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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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Virginia Commonwealth University

2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 94

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Faith Based Environmental Stewardship: Practices And Attitudes Of Christian Churches On Virginia’S Northern Neck And Eastern Shore, Paoula Sehannie Dec 2010

Faith Based Environmental Stewardship: Practices And Attitudes Of Christian Churches On Virginia’S Northern Neck And Eastern Shore, Paoula Sehannie

Theses and Dissertations

In recent years there has been a growing interest in the relationship between religion and the environment. The purpose of this project is to explore the environmental practices and attitudes of Christian churches in two Virginia Communities. The two communities; the Northern Neck and Eastern Shore are located on the Chesapeake Bay and have a shared history of dependence on the Bay. The results of the dissertation demonstrate the prevalence of environmental programs in the population, the nature of these programs and the respondents’ attitudes towards a host of environmental issues. These results can be used by environmental professionals and ...


African American Women's Health: An Examination Of Resource Needs, Context, And Public Policy Over The Life Course, Cynthia Newbille Dec 2010

African American Women's Health: An Examination Of Resource Needs, Context, And Public Policy Over The Life Course, Cynthia Newbille

Theses and Dissertations

African American Women's Health: An Examination of Resource Needs, Context, and Public Policy over the Life Course


Relations Of Depression, Social Support, And Socio-Demographic Factors On Health Behaviors Of Mothers With Premature Infants Hospitalized In A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (Nicu), Surbhi Kanotra Dec 2010

Relations Of Depression, Social Support, And Socio-Demographic Factors On Health Behaviors Of Mothers With Premature Infants Hospitalized In A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (Nicu), Surbhi Kanotra

Theses and Dissertations

The present study examined the relationships of depression, social support, and socio-demographic factors on health behaviors of mothers with preterm infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In addition, the study also assessed the moderation effect of social support on the relationship between depression and health behaviors. Eighty-nine mothers with hospitalized infants in the central Richmond area participated in the study. Analyses found that mother’s education level and her marital status to be significantly associated with her health behaviors. Mothers with a higher level of education and those who were married, were less likely to smoke and ...


Predicting Arithmetic Performance From Age And Executive Function Skills, Andrea Molzhon Dec 2010

Predicting Arithmetic Performance From Age And Executive Function Skills, Andrea Molzhon

Theses and Dissertations

The learning of mathematics can be a difficult process for many students. Understanding the cognitive components that contribute to arithmetic achievement may illuminate sources of difficulty and inform the development of better teaching and learning practices. Executive functions (EFs) have been implicated in the development of arithmetic skills in early childhood, but less is known about this relation across middle childhood and beyond. The current study included individuals ages 6-7, 9-10, 12-13, and 18+ years and examined the contributions of 3 components of EF, working memory (WM), inhibition, and set shifting (SS), to arithmetic skills in two domains. It was ...


Coordinating Code In Virginia’S Historic Districts, Drew Gruber Dec 2010

Coordinating Code In Virginia’S Historic Districts, Drew Gruber

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis explores the evolution and limitations of regulatory and historic district overlay zones and the inherent conflicts between the two as applied in Virginia. Historic district overlay zoning and the establishment of local historic districts and design review boards has developed in response to the failures of traditional zoning techniques to adequately protect the architectural character of Virginia’s historic urban landscapes. After almost fifty years of practice and improvement in the fields of urban planning and historic preservation, synchronizing regulatory and historic district overlay zones still presents difficulties for municipal administrators. Several Virginia jurisdictions are highlighted in the ...


Maternal Depressive Symptoms And Health Outcomes In Youths With Type 1 Diabetes: A Mediational Model, Struemph Kari Morgan Dec 2010

Maternal Depressive Symptoms And Health Outcomes In Youths With Type 1 Diabetes: A Mediational Model, Struemph Kari Morgan

Theses and Dissertations

Objectives: The rate and impact of depressive symptoms were examined with two models based on known effects of depression on variables related to diabetes management, parental involvement and diabetes conflict. The proposed models will measure potential effects high maternal depressive symptoms may have on parental monitoring and involvement and diabetes specific conflict and how these variables may in turn relate to poor regimen adherence. Methods: Participants included 225 mothers and young adolescents (aged 11-14) with T1D. Diabetes self-care behaviors were measured with the 24 Hour Recall Interview, parental involvement and monitoring were measured with the Parent Management of Diabetes Scale ...


