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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Equipping Preservice Teachers With Trauma Informed Care For The Classroom, Tamarine Foreman, Perianne Bates May 2021

Equipping Preservice Teachers With Trauma Informed Care For The Classroom, Tamarine Foreman, Perianne Bates

Northwest Journal of Teacher Education

In an effort to prepare preservice teachers to enter the classroom where students may have experienced or been exposed to trauma, the authors designed and facilitated instruction around trauma’s influence on the learning process. The intent of the instruction was to improve the preservice teacher’s ability to realize, recognize, and respond to students without re-traumatizing the students. The authors compared pre and post scores on the ARTIC-35 Education version (Baker et al., 2016) and found the instruction significantly improved the preservice teachers’ knowledge, awareness, and self-efficacy in working with students who have experienced or been exposed to trauma.


Feedback Timing: Relationship To Student Success In Online Education, Emaleia J. Anton, Nicholas A. Smith Apr 2021

Feedback Timing: Relationship To Student Success In Online Education, Emaleia J. Anton, Nicholas A. Smith

Student Research Symposium

It’s important that researchers identify factors that support student success in online education because utilization of remote learning has increased over the years. Feedback timing is a vital factor contributing to student success in online educational environments. The purpose of this research is to experimentally examine effects of feedback timing on online student success, which this study operationalizes as student perception of self-efficacy. Conducting a between-subjects experimental design, 100 undergraduate students will participate in an online synchronous crash course and will be randomly assigned to different conditions of the independent variable where they will receive either prompt or delayed ...


Multimorbidity Accumulation Among Middle-Aged Americans: Differences By Race/Ethnicity And Body-Mass Index., Anda Botoseneanu, Sheila Markwardt, Corey L. Nagel, Heather G. Allore, Jason T. Newsom, David A. Dorr, Ana R. Quiñones Apr 2021

Multimorbidity Accumulation Among Middle-Aged Americans: Differences By Race/Ethnicity And Body-Mass Index., Anda Botoseneanu, Sheila Markwardt, Corey L. Nagel, Heather G. Allore, Jason T. Newsom, David A. Dorr, Ana R. Quiñones

Psychology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Obesity and multimorbidity are more prevalent among U.S. racial/ethnic minority groups. Evaluating racial/ethnic disparities in disease accumulation according to body-mass index (BMI) may guide interventions to reduce multimorbidity burden in vulnerable racial/ethnic groups.


Sources Of Individual Differences In Adults’ Ict Skills: A Large-Scale Empirical Test Of A New Guiding Framework, Alexandra Wicht, Stephen Reder, Clemens M. Lechner Apr 2021

Sources Of Individual Differences In Adults’ Ict Skills: A Large-Scale Empirical Test Of A New Guiding Framework, Alexandra Wicht, Stephen Reder, Clemens M. Lechner

Applied Linguistics Faculty Publications and Presentations

We develop an integrative conceptual framework that seeks to explain individual differences in the ability to use information and communication technologies (ICT skills). Building on practice engagement theory, this framework views the continued usage of digital technologies at work and in everyday life (ICT use) as the key prerequisite for the acquisition of ICT skills. At the same time, the framework highlights that ICT use is itself contingent upon individual and contextual preconditions. We apply this framework to data from two recent German large-scale studies (N = 2,495 and N = 2,786, respectively) that offer objective measures of adults’ ICT ...


Psychometric Properties Of The Brief Version Of The Questionnaire Of Olfactory Disorders In Patients With Chronic Rhinosinusitis., Jose L. Mattos, Todd Bodner, Jess C. Mace, Rodney J. Schlosser, Daniel M. Beswick, Vijay R. Ramakrishnan, Jeremiah A. Alt, Spencer C. Payne, Timothy L. Smith, Zachary M. Soler Apr 2021

Psychometric Properties Of The Brief Version Of The Questionnaire Of Olfactory Disorders In Patients With Chronic Rhinosinusitis., Jose L. Mattos, Todd Bodner, Jess C. Mace, Rodney J. Schlosser, Daniel M. Beswick, Vijay R. Ramakrishnan, Jeremiah A. Alt, Spencer C. Payne, Timothy L. Smith, Zachary M. Soler

Psychology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders-Negative Statements (QOD-NS) is a 17-item instrument measuring olfactory-specific quality of life (QOL). However, in clinical research patients can be overwhelmed with multiple questionnaires. We recently developed the 7-item brief QOD-NS (B-QOD). Our objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the B-QOD in both the development (D) sample, and in a separate replication (R) sample.


