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1999

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Articles 1 - 30 of 556

Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Trends. Self, Security, And The Twenty-First Century, Ibpp Editor Dec 1999

Trends. Self, Security, And The Twenty-First Century, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

the author discusses impact of globalization and an ever-greater access to convenient, efficient, comprehensive, and quick telecommunications on the facilitation of the construction of a new homogeneous self.


Development Of A Management Practicum In A Clinical Psychology Program, Clark D. Campbell, William C. Buhrow, Brandy Liebscher Dec 1999

Development Of A Management Practicum In A Clinical Psychology Program, Clark D. Campbell, William C. Buhrow, Brandy Liebscher

Faculty Publications - Doctor of Psychology (PsyD) Program

Some clinical psychology programs are developing training in management in response to both the recognition that management is a major professional role for many psychologists (Clements, Rickard, & Kleinot, 1986) and the National Council of Schools of Professional Psychology’s (NCSPP) inclusion of “supervision and management” as one of six competency areas for the core curriculum in professional psychology (Peterson, R. L., McHolland, J. D., Bent, R. J., Davis-Russell, E., Edwall, G. E., Polite, K., Singer, D. L., & Stricker, G., 1991). At the Graduate School of Clinical Psychology at George Fox University (Newberg, OR), we developed a management practicum to …


Trends. Defenses Of Anti-Ballistic Missile Defenses, Ibpp Editor Dec 1999

Trends. Defenses Of Anti-Ballistic Missile Defenses, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The article discusses the belief by opponents of developing new and improved anti-ballistic missile (ABM) defenses,that such a change may risk a new nuclear weapons arms race.


School Bullying And Group Processes Survey, Margaret Linn Dec 1999

School Bullying And Group Processes Survey, Margaret Linn

Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this thesis is to determine the extent of bullying behavior in a southern New Jersey school as measured by an adapted version of the Olweus Bully Questionnaire. Four hundred seventy-two fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth grade middle school students were surveyed regarding bullying behavior in their school. The obtained percentages indicate an increase in the trends found by previous research.

Recently, there has been a shift in bullying research from a dyadic focus on the characteristics of the Bully and the Victim to the recognition of bullying as a whole group process, with the majority of children …


Aviation Disaster Primer: Psychologies Of Error, Ibpp Editor Dec 1999

Aviation Disaster Primer: Psychologies Of Error, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes common psychological phenomena that often mitigate against accurate induction and deduction of the causes of aviation disasters.


Shocked, Shocked In Serbia: Fundamental Attribution Errors, Ibpp Editor Dec 1999

Shocked, Shocked In Serbia: Fundamental Attribution Errors, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes many of the conflicting causal attributions bearing on the European Union's attempts to provide heating fuel to Serbian towns controlled by political parties in opposition to the ruling Serbian coalition supporting the President of Yugoslavia, Slobodan Milosevic.


The Revived Peace Agreement In Northern Ireland: Implications For An Applied Political Psychology Of Peace?, Ibpp Editor Dec 1999

The Revived Peace Agreement In Northern Ireland: Implications For An Applied Political Psychology Of Peace?, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes commonly posited psychological phenomena that are allegedly associated with attenuating conflict. The article then considers whether these phenomena are causally implicated in Northern Ireland's improving peace prospects.


Trends. Demonstrating At The World Trade Organization: The Rise And Fall Of Global An-Anarchists, Ibpp Editor Dec 1999

Trends. Demonstrating At The World Trade Organization: The Rise And Fall Of Global An-Anarchists, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The article discusses the existence of anarchists.


Trends. The Egyptair 990 Crash: A Misconception About Psychological Screening, Ibpp Editor Dec 1999

Trends. The Egyptair 990 Crash: A Misconception About Psychological Screening, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The article discusses the common, publicly promulgated misconception about psychological screening of pilots and other aircrew members in the aftermath of the EgyptAir 990 crash.