Utility Of The General Validity Scale Model: Development Of Validity Scales For The Co-Parenting Behavior Questionnaire, Kimberly Parker Dec 2010

Utility Of The General Validity Scale Model: Development Of Validity Scales For The Co-Parenting Behavior Questionnaire, Kimberly Parker

Theses and Dissertations

Validity scales for child-report measures are necessary tools in clinical and forensic settings in which major decisions affecting the child and family are in question. Currently there is no standard model for the development and testing of such validity scales. The present study focused on 1) creating the General Validity Scale (GVS) Model to serve as a guide in validity scale development and 2) applying this model in the development of validity scales for the Co-parenting Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), a child-report measure of parenting and co-parenting behaviors for children whose parents are divorced. Study 1 used the newly developed GVS ...


Compensation And Organizational Outcomes: Examining The Relationship Between Teacher Salaries And Student Achievement For School Divisions In Virginia, Matthew Steele Nov 2010

Compensation And Organizational Outcomes: Examining The Relationship Between Teacher Salaries And Student Achievement For School Divisions In Virginia, Matthew Steele

Theses and Dissertations

This research presents the results of general linear modeling (GLM) of 131 school divisions in Virginia. The purpose of this research is to answer the question: What is the relationship between teacher salaries and student achievement as measured by Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)? Utilizing an equity theory and distributive justice perspective, data related to achievement in English and mathematics by high school students, as measured by the requirements of AYP, were culled from the Virginia Department of Education for every school division in Virginia in the subjects of reading, writing, algebra I, geometry, and algebra II. These data represent the ...


Ethnic Identity Development Among Rural Adolescent Youth, Adam Iglesias Nov 2010

Ethnic Identity Development Among Rural Adolescent Youth, Adam Iglesias

Theses and Dissertations

The current study evaluated the factor analytic structure and developmental trajectory of ethnic identity, as measured by the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, (MEIM) among early rural adolescents. The convergent validity of the measure for rural youth was also examined. The sample for this study was drawn from a larger longitudinal study focusing on violence prevention efforts with an early adolescent sample residing in rural Florida. The final sample size for these secondary analyses was 5,695 participants. The sample was 53 % Caucasian, 24% Latino, 15% African American, and 8% Other. The mean age of the students was 11.3 years ...


Utilization Of Simulation To Teach Pelvic Examination Skills To Medical Students: Implications For Medical Education, Brenda Seago Nov 2010

Utilization Of Simulation To Teach Pelvic Examination Skills To Medical Students: Implications For Medical Education, Brenda Seago

Theses and Dissertations

Medical education is changing. Physicians have less time for teaching clinical skills and for direct observation of medical students, due to sicker patients in the hospital, shorter hospital stays, competing demands of research and patient care, and implementation of the eighty hour work week for residents. The consumer movement increased awareness of medical errors, patient safety and quality of healthcare. Teaching the pelvic examination is ethically complex. Questions have arisen about medical students learning to conduct the pelvic examination on actual patients. This study utilizes the pelvic examination simulator and genital teaching associates (GTAs) to teach pelvic exam skills to ...


The Impact Of Deployment And Psychological Well-Being On Family Relationships: A Secondary Analysis Of Air Force Community Assessment Data, Keita Franklin Nov 2010

The Impact Of Deployment And Psychological Well-Being On Family Relationships: A Secondary Analysis Of Air Force Community Assessment Data, Keita Franklin

Theses and Dissertations

Airmen serving in the U.S. Air Force have made significant contributions to the overall war efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Deployment, combat exposure, and subsequent combat-related mental health issues can have effects that extended beyond the airmen to the family. The primary aim of this study was to determine the path through which such effects occur within the context of risk and protective factors. The risk factors identified in this study were: deployment length and frequency and psychological symptomology. The construct of social support was also examined as an identified protective factor. This study examined the relationships between all ...