Understanding Short-Term Household Recoveries From The 2015 Nepal Earthquakes: Lessons Learned And Recommendations, Jeremy Spoon, Drew Gerkey, Ram B. Chhetri, Alisa Rai, Umesh Basnet, Chelsea E. Hunter Apr 2021

Understanding Short-Term Household Recoveries From The 2015 Nepal Earthquakes: Lessons Learned And Recommendations, Jeremy Spoon, Drew Gerkey, Ram B. Chhetri, Alisa Rai, Umesh Basnet, Chelsea E. Hunter

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

We assess tangible and intangible disaster recovery dynamics following the 2015 Nepal earthquakes and aftershocks in order to understand household adaptive capacity and transformation. We randomly selected 400 households in four communities across two highly impacted districts for surveys and interviews at 9 months and 1.5 years afterwards and returned at 2.5 years to share and discuss results. We found that household recoveries were heterogenous, context specific, and changing. Tangible hazard exposure, livelihood disruption, and displacement and intangible place attachment and mental well-being influenced recoveries. We also illustrate challenges related to government programs, housing designs and codes, and ...


The Amungme And The Environment: Environmental Justice History And Consumerism, Kole A. Dawson Apr 2021

The Amungme And The Environment: Environmental Justice History And Consumerism, Kole A. Dawson

Phi Alpha Theta Pacific Northwest Regional Conference

The Amungme are one of hundreds of Papuan people groups who lived in the Indonesian province in New Guinea for thousands of years. This group subsisted in their environment by hunting, cultivation of small crops, and practicing pig husbandry. In the late 1960s, seeking foreign capital to boost the nation’s economy, the president of Indonesia signed a contract with Freeport McMoRan Copper and Gold. Freeport began mining in the early 1970s, eventually opening one of the world’s largest gold mines. Excavating sacred Amungme sites, Freeport’s massive pollution to the land and water destroyed the indigenous people’s ...


Born And Bred In Blood: The Fall Of The Aztec Empire, Melina Arciniega Apr 2021

Born And Bred In Blood: The Fall Of The Aztec Empire, Melina Arciniega

Phi Alpha Theta Pacific Northwest Regional Conference

The fall of the Aztec Empire in 1521 was a surprising feat given the well-known, vast power, and fighting capabilities of the Aztec people. Many questions since then have arisen as to how such a mighty empire had so rapidly fallen. These theories hold implications that the Aztecs were victims to the incoming disease, famine, and domination inflicted by the Spanish conquistador, Hernan Cortes. Alongside these proposals I suggest that by examining archaeological and historical evidence, the Aztec traditional practices were also responsible for its society’s collapse. By identifying the significance of the human sacrifices, the cultural, political, and ...


The Sun Only Sets On Black Britons: Sexuality And The Notting Hill Riots, Victor Curiel Apr 2021

The Sun Only Sets On Black Britons: Sexuality And The Notting Hill Riots, Victor Curiel

Phi Alpha Theta Pacific Northwest Regional Conference

Late into August 1958, a gang of white youth unleashed a catastrophic wave of targeted violence against Black migrants in the areas around Notting Hill and Nottingham. The event came to be known as the Notting Hill and Nottingham riots. The riots served as a watershed moment, allowing government members to capitalize on race as a problem and eventually limit Black entry into the country and validate unequal access to opportunities and support. However, the riots merely served as kindling to a destructive discourse of race relations already taking place, constructing a narrative that saw Black individuals as foreign, dangerous ...


'They’Re Building A Wall': The Separation Barrier In Palestine/Israel, Tyler Durbin Apr 2021

'They’Re Building A Wall': The Separation Barrier In Palestine/Israel, Tyler Durbin

Phi Alpha Theta Pacific Northwest Regional Conference

Despite international legal consensus declaring the separation wall in Palestine/Israel as illegal, Israel has continued this geopolitical project unchallenged. Examining the judicial decisions of the International Court of Justice and Israel’s High Court of Justice on the wall reveals that Israel’s project, which began in 2002, was motivated by a political desire to protect illegal settlements in the Occupied Territories, confiscate Palestinian land, and constrict their movement and space. Analyzing the entirety of the wall through the lens of containment illuminates how the wall’s fracturing of Palestinian land created the material conditions, or the ‘facts on ...


An Intervention To Increase Detection Of Developmental Delays In Wic Programs, Mohadeseh Solgi, Julie A. Reeder, Sherri Alderman, Katharine E. Zuckerman Apr 2021

An Intervention To Increase Detection Of Developmental Delays In Wic Programs, Mohadeseh Solgi, Julie A. Reeder, Sherri Alderman, Katharine E. Zuckerman

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Annual Conference

Background: Low-income children are at risk for under-detection of developmental disabilities DD. WIC clinics see low-income children regularly in early childhood and could be an important source of referrals to developmental services.