Tips, Volume 19, No. 4, 5 & 6, 1999/2000, Wolf P. Wolfensberger Dec 1999

Tips, Volume 19, No. 4, 5 & 6, 1999/2000, Wolf P. Wolfensberger

Training Institute Publication Series (TIPS)

• Poverty & the Poor

• The Gulf Between The Haves & Have-Nots

• Homelessness

• Crime

• Drugs & Crime

• Police & Security Issues

• Punishment

• The Jail & Prison Scene

• Hobo, Drunk, Poverty, Homelessness &/or Jailhouse Songs & Poetry

• The Family

• Baby-Making or Baby-Getting

• Fecundity New "Ethical Dilemmas" Created by Modernistic Reproduction Practices

• The Deconstruction of the Family

• Family/Marital Stability

• Violence Between Spouses or Lovers

• Issues Related to Adoption & Fostering

• The Relevance of Children Having Intact Families

• Parental Engagement with Child-Rearing

• Child-Junking

• Children …


Access To Another Mind: Naturalistic Theories Require Naturalistic Data, Mark A. Krause, Gordon Burghardt Dec 1999

Access To Another Mind: Naturalistic Theories Require Naturalistic Data, Mark A. Krause, Gordon Burghardt

Gordon Burghardt

If there is to be a natural theory of consciousness that would satisfy both philosophers and scientists, it must be based on naturalistic data and minimal clutter accumulated from semantic arguments. Carruthers offers a 'natural' theory of consciousness that is rather myopic. To explore the evolutionary basis of consciousness, a natural theory should include comparative psychological and neurological data that encompass nonlinguistic measures. Such an approach could provide a clearer picture of the adaptive function, mechanisms, and origins of consciousness.


The Relationship Between African Self Consciousness And Attitudes In Heterosexual Relationships Among African American College Students In Two Different Settings, Rhonda M. Dalrymple Dec 1999

The Relationship Between African Self Consciousness And Attitudes In Heterosexual Relationships Among African American College Students In Two Different Settings, Rhonda M. Dalrymple

Electronic Dissertation and Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between African Self-Consciousness and attitudes towards interpersonal relationships among African American college students, ending classes at a predominantly white university, Northwestern State University, and at a predominantly black university, Southern University. The ASC scale was used to assess the Black personality construct of African self-consciousness. The BHR survey was used to assess the subjects' perceptions concerning heterosexual relationships. The findings support the hypothesis that ASC is directly related to whether the individual possesses Afrocentric or Eurocentric beliefs and attitudes. A direct relationship was found between environment and attitudes of the …


The Biphobia Scale: Development And Validation, Patrick S. Mulick Dec 1999

The Biphobia Scale: Development And Validation, Patrick S. Mulick

Masters Theses

Sexual orientation is generally assessed as a dichotomous variable, rather than a continuous variable. According to this classification the concept of bisexuality does not exist and there is a dearth of research for the construct. Some theorists believe that this lack of knowledge has led to fear and discrimination of bisexual individuals (Ochs, 1996; Rust, 1993). Biphobia, defined as negative attitudes about bisexuality and bisexual individuals, is a psychological construct that is not well understood. There has been a recent resurgence of interest in bisexuality and biphobia but there are currently limited empirical investigations examining the constructs. And, no scale …


Officer Involved Shooting: The Emotional Impact And The Effective Coping Strategies, Patrick P. Charoen Dec 1999

Officer Involved Shooting: The Emotional Impact And The Effective Coping Strategies, Patrick P. Charoen

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The emotional impact of a shooting incident on the individual police officer has been recognized and detailed by both police and mental health professionals (Lippert & Ferrara, 1984). The human cost and financial costs to Police Departments as a result of "post shooting" trauma has sensitized many departments to the need for professional support for officers involved in shootings. Recent survey research has provided information about the percentage of officers who experienced great, moderate, or no emotional impact after being involved in shootings (Stratton, 1982). However, information about the degree to which police departments have responded to this need has …


The Believability Of Hearsay Testimony Involving Child Witnesses: Effects Of Age And Format, Beverly J. Smith Dec 1999

The Believability Of Hearsay Testimony Involving Child Witnesses: Effects Of Age And Format, Beverly J. Smith

