helplessness, psychological entrapment, self-verification theory, and feminist theory. It is suggested that positive self-talk statements used by the female survivor as a basis for cognitive restructuring can act as a self-esteem building technique, thus promoting healthier cognitions over time. Furthermore, it is argued that self-esteem enhancement can assist females in developing …


The Social Competence Of Homeschooled And Conventionally-Schooled Adolescents: A Preliminary Investigation, Denise Lopez Haugen Dec 2004

The Social Competence Of Homeschooled And Conventionally-Schooled Adolescents: A Preliminary Investigation, Denise Lopez Haugen

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)

Homeschooling is a controversial educational option that has grown dramatically during the past two decades. Socialization concerns contribute strongly to this controversy. Research in this area is sparse, but it indicates that homeschooled students do well academically and socially. Many homeschooling studies suffer, however, from serious methodological issues. This investigation sought to discover whether differences in social competence existed between sample populations of homeschooled and conventionally-schooled students; research in the arena of competence and resilience served to guide the methodology. Where differences were found, specifics were elucidated and factors contributing to these differences were isolated.

Forty-seven homeschooling and conventionally-schooling families …


Influence Of Age, Gender, And Race On Depression In Heart Failure Patients., Ronald Freudenberger, Stacey C. Cahn, Christine Skotzko Dec 2004

Influence Of Age, Gender, And Race On Depression In Heart Failure Patients., Ronald Freudenberger, Stacey C. Cahn, Christine Skotzko

PCOM Scholarly Papers

No abstract provided.


Book Review 2 Optimize Your Life! The One-Page Strategic Planner By Bernhoff A. Dahl, M.D., William C. Mcpeck Dec 2004

Book Review 2 Optimize Your Life! The One-Page Strategic Planner By Bernhoff A. Dahl, M.D., William C. Mcpeck

William C. McPeck

This is my personal review of Optimize Your Life! The One-page Strategic Planner by Bernhoff A. Dahl and published by Wind-Breaker Press in 2003.


Maintaining Health Boundaries When Working With At-Risk Audiences, Alayna Torretta Dec 2004

Maintaining Health Boundaries When Working With At-Risk Audiences, Alayna Torretta

Interpersonal Skills

Available here: http://www.joe.org/joe/2004december/iw5.php


Forgiveness And Rumination: Their Relationship And Effects On Psychological And Physical Health, Kimberly A. Edmondson Dec 2004

Forgiveness And Rumination: Their Relationship And Effects On Psychological And Physical Health, Kimberly A. Edmondson

Doctoral Dissertations

Forgiveness has recently become a popular focus of research in psychology. In addition to philosophical and theological explorations, psychologists have extended the study of forgiveness into physical and psychological health. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between forgiveness and rumination, as well as the associations among these two factors, health and acute physiological responses. Sixty females participated in a betrayal narrative as well as a rumination period. Two measures of state forgiveness, one measure of trait forgiveness, and two measures of trait rumination were used. Blood pressure and cortisol reactivity were assessed. State forgiveness was associated …


Equality News (Winter 2004-2005), Equality Maine Staff Dec 2004

Equality News (Winter 2004-2005), Equality Maine Staff

Maine Women's Publications - All

No abstract provided.


A Theater-Based Approach To Primary Prevention Of Sexual Behavior For Early Adolescents, Jessica B. Janega, David M. Murray, Sherri P. Varnell, Jonathan L. Blitstein, Amanda Birnbaum, Leslie A. Lytle Dec 2004

A Theater-Based Approach To Primary Prevention Of Sexual Behavior For Early Adolescents, Jessica B. Janega, David M. Murray, Sherri P. Varnell, Jonathan L. Blitstein, Amanda Birnbaum, Leslie A. Lytle

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

This article compares four mixed-model analyses valid for group-randomized trials (GRTs) involving a nested cohort design with a single pretest and posttest. This study makes estimates of intraclass correlations (ICCs) available to investigators planning GRTs addressing dietary outcomes. It also provides formulae demonstrating the potential benefits to the standard error of the intervention effect (σΔ) from adjustments for both fixed and time-varying covariates and correlations over time. These estimates will allow other researchers using these variables to plan their studies by estimating a priori detectable differences and sample size requirements for any of the four analytic options. These methods are …


The Influence Of Performance Success, Skill Level, And Gender On The Causal Attributions Of Recreational Golfers, Kevin W. Mchenry Dec 2004

The Influence Of Performance Success, Skill Level, And Gender On The Causal Attributions Of Recreational Golfers, Kevin W. Mchenry

College of Health Sciences & Human Performance

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of performance success, skill level, and gender on the causal attributions made by recreational golfers. Skill level was determined by handicap, and performance success was the golfer’s estimation of whether the particular round of golf was successful or unsuccessful. It was hypothesized that the causal attributions that recreational golfers made would be more internal, stable, and personally controllable after a successful performance than after an unsuccessful performance. Male and female golfers (N=101), from age 19 to 73, with an average age of 39, playing recreationally completed the Causal Dimension Scale-ll …


Toward A National Research Agenda On Violence Against Women: Continuing The Dialogue On Research And Practice [Part Two], Carol E. Jordan Dec 2004

Toward A National Research Agenda On Violence Against Women: Continuing The Dialogue On Research And Practice [Part Two], Carol E. Jordan

Office for Policy Studies on Violence Against Women Publications

No abstract provided.