Individual Contributions To Stigma And Attitudes Toward Help-Seeking Among Rural Emerging Adult College Students, Margaret Gsell Oct 2010

Individual Contributions To Stigma And Attitudes Toward Help-Seeking Among Rural Emerging Adult College Students, Margaret Gsell

Theses and Dissertations

Rural communities are by definition less densely populated and more geographically isolated than non-rural communities, which often translates into higher rates of poverty and poor access to health care, especially mental health care. Previous research has found that persons residing in rural communities endorse higher rates of stigmatized beliefs towards individuals with mental illness and subsequently lower rates of professional help-seeking when compared to persons residing in non-rural communities. This study evaluated whether these attitudes were also present among emerging adults (18-24 years old) who had lived in a rural community for at least 10 years and were currently enrolled ...


Mothers' Adaptation In The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: An Examination Of The Effects Of Meaning Making, Control And Self-Enhancement On Depression, Claire Russell Oct 2010

Mothers' Adaptation In The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: An Examination Of The Effects Of Meaning Making, Control And Self-Enhancement On Depression, Claire Russell

Theses and Dissertations

With over 400,000 infants being hospitalized in the NICU annually, it is important to understand adjustment in their mothers. Taylor’s cognitive theory of adaptation asserts that three factors, meaning making, control, and self-enhancement, influence positive adjustment in a crisis situation such as a NICU hospitalization. Since it has never been examined, the purpose of the current study was to test the utility of Taylor’s model in mothers with an infant in the NICU. Data was collected from mothers with an infant in the NICU (N = 181) and the main hypothesis was that meaning making, control, and self-enhancement ...


Relational Humility, Don Davis Sep 2010

Relational Humility, Don Davis

Theses and Dissertations

The study of humility has progressed slowly due to lack of theory and measurement issues. In the present dissertation, I review the literature on humility and propose a theory of relational humility. The model conceptualizes humility as a personality judgment, aligning its study with a large literature that spans social and personality psychology. Then, in four studies, I examined initial evidence for the theoretical model. In Study 1 (N=300), I created the Relational Humility Scale (RHS) and evaluated its items using exploratory factor analysis. The RHS was found to have 3 subscales: Global Humility, Superiority, and Accurate View of ...


Geropsychiatric Nursing Staff: The Role Of Empowerment, Geriatric Caregiving Self-Efficacy, And Emotional Labor At Work, Ann Smolen-Hetzel Sep 2010

Geropsychiatric Nursing Staff: The Role Of Empowerment, Geriatric Caregiving Self-Efficacy, And Emotional Labor At Work, Ann Smolen-Hetzel

Theses and Dissertations

The current research examined the influence of the emotional labor strategies of faking emotion and suppression of emotion, empowerment, and geriatric caregiving self-efficacy on the relationship between work stress and emotional exhaustion—one dimension of burnout—for a sample of nursing staff members employed in a state-level geriatric psychiatric hospital. The total sample included 79 participants, which included registered nurses (n = 15), licensed practical nurses (n = 23) , and human service care workers (n = 41) who completed the Stress in General scale (Stanton, Balzer, Smith, Parra, & Ironson, 2001), Maslach Burnout Inventory (Human Services Survey; Maslach, Jackson & Leiter, 1996), Discrete Emotions Emotional Labor Scale (Glomb & Tews, 2004), Psychological Empowerment Scale ...


Urban Adolescents’ Cognitive Responses To Peer Victimization: Does Psychosocial Adjustment Play A Role?, Amie Bettencourt Aug 2010

Urban Adolescents’ Cognitive Responses To Peer Victimization: Does Psychosocial Adjustment Play A Role?, Amie Bettencourt

Theses and Dissertations

Peer victimization is characterized by acts of physical, relational, and verbal aggression that can contribute to maladjustment. Youths’ responses to peer victimization are guided by social information-processing (SIP) skills that impact their adjustment. Maladjustment can contribute to biases in SIP. Biased processing occurs when youth rely on existing schemas without attending to cues from the immediate social context. These processing deficits contribute to the enactment of problematic responses that may lead to further maladjustment. However, not all youth exhibit SIP deficits. A recent study identified four adjustment clusters based on differences in aggression, anxiety, depression, social acceptance, and victimization within ...