Masters Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

Open court testimony poses difficulty for child witnesses required to face the defendant. Certain laws allow hearsay testimony to replace the alleged child victim's testimony. This study examines the relationship of the child's age to the relative believability of three hearsay testimony fonnats in a 2 (child witnesses: one 4-year-old and one 8-year-old) x 3 (hearsay conditions: interview of child, interviewer testimony in "gist" or summary form, or interviewer testimony in detailed, "verbatim" fonn) design. Transcripts were based on actual child sexual abuse interviews ( one 4 and one 8-year-old female) obtained for prior research with permission from Child Protective …


Majority And Minority Supervisees' Perceptions Of Clinical Supervision, Vivian Barnette Dec 1999

Majority And Minority Supervisees' Perceptions Of Clinical Supervision, Vivian Barnette

Dissertations

Perceptions of clinical supervision of 175 majority and minority counseling psychology doctoral students selected from a national pool was the study’s focal point. Instruments used were the Revised Relational Inventory (RRI; Barrett- Lennard, 1962; Schacht, Howe, & Berman, 1988) and the Supervision Perception Form-Trainee (SPF-T) developed by Heppner and Roehlke (1984). Participants were instructed to based their ratings on their last supervision experience. Data were collected and scored on the five subscales o f the RRI (Congruence, Empathetic Understanding, Regard, Unconditionality, and Willingness to be Known) and the two subscales of the SPF-T (Willingness to Learn and Supervisory Impact).

A …


A Preliminary Investigation Of The Construct Of Psychopathic Personality (Psychopathy) In Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Scott O. Lilienfeld, Jonathan Gershon, Marshall Duke, Lori Marino, Frans B. M. De Waal Dec 1999

A Preliminary Investigation Of The Construct Of Psychopathic Personality (Psychopathy) In Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Scott O. Lilienfeld, Jonathan Gershon, Marshall Duke, Lori Marino, Frans B. M. De Waal

Sentience Collection

Although the construct of psychopathy has received considerable attention in humans, its relevance to other animals is largely unknown. We developed a measure of psychopathy for use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), the Chimpanzee Psychopathy Measure (CPM), and asked 6 raters to complete this index on 34 chimpanzees. The CPM (a) demonstrated satisfactory interrater reliability and internal consistency; (b) exhibited marginally significant sex differences (males > females); (c) correlated positively with measures of extraversion, agreeableness, and observational ratings of agonism, sexual activity, daring behaviors, teasing, silent bluff displays, and temper tantrums, and negatively with observational ratings of generosity; and (d) demonstrated incremental …


Scale-Model Comprehension By Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Valerie A. Kuhlmeier, Sarah T. Boysen, Kimberly L. Mukobi Dec 1999

Scale-Model Comprehension By Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Valerie A. Kuhlmeier, Sarah T. Boysen, Kimberly L. Mukobi

Sentience Collection

The ability of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to recognize the correspondence between a scale model and its real-world referent was examined. In Experiments 1 and 2, an adult female and a young adult male watched as an experimenter hid a miniature model food in 1 of 4 sites in a scale model. Then, the chimpanzees were given the opportunity to find the real food item that had been hidden in the analogous location in the real room. The female performed significantly above chance, whereas the male performed at chance level. Experiments 3 and 4 tested 5 adult and 2 adolescent chimpanzees …


Social Mechanisms Enhance Escape Responses In Shoals Of Rainbowfish, Melanotaenia Duboulayi, Culum Brown, Kevin Warburton Dec 1999

Social Mechanisms Enhance Escape Responses In Shoals Of Rainbowfish, Melanotaenia Duboulayi, Culum Brown, Kevin Warburton

Aquaculture Collection

Shoaling behaviour has been shown to provide many benefits to group members. In this study we examined the ability of fish shoals to escape from a novel trawl apparatus. Fish in shoals of 5 found, and escaped through, a hole in the oncoming trawl more quickly than fish in pairs. Fish in the larger shoals displayed a significant decrease in escape latencies over a series of five trawls, providing clear evidence of net avoidance learning, whereas fish in pairs showed no evidence of learning over successive runs. Observations suggested that more information on the location of the escape route was …


Factors Of Job-Related Stress As Perceived By Middle School Principals In Virginia, Teresa I. Snyder Dec 1999