Emotional Intelligence As A Moderator Of Problem Based Arousal On Solution Quality And Quantity, Anne E. Herman Dec 2004

Emotional Intelligence As A Moderator Of Problem Based Arousal On Solution Quality And Quantity, Anne E. Herman

Student Work

The study examined the interactive influence o f the affective qualities of a problem and a problem solver’s emotional intelligence (El), an individual difference in the ability to perceive, express, integrate, understand, and regulate emotion, on the quality and quantity of solutions generated to two different ill-structured problems. The general hypothesis was that emotional intelligence would moderate the effect of the negative emotional arousal of a problem controlling for the influence of cognitive intelligence, such that the discrepancy between those higher and lower in emotional intelligence would be greater for the problem which is high in emotional arousal than for …


The Adaptiveness Of Punishing Behavior: A Baseline Study, Levente Littvay Dec 2004

The Adaptiveness Of Punishing Behavior: A Baseline Study, Levente Littvay

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

This study sheds light on the current patterns of punishing behavior. Experimental work with ultimatum bargaining shows that individuals have a high sensitivity to fairness, and when taken advantage of, are willing to endure costs to punish deviant behavior. Third party observers of the unfair behavior asked to represent ultimatum recipients are more hesitant to engage in such punishment. This becomes ever more puzzling when we consider individuals’ high value of their own reputation in similar settings. This leaves both rational choice modelers and political psychologists puzzled. This study presents the baseline model for a research agenda proposing a multi-agent …


A Rude Awakening: What To Do With The Sleepwalking Defense?, Mike Horn Dec 2004

A Rude Awakening: What To Do With The Sleepwalking Defense?, Mike Horn

Boston College Law Review

Some sleepwalkers commit acts of violence, or even murder, in their sleep. Courts must decide what to do with criminal defendants who raise a defense of sleepwalking. A brief review of common law reveals that courts apply the defense inconsistently under various doctrines of justification and excuse. Sleepwalking is a unique medical phenomenon, and courts are poorly equipped to evaluate claims of sleepwalking under existing common law defenses. This Note proposes a single sleepwalking defense based on a balancing test that integrates the medical understanding of sleepwalking.


The Information Used To Judge Supportiveness Depends On Whether The Judgment Reflects The Personality Of Perceivers, Objective Characteristics Of Targets Or Their Unique Relationships, Brian Lakey, Catherine Lutz, Alan Scoboria Dec 2004

The Information Used To Judge Supportiveness Depends On Whether The Judgment Reflects The Personality Of Perceivers, Objective Characteristics Of Targets Or Their Unique Relationships, Brian Lakey, Catherine Lutz, Alan Scoboria

Psychology Faculty Publications

People who judge their relationships as more supportive enjoy better mental health than people who judge their relationships more negatively. We investigated how people made these judgments; specifically, how people weighed different types of information about targets under three different conditions: when judgments reflected the personality of perceivers, the objective characteristics of targets, and the unique relationships between perceivers and targets. Participants (i.e., perceivers) judged the same four videotaped targets on personality, similarity to perceivers and likely supportiveness. As in previous research, perceivers based their judgments on perceived target similarity to perceivers, and on target personality. However, how perceivers weighed …


Psychopathy And The Five Factor Model In A Noninstitutionalized Sample: A Domain And Facet Level Analysis, Scott R. Ross, Catherine J. Lutz, Steven E. Bailley Dec 2004

Psychopathy And The Five Factor Model In A Noninstitutionalized Sample: A Domain And Facet Level Analysis, Scott R. Ross, Catherine J. Lutz, Steven E. Bailley

Psychology Faculty Publications

The current study examined the relationship of the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality to primary and secondary psychopathic dispositions in a noninstitutionalized sample. Previous investigations suggest that Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism are basic personality traits that characterize psychopathy. However, few studies have examined the relationship of the FFM to primary and secondary psychopathic attributes, respectively. In the current study, the relationship of the FFM using the NEO-PI-R to primary and secondary psychopathic dispositions was investigated in a sample of young adults. Previous findings were extended by (1) addressing the relationship of higher and lower order FFM traits (i.e., facet …