Informing Social Work Practice Through The Enhancement Of The Biological Perspective: A Course Intervention Model For Human Service Professionals Working With Youth And Problems Of Conduct., Allison Sampson Aug 2010

Informing Social Work Practice Through The Enhancement Of The Biological Perspective: A Course Intervention Model For Human Service Professionals Working With Youth And Problems Of Conduct., Allison Sampson

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention model designed to enhance practitioners’ biological lens when using a biopsychosocial-spiritual model of holistic assessment and planning. The specific intervention utilized is a course curriculum developed to broaden human service professionals’ (including clinical social work professionals) understanding of attachment theory, neuroscience and trauma informed methods of practice. The course teaches professionals how to apply this knowledge to clinical assessment and intervention planning with youth who have experienced significant trauma in their lives and exhibit problems of conduct. Using an experimental design, participants from a large private mental ...


Cultural Factors And Communication During Medical Consultations With Hiv-Positive Racial/Ethnic Minority Patients, Lillian Stevens Aug 2010

Cultural Factors And Communication During Medical Consultations With Hiv-Positive Racial/Ethnic Minority Patients, Lillian Stevens

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the relationships between cultural characteristics, communication variables, and medical outcomes in HIV-positive racial/ethnic minority patients. Participants included 33 patients and 5 providers across two urban, community medical clinics. The patient sample was 61% African American, 24% Latino, and 15% Other/Mixed. The majority (73%) were male. Providers included one White female physician, one White male nurse practitioner, two White female nurse practitioners, and one White male physician assistant. In this descriptive study, patients completed self-report ratings of their desire for engagement in decision-making prior to their scheduled medical consultation. After their consultations, patients rated their provider ...


A Profile Of Inner-City Public School Districts: A Comparative Analysis Of U.S. Metropolitan Area Demographics And The Abandonment Of Neighborhood Schools, Belinda Saunders Aug 2010

A Profile Of Inner-City Public School Districts: A Comparative Analysis Of U.S. Metropolitan Area Demographics And The Abandonment Of Neighborhood Schools, Belinda Saunders

Theses and Dissertations

Most departments of education and school boards do not identify nor compile data reasons for public school abandonments. Public schools are anchors, vital components, and “heartbeats” of communities that contribute to the growth or decline of neighborhoods. Despite the influences that public schools have on the development and sustainability of neighborhoods, public school abandonments are increasing. School systems use abandonments to address challenges of poor academic achievements, decreasing budgets, declining enrollments, and deteriorating and underutilized facilities. However, absent from literature are comprehensive data and analyses that identify the number of public school abandonments, their locations, or the contributing factors for ...


Precursors And Risk Factors Associated With The Development Of Traumatic Stress After Childbirth, Jennifer Runnals Jul 2010

Precursors And Risk Factors Associated With The Development Of Traumatic Stress After Childbirth, Jennifer Runnals

Theses and Dissertations

A prospective study of pregnant women was undertaken to provide an estimate of rates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after childbirth that takes into account pre-existing trauma; to explore risk factors associated with the development of traumatic stress after birth; and to better understand incidence and risk factors associated with fear of childbirth, which is thought to contribute to postpartum Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Ninety participants in their last trimester of pregnancy completed questionnaires that included depression, trait anxiety, PTSD, anxiety sensitivity, childbearing fear, and self-efficacy for labor. Four weeks after delivery 73 of these women completed questionnaires concerning delivery, posttraumatic stress ...