Objectives: To increase the number of referrals to EI/ECSE from non-primary care settings such as WIC.

Methods: This was a site-randomized trial of an intervention to train WIC staff in early identification of DD’s, using CDC’s LTSAE developmental monitoring materials. 7 county WIC agencies in Oregon enrolled; 4 intervention agencies and 3 control agencies. The intervention consisted of an on-site, half-day training regarding signs of ...


Urbanization And Mental Health: The Power Of Green Space, Emma Rosenthal Apr 2021

Urbanization And Mental Health: The Power Of Green Space, Emma Rosenthal

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Annual Conference

In this presentation, I will review the negative impacts of urbanization on mental health and the positive role of green space on mental well-being. Moreover, I will provide examples of projects being conducted to increase the amount of green space in urban communities.


Socio-Ecological Perceptions Of Wildfire Management And Effects In Greece, Palaiologos Palaiologou, Kostas Kalabokidis, Andreas Troumbis, Michelle A. Day, Max Nielsen-Pincus, Alan A. Ager Apr 2021

Socio-Ecological Perceptions Of Wildfire Management And Effects In Greece, Palaiologos Palaiologou, Kostas Kalabokidis, Andreas Troumbis, Michelle A. Day, Max Nielsen-Pincus, Alan A. Ager

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Adapting to the growing frequency of catastrophic wildfires in Greece and mitigating their effects is a complex socio-ecological problem. We used an online survey to query more than 100 engaged stakeholders who can potentially influence possible legislation and fire management organizational reform, emphasizing civil protection agencies and research entities. We focused the questionnaire on the importance of different wildfire effects to understand which were considered negative or unacceptable, indifferent, or positive. For fire prevention, we examined the range of acceptance and views on fuel management and fire use activities that are limited in extent or not allowed in Greece. We ...


Information Literacy Instruction In Asynchronous Online Courses: Which Approaches Work Best?, Elizabeth F. Pickard, Sarah L. Sterling Apr 2021

Information Literacy Instruction In Asynchronous Online Courses: Which Approaches Work Best?, Elizabeth F. Pickard, Sarah L. Sterling

Library Faculty Publications and Presentations

Which modes of information literacy instruction (ILI) work best in asynchronous online courses? Recent national trends and COVID-19 have made it critical to answer this question, but there is little research comparing different modes of ILI specifically in asynchronous contexts. This multi-year study employed 5 different modes of ILI in different sections of an asynchronous online anthropology course and compared the modes' effects on students' coursework. Ethnographic analysis of students' bibliographies revealed nuanced changes to students' approaches to searching and source-selection. These findings can inform librarians' development of ILI curricula and pedagogy for the unique circumstances asynchronous instruction presents.


Does Gender Climate Influence Climate Change? The Multidimensionality Of Gender Equality And Its Countervailing Effects On The Carbon Intensity Of Well-Being, Christina Ergas, Patrick Trent Greiner, Julius Alexander Mcgee, Matthew Thomas Clement Apr 2021

Does Gender Climate Influence Climate Change? The Multidimensionality Of Gender Equality And Its Countervailing Effects On The Carbon Intensity Of Well-Being, Christina Ergas, Patrick Trent Greiner, Julius Alexander Mcgee, Matthew Thomas Clement

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

The carbon intensity of well-being (CIWB) (a ratio measuring the amount of CO2 emitted per unit of life expectancy at birth) is an increasingly popular way to measure the ecological efficiency of nations. Although research demonstrates that economic development typically reduces this efficiency, little research has explored the extent to which social equality improves it. This study uses panel data for 70 nations between 1995 and 2013 to assess how various aspects of gender equality affect the ecological efficiency of nations. We estimate a series of Prais-Winsten regression models with panel-corrected standard errors (PCSE) to assess how increases in ...


The Impact Of Ride Hail Services On The Accessibility Of Nonprofit Services, Dyana P. Mason, Miranda Menard Apr 2021

The Impact Of Ride Hail Services On The Accessibility Of Nonprofit Services, Dyana P. Mason, Miranda Menard

TREC Final Reports

Nonprofit organizations are responsible for providing a significant level of human services across the United States, often in collaboration with government agencies. In this work, they address some of the most pressing social issues in society – including homelessness, poverty, health care and education. While many of these organizations consider location and accessibility crucial to supporting their clients – often locating services near bus or train stops, for example – little is known about the impact of new technologies, including ride hail services like Lyft and Uber, on nonprofit accessibility. These technologies, which are re-shaping transportation in both urban and suburban communities, are ...