Intimate Partner Violence And The Justice System: An Examination Of The Interface, Carol E. Jordan Dec 2004

Intimate Partner Violence And The Justice System: An Examination Of The Interface, Carol E. Jordan

Office for Policy Studies on Violence Against Women Publications

Women entering the court system face a challenging experience, in part, because a courtroom can be an intimidating and difficult place for any person, and in part because women victimized by crimes in which the offender is known to them face distinctive difficulties when they seek the court’s remedies. The interface is also made more challenging for women as the literature offers disparate findings as to the efficacy of criminal justice responses and civil remedies. This article briefly explores the unique characteristics of intimate partner violence cases that influence the interface of these victims with the court system.Areviewis provided of …


The Effect Of Levels Of Processing On Event-Related-Potentials, Warren Scott Merrifield Dec 2004

The Effect Of Levels Of Processing On Event-Related-Potentials, Warren Scott Merrifield

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

The primary research question for this study was to determine if physiological correlates of encoding and retrieval could be observed across three levels of processing. It was hypothesized that physiological correlates of encoding and retrieval would be observed at electrode sites near Cz with the semantic processing condition yielding the most positive going event-related-potential, the phonological processing condition yielding an intermediate positive going event-related-potential, and the perceptual processing condition yielding the least positive going-event-related-potential. The experiment had a study phase and test phase. For the study phase, participants were encouraged to process the target word at one of three different …


Child Pornography: Patterns From Nibrs., David Finkelhor, Richard Ormrod Dec 2004

Child Pornography: Patterns From Nibrs., David Finkelhor, Richard Ormrod

Crimes Against Children Research Center

Presents findings from the FBI’s National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). By collecting data on pornography/obscene material offenses from law enforcement jurisdictions, NIBRS enables researchers to draw conclusions about the number, locations, and characteristics of these crimes. NIBRS data suggest that approximately 2,900 crime incidents of pornography with juvenile involvement were known to state and local police in 2000; these offenses most often were committed by a lone adult male offender, occurred in a residence, and did not involve a computer. Currently, NIBRS data represent about 14 percent of the population. As more jurisdictions support uniform reporting of accurate data to …


A Meta-Analytic Review Of The Effects Of High Stress On Eyewitness Memory, Kenneth A. Deffenbacher, Brian H. Bornstein, Steven D. Penrod, E. Kiernan Mcgorty Dec 2004

A Meta-Analytic Review Of The Effects Of High Stress On Eyewitness Memory, Kenneth A. Deffenbacher, Brian H. Bornstein, Steven D. Penrod, E. Kiernan Mcgorty

Psychology Faculty Publications

In the past 30 years researchers have examined the impact of heightened stress on the fidelity of eyewitness memory. Meta-analyses were conducted on 27 independent tests of the effects of heightened stress on eyewitness identification of the perpetrator or target person and separately on 36 tests of eyewitness recall of details associated with the crime. There was considerable support for the hypothesis that high levels of stress negatively impact both types of eyewitness memory. Meta-analytic Z-scores, whether unweighted or weighted by sample size, ranged from -5.40 to -6.44 (high stress condition–low stress condition). The overall effect sizes were -.31 for …


Treatment Acceptability Of A Well-Established Cognitive Behavioral Therapy For Panic Disorder In A Passamaqyoddy Community, Elizabeth Ranslow Dec 2004

Treatment Acceptability Of A Well-Established Cognitive Behavioral Therapy For Panic Disorder In A Passamaqyoddy Community, Elizabeth Ranslow

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As a step towards evaluating the cross-cultural effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder, treatment acceptability was used in the current study to gain an understanding of the treatment utility and social validity of that treatment with a group of Passamaquoddy individuals. American Indian communities face substantial psychosocial challenges (e-g., poverty, discrimination, and high rates of violent deaths), which are associated with increased risk for psychopathology, and there is little empirical evidence of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy within these communities. The current study addressed these issues in two phases. In phase 1, qualitative methodology was used to …


Examining Restricted And Repetitive Behavior In Children With Autism: A Descriptive Study, Dawn Deann Detweiler Dec 2004

Examining Restricted And Repetitive Behavior In Children With Autism: A Descriptive Study, Dawn Deann Detweiler

Masters Theses

This exploratory study examined the specific topographies and corresponding demographic information of restricted, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, interests and activities of children with autism, and evaluated developmental differences between age groups. Previous literature has largely neglected this core feature of autism despite the need, and frequent call for such foundational data (Bodfish et al., 2000; Kennedy et al., 2000; Mercier et al., 2000; Turner, 1999). Participants included primary caregivers of 104 children who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autism (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and ranged in age from 3 to 7 years (M = 4. 7). The behaviors reported as occurring …