An Assessment Of The Methods That Are Used To Recruit College Students Into The Turkish Hezbollah., Tuncay Unal Jun 2010

An Assessment Of The Methods That Are Used To Recruit College Students Into The Turkish Hezbollah., Tuncay Unal

Theses and Dissertations

This study aims to identify tactics used by the Turkish Hezbollah to recruit college students into joining their terrorist organization. This study based on the assumptions that social networks and institutional structures are two main tools that are used effectively by the Turkish Hezbollah to recruit college educated students. In this sense, the researcher claims that Social Learning theory and Social Control Theories can be used to provide theoretical explanation to the Hezbollah’s recruitment strategy. Parallel to these theories assumptions, while having militants within social networks increases the likelihood of being recruited through social learning theory assumptions, college students ...


Perceptions Of Social Acceptance And Peer And Romantic Relationship Self-Efficacy As Pediatric Cancer Survivors Approach Adulthood, Rebecca Foster May 2010

Perceptions Of Social Acceptance And Peer And Romantic Relationship Self-Efficacy As Pediatric Cancer Survivors Approach Adulthood, Rebecca Foster

Theses and Dissertations

Social acceptance and peer and romantic relationship self-efficacy were examined as salient factors related to social development among emerging adult (ages 18 to 25) survivors of pediatric cancers. Using a cross-sectional, within-groups methodology, relationships between cancer treatment intensity and peer and romantic relationship self-efficacy and social acceptance were assessed. Perceived health vulnerability, situational coping style, parent and peer attachment, and perceived physical attractiveness were explored as moderators of peer and romantic relationship self-efficacy and social acceptance. Additionally, social acceptance was examined within a cancer stereotyping framework. Fifty-two emerging adult survivors of pediatric cancers (54% male; mean (M) age = 21.38 ...


The Nexus Between The Ballot And Bullet: Popular Support For The Pkk And Post-Election Violence In Turkey, Nadir Gergin May 2010

The Nexus Between The Ballot And Bullet: Popular Support For The Pkk And Post-Election Violence In Turkey, Nadir Gergin

Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the relationship between popular support for the Kurdish Worker’s Party (PKK), which is an ethnic insurgent and terrorist organization mainly operating in Turkey, and its terrorist activities during the pre-and post-election periods in Turkey . Popular support has been measured through popular votes for the political party affiliated with the PKK in 1999 general, 2004 local and 2007 general elections. Two leading theories of social movements, Resource Mobilization Theory (RMT) and Relative Deprivation Theory (RD), were used as theoretical approach. The study uses secondary data and constructs a longitudinal design. An advanced statistical analysis technique, a generalized ...


A Phenomenological Investigation Of Client Perceptions Of Their Relationships To Co-Leaders In Process Groups, Benjamin Wood May 2010

A Phenomenological Investigation Of Client Perceptions Of Their Relationships To Co-Leaders In Process Groups, Benjamin Wood

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the question how do group therapy members perceive the therapeutic relationship in process group therapy? The study fits within the interpretivist paradigm and employs a phenomenological qualitative research approach (Moustakas, 1994). The theoretical framework used to orient the study drew on process group theory according to Rutan, Stone, and Shay’s (2007) psychodynamic group psychotherapy approach and Yalom and Leszcz’s (2005) interpersonal process model of group psychotherapy. Participants were 10 university counseling center clients who were members of process therapy groups at a large urban university. Data collection consisted of in-depth interviews and demographic questionnaires. Phenomenological ...


The Influence Of Ethnicity And Gender On The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Status And Cardiovascular Responding, Alison Eonta May 2010

The Influence Of Ethnicity And Gender On The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Status And Cardiovascular Responding, Alison Eonta

Theses and Dissertations

Past research has found inconsistent effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) status on cardiovascular responding. Inconsistencies may be explained by demographic differences in study samples. In this study, the influence of gender and ethnicity on the relationship between PTSD status and cardiovascular responding was explored. Participants’ (N = 245) heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) readings were taken throughout baseline and anger recall periods. For all gender by ethnicity groups, baseline HR was higher in participants with PTSD than without PTSD, except for Black men. Whites with PTSD had lower baseline SBP than Whites without ...