Tribal Revegetation Project Final Project Report: 92-Acre Area, Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Jeremy Spoon, Brittany Kruger, Richard Arnold, Kate Monti Barcalow, Tribal Revegetation Committee, Trc Mar 2021

Tribal Revegetation Project Final Project Report: 92-Acre Area, Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Jeremy Spoon, Brittany Kruger, Richard Arnold, Kate Monti Barcalow, Tribal Revegetation Committee, Trc

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Nuwu (Southern Paiute), Newe (Western Shoshone), and Nuumu (Owens Valley Paiute) are linguistically related, Numic-speaking peoples who are part of the broader Uto-Aztecan language group. Numic peoples view the land as a holistic, living, sentient being with feelings and purpose. The land is personified with human characteristics and it needs to be experienced to be understood through “learning by doing.” Numic peoples do not support ground disturbing activities within their ancestral lands, including activities tied to the storage of low-level radioactive waste or classified materials on the NNSS, which they view as culturally inappropriate. These deep-rooted ancestral connections are the ...


Asian American And Pacific Islander Presidential Fellows Report, Betty T. Izumi, Bree Kalima Mar 2021

Asian American And Pacific Islander Presidential Fellows Report, Betty T. Izumi, Bree Kalima

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Since the 2010 Census, Oregon’s Asian American population has grown by 42.3% and its Pacific Islander population has grown by 57.3%, making these groups the fastest growing in the state (US Census Bureau, 2019; US Census Bureau, 2020a). In the Portland metropolitan area, these populations experienced a growth of 42.1% and 64.7%, respectively (US Census Bureau, 2019; US Census Bureau, 2020a). Although Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) are often lumped together as a monolith, they differ from each other in ethnicity and also culture, politics, socioeconomic status, language, religion, immigration status, and migration and ...


A Corpus Approach Study On The Manzanar Free Press, Danielle Jochums Mar 2021

A Corpus Approach Study On The Manzanar Free Press, Danielle Jochums

University Honors Theses

Past studies on the physical environment of the Japanese-American internment camps of World War II have argued that internees were able to express their agency and identity despite the dehumanization of the camps. However, studies on the newspapers circulated in the camps have argued that internees had no agency as they worked on newspapers. In a preliminary reading, it was clear that these newspapers evidenced internee agency in their language. Utilizing de Certeau’s theoretical framework of tactics, this study addressed the following questions: What tactics did Japanese-American internees use to take agency when writing and editing camp newspapers? How ...


Public Perception Of Air Quality Risks In Portland, Oregon, Dawn Nolan Mar 2021

Public Perception Of Air Quality Risks In Portland, Oregon, Dawn Nolan

Dissertations and Theses

The availability and demand for localized air quality information from communities are on the rise. However, not all information and not all communities are the same. Effective engagement and communication strategies will depend on a community's existing knowledge, opinion about air quality, individual experiences with inequities, and more. This study aims to understand how people living in Portland, Oregon understand and experience air pollution as an environmental risk and examine the extent to which those risk perceptions relate to confidence in science and technology. This gap is critical because of the complex interaction between air pollution and the risk ...


Returning To Rejection: Outcomes And Boundary Conditions Of Mental Illness Stereotypes, Stefanie Fox Mar 2021

Returning To Rejection: Outcomes And Boundary Conditions Of Mental Illness Stereotypes, Stefanie Fox

Dissertations and Theses

Mental illness is a common condition in the United States, with over 20% of working age adults managing a mental illness condition in a given year. Disclosure of mental illness is often required for workers to take advantage of employer-provided resources (e.g., accommodations), yet use of resources is exceedingly low (less than 10%). Negative stigma-related outcomes are a top reason for which individuals delay the use of resources. Using an experimental design in an online data collection of 242 participants over two time points, the current study builds on existing organizational diversity literature to examine the stereotypes associated with ...


Short-Term And Long-Term Effects Of New Light Rail Transit Service On Transit Ridership And Traffic Congestion At Two Geographical Levels, Huajie Yang Mar 2021

Short-Term And Long-Term Effects Of New Light Rail Transit Service On Transit Ridership And Traffic Congestion At Two Geographical Levels, Huajie Yang

Dissertations and Theses

This dissertation quantitatively examines the effect of new Light Rail Transit (LRT) services on transit ridership and traffic congestion over time at two different geographical levels: at the corridor level, this study conducts case studies of two LRT lines in the Portland, Oregon region; at the regional level, this study uses a synthetic control method to construct a "synthetic" control Urbanized Area (UA) that closely approximates the counterfactual transit ridership and traffic congestion scenario in the absence of light rail project in three UAs across America. The results of the corridor-level study suggest that both LRT lines increased transit ridership ...


The Soniferous Experience Of Public Space: A Soundscape