Reinforcement Schedules Modulate Discriminative Stimulus Properties Of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine And Cocaine, Daniel Kueh Dec 2004

Reinforcement Schedules Modulate Discriminative Stimulus Properties Of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine And Cocaine, Daniel Kueh

Masters Theses

Drug discrimination is a model used to assess the subjective effects of different psychoactive drugs such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and cocaine. However, results from MDMA discrimination studies across different laboratories have not been consistent. Possible confounds for this inconsistency may include the use of different reinforcement schedules such as the fixed-ratio 20 (FR20) and the variable interval 15 seconds (VI15 s) during discrimination training. Studies examining the effects of these two schedules on the discriminative stimulus properties of MDMA and cocaine have not been conducted. Thus, the present study compared the FR20 and the VI15 s schedules to determine their …


A Multicomponent Intervention System Using Human Performance Technology Concepts To Improve Performance In Small Service Businesses, Doug Lafleur Dec 2004

A Multicomponent Intervention System Using Human Performance Technology Concepts To Improve Performance In Small Service Businesses, Doug Lafleur

Masters Theses

A small business servicing dealerships in the chimney lining industry was responsible for training and resupplying contractors in a propriety chimney lining system. A process was developed for sharing and comparing the dealerships' financial reports and business processes. The process involved a small group of dealers attending regular 6- month meetings called Impact Groups. Dealers took turns hosting the meetings and having the attending dealers analyze their business. A detailed list of problems and solutions was provided to each host business.


Is Empathy Gendered And If So, Why? An Approach From Feminist Psychological Anthropology, Claudia Strauss Dec 2004

Is Empathy Gendered And If So, Why? An Approach From Feminist Psychological Anthropology, Claudia Strauss

Pitzer Faculty Publications and Research

Difference feminists have argued that women have special virtues. One such virtue would seem to be empathy, which has three main components: imaginative projection, awareness of the other's emotions, and concern. Empathy is closely related to identification. Psychological research and the author's own study of women's and men's talk about poverty and welfare use in the United States demonstrate women's greater empathic concern. However, some cross-cultural research shows greater sex differences in empathy in the United States than elsewhere. This combination of findings (women tend to demonstrate greater empathic concern, but this typical difference varies cross-culturally) requires a complex biocultural …


Size Matters: A Test Of Boldness In Eight Populations Of The Poeciliid Brachyraphis Episcopi, Culum Brown, Victoria Braithwaite Dec 2004

Size Matters: A Test Of Boldness In Eight Populations Of The Poeciliid Brachyraphis Episcopi, Culum Brown, Victoria Braithwaite

Sentience Collection

Individual variation in behaviour within populations may be explained in part by demographics and long-term, stable individual psychological differences. We examined the relation between boldness (taken as the time to emerge from a shelter and explore a novel environment) and body size in eight populations of the poeciliid Brachyraphis episcopi originating from sites upstream and downstream of waterfalls in four rivers that run into the Panama Canal. The relation between body size and time to emerge from a shelter was positive, with larger fish taking longer to emerge. This relation differed between downstream and upstream sites, being significant in the …


Assessing The Differential Outcomes Procedure With Children Diagnosed With Autism, Ivy M. Chong Dec 2004

Assessing The Differential Outcomes Procedure With Children Diagnosed With Autism, Ivy M. Chong

Dissertations

The differential outcomes effect (DOE) refers to the phenomenon whereby discrimination learning is enhanced when a correct response to a specific sample stimulus is followed by its own unique reward (Savage, 2001). According to some researchers, the DOE is a consistent and powerful effect that enhances the acquisition and retention of conditional discriminations (e.g., Urcuioli, 1990). This series of experiments sought to extend research on the DOE. In Experiment 1, we examined the differential outcomes procedure (DOP) with four children diagnosed with autism across various task types commonly used in early intervention. In Experiment 2, we examined the DOP with …


Evaluating Progress In Behavioral Programs For Children With Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Continuous Versus Intermittent Data Collection, Anne Rena Cummings Dec 2004

Evaluating Progress In Behavioral Programs For Children With Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Continuous Versus Intermittent Data Collection, Anne Rena Cummings

Dissertations

It is well documented that intensive behavioral treatment of early childhood autism can result in significant improvements in adaptive behavior. The typical teaching format in such programs is based on the restricted operant (i.e., discrete trial) in which the performance of an exemplar skill follows a clear instruction and precedes programmed reinforcement or error correction. Because of the often-intensive nature of behavioral treatment, it is not unusual for thousands of learning opportunities to be presented each week. There currently exists a professional debate regarding the frequency of data collection necessary in autism treatment programs. One side of the argument favors …