The Transgressor's Response To A Rejected Request For Forgiveness, David Jennings May 2010

The Transgressor's Response To A Rejected Request For Forgiveness, David Jennings

Theses and Dissertations

Although the scientific study of forgiveness has flourished in recent years, little is known about transgressors when seeking forgiveness, particularly regarding how they respond when their request for forgiveness is denied. The present thesis reviews the literature related to how transgressors might react to a denied request for forgiveness and factors that likely influence their response. In two studies, interactions between sex and responses to requested forgiveness, and interactions between two personality variables (agreeableness and neuroticism) and responses to requested forgiveness were examined. Generally, when people refuse or even partially refuse a bid for forgiveness, it is considered by the ...


A Case Study Of The Unaccompanied Refugee Minor Program With Commonwealth Catholic Charities In Richmond, Virginia, Shawn Greene May 2010

A Case Study Of The Unaccompanied Refugee Minor Program With Commonwealth Catholic Charities In Richmond, Virginia, Shawn Greene

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis investigates how administrators and staff at a community service agency in Richmond Virginia perceive the needs of unaccompanied refugee children as they transition into the American way of life and the challenges associated with the relocation of these children into foster care setting, and how service delivery to meet these children’s needs might be improved. A common theme that emerged from interviews conducted with these administrators is that successful integration of unaccompanied refugee minors into American society requires from the very start culturally competent approaches to placement, language assistance, and mental health therapy. Options for improving resettlement ...


A Behavioral Comparison Of Four Inbred Strains Of Mice, Erin Wood May 2010

A Behavioral Comparison Of Four Inbred Strains Of Mice, Erin Wood

Theses and Dissertations

Isogenic, or inbred, mouse strains are currently the experimental subjects of choice in laboratory studies focused on genetics, pharmacology, and psychological issues. Understanding phenotypic differences in isogenic strains is important in order to interpret experimental results obtained from inbred mouse strains. Four commonly used inbred strains, C57BL/6NHsd (C57), DBA/2NHsd (DBA), 129S2/SvHsd (129), and Balb/cAnHsd (Balb/c), are investigated in this study using four different behavioral tasks that measure locomotor activity and cognitive behavior (Morris Water Maze (MWM), T-maze, and operant autoshaping procedures). In the locomotor activity task 129 mice showed significantly less horizontal ambulation than any ...


The Impact Of The State-Federal Vocational Rehabilitation Program On Quality Of Life, Vanessa Rakestraw May 2010

The Impact Of The State-Federal Vocational Rehabilitation Program On Quality Of Life, Vanessa Rakestraw

Theses and Dissertations

This study utilizes the Longitudinal Study of the Vocational Rehabilitation Program to examine the impact of state-federal vocational rehabilitation services on the quality of life of consumers. The theory that guides this study is an amalgam of theories of Allardt, Halpern, Campbell, and Cummins which indicate that quality of life is made up of various domains which parallel Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The study followed the theory that improvement in the individual domains of life would improve its overall quality. The domains of physical functioning, self-esteem, community integration and productivity were assessed prior to and after the receipt of ...


Neuroprotective Effects Of Postinjury Lithium Treatment: Determining The Optimal Dosing Paradigm And Assessing Potential Mechanisms Of Action, Katharine Eakin May 2010

Neuroprotective Effects Of Postinjury Lithium Treatment: Determining The Optimal Dosing Paradigm And Assessing Potential Mechanisms Of Action, Katharine Eakin

Theses and Dissertations

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has a dramatic impact on our society in terms of mortality, morbidity, and inherently high financial costs. Formidable research efforts are being addressed to the identification of neuroprotective agents capable of ameliorating the neurological outcome after TBI. Preclinical studies have recently demonstrated lithium to be a promising neuroprotective agent for both acute ischemic brain injury and chronic neurodegenerative disease. In light of these encouraging data, we designed a lateral fluid-percussion injury (FPI) study aimed at investigating the role of early post-traumatic administration of lithium as a strategy for reducing TBI-induced motor and cognitive deficits. The optimal ...