Factors Of Job-Related Stress As Perceived By Middle School Principals In Virginia, Teresa I. Snyder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study was conducted among middle school principals in Virginia to determine their perceptions of job-related stress factors. The entire population of middle school principals (grades 6, 7, 8) was selected to participate in the study. The Administrative Stress Index was used to assess factors that cause principals stress on the job and to measure their stress levels. A demographic data form was used to collect data on the variables of age, gender, administrative experience, assistant principal support, student enrollment, adults supervised, percentage of students receiving free or reduced lunch, location of school, type of school, experience as a middle …


Comparing Outcome O F Residential And Intensive Outpatient Treatment Services For Substance Dependence, Shawn E. Channell Dec 1999

Comparing Outcome O F Residential And Intensive Outpatient Treatment Services For Substance Dependence, Shawn E. Channell

Dissertations

The past 20 years have witnessed a significant increase in the number of published studies comparing inpatient with outpatient substance dependence treatment The majority of these studies have reported no benefit for those recipients receiving more intensive treatment However, the outpatient treatment investigated in these studies has typically been day treatment often involving 27 hours a week of participation, and not intensive outpatient treatment (IOP), which involves 12 or fewer hours of participation per week. Additionally, few published studies have compared alcohol and cocaine dependent populations. This study was designed to compare effectiveness of the residential and intensive outpatient levels …


A Comparison Of The Effects Of Temporal Requirement And Response Form On Retention, Equivalence, And Endurance, Amy Lorraine Mccarty Dec 1999

A Comparison Of The Effects Of Temporal Requirement And Response Form On Retention, Equivalence, And Endurance, Amy Lorraine Mccarty

Dissertations

Many researchers and practitioners have reported dramatic learning gains that they attribute to the fluency procedure, often citing rate of response as a critical feature. Others have been unsuccessful at demonstrating these claims empirically. A variety of differences between methods and procedures that may account for the different outcomes are discussed in this paper. In particular is the difference in outcomes when topography-based as opposed to selection-based responses were targeted for training. Fluency practitioners, and the researchers who have obtained similar positive outcomes, have for the most part used topography-based forms of response during the drill and practice sessions, or …


Cognitive Components Of Social Anxiety: A Comparison Of Elderly And Young Adults, Jeffery Alan Mcneil Dec 1999

Cognitive Components Of Social Anxiety: A Comparison Of Elderly And Young Adults, Jeffery Alan Mcneil

Dissertations

The present study investigated the underlying cognitive elements of social anxiety in elderly and young adult samples. The young adult participants in this study were 99 undergraduate students from a Midwestern university, recruited through scheduled undergraduate classes from both the Communication and Education Departments. Fifty elderly participants from two independent living senior residence centers were recruited through organizational meetings and contacts coordinated through the housing director or the wellness director. One senior residential center was located in the Midwest, while the other was in the Southeast. The study employed well recognized self-report cognitive measures to assess social anxiety: the Fear …


The Validity Of The Adhd Section Of The Diagnostic Interview Schedule For Children, Ann M. Mcgrath Dec 1999

The Validity Of The Adhd Section Of The Diagnostic Interview Schedule For Children, Ann M. Mcgrath

Dissertations

The purpose o f this study was to learn more about the validity o f the ADHD portion of the NIMH-DISCIV. In order to accomplish this goal, 58 youth participants were divided into three groups: (1) subjects who met criteria for ADHD based upon both the youth and the caretaker versions of the DISC; (2) subjects who met criteria for ADHD based upon the caretaker DISC, but not according to the youth DISC; and (3) subjects who did not meet criteria for ADHD according to either the youth or the caretaker DISC. Subjects in these groups were compared across parent …


The Relationship Between Multicultural Counseling Competencies And Attitudes Toward African Americans Among White Female Graduate Students, Dianne T. Robinson Dec 1999

The Relationship Between Multicultural Counseling Competencies And Attitudes Toward African Americans Among White Female Graduate Students, Dianne T. Robinson

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between multicultural counseling competencies and attitudes toward African Americans among White female graduate students in counseling psychology. Participants were 67 White female students enrolled in either the master’s or doctoral level counseling psychology programs in a large Midwestern university. Subjects were administered four instruments. Participants’ self-perceived competencies in multicultural counseling were measured by the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI, Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994) and racial attitudes were measured by the Attitudes Toward Blacks Scale (ATB, Brigham, 1993). Demographic information as well as subjects’ level of participation in several activities …


Evaluating The Effects Of Postive Peer Reporting On Social Acceptance, Mary Short Dec 1999

Evaluating The Effects Of Postive Peer Reporting On Social Acceptance, Mary Short

Dissertations

The effects of a positive peer reporting procedure on social status and social interactions were assessed. Children who are socially rejected seem to be disliked by their peers due to their high frequency of negative behaviors and low frequency of positive behaviors. Therefore, to decrease the negative behaviors and increase the positive behaviors, rejected children were asked to make positive comments about their peers. Participants included 4 children, ages 10-15 years. A multiple baseline across subjects design was utilized. Collection of baseline data began immediately following the confirmation of consent and eligibility for the child to participate. Initial baseline data …


Perceptions Of The Division Of Labor Roles In Dual-Career Households Of Married African American Couples, Karolyn H. Thompson Dec 1999

Perceptions Of The Division Of Labor Roles In Dual-Career Households Of Married African American Couples, Karolyn H. Thompson

Dissertations

Perceptions and experiences among married African American couples residing in the Southeastern United States were examined in terms of the performance of tasks and childcare giving in dual-career households. A qualitative approach was used in this study and was guided by conceptual frameworks of cultural variations that include behaviors, attitudes, values, and beliefs. In-depth interviews conducted in the couples’ homes were used for data collection. The research population included 15 married African American couples affiliated with a Greek fraternal organization located in the Southeast. The couples were selected using purposeful sampling.

Participant perceptions of the division of labor roles in …


Birth Cohort Differences In Features Of Antisocial Alcoholism Among Men And Women, S. F. Stoltenberg, E. M. Hill, S. A. Mudd, F. C. Blow, R. A. Zucker Dec 1999

Birth Cohort Differences In Features Of Antisocial Alcoholism Among Men And Women, S. F. Stoltenberg, E. M. Hill, S. A. Mudd, F. C. Blow, R. A. Zucker

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Background: This study examines the relations between birth cohort, gender, and family history of alcohol problems on alcohol dependence, and on the endorsement of alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms related to antisocial behavior. Methods: Men (n = 1365) and women (n = 625) were recruited from the community, hospitals, and other treatment sites and were given a structured diagnostic interview. Data were analyzed by using logistic regression. Results: Age of first regular alcohol use was lower in more recent birth cohorts for both men and women, with those born in the most recent cohort reporting earliest regular use. The decline …


Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of (+)-7-Oh-Dpat In Rats: Importance Of D3 Receptors, April J. Christian Dec 1999

Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of (+)-7-Oh-Dpat In Rats: Importance Of D3 Receptors, April J. Christian

Masters Theses

Despite the reported relatively high binding affinity of 7-OH-DPAT to dopamine D3 receptors, results of recent investigations with the highly selective 03 receptor antagonist, PNU-99194A have questioned the importance of 03 receptors in the discriminative stimulus effects of 7-OH-DPAT. In the present study, sixteen male Sprague- Dawley rats (N=8/group) were trained to discriminate (+)- 7-OH-DPAT (0.03 mg/kg, sc) from saline in a two-lever operant procedure using a fixed-ratio 20 schedule of water reinforcement. After stable performance was established, substitution tests were conducted with the D3-prefering agonist, (+)-PD-128907 and the psychostimulant cocaine. Additionally, antagonism were conducted with the …


Elderly Respondents' Perceptions Of Patronizing Speech By Service Providers Toward Elderly Adults., Tammi Rae La Tourette Dec 1999

Elderly Respondents' Perceptions Of Patronizing Speech By Service Providers Toward Elderly Adults., Tammi Rae La Tourette

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the effects of several factors in elderly respondents' evaluations of neutral and patronizing speech by nurses toward elderly targets. Thirty-eight nursing home and 62 community Caucasian elderly women viewed two videotaped vignettes, one in which a nurse spoke to an elder target in a patronizing tone, and one with a neutral tone. Both samples rated the nurse more favorably, rated the elder target more satisfied with the conversation, and assumed that the nurse-elder dyad knew each other better when the nurse's speech was neutral as opposed to patronizing. Contrary to what was predicted, community elders did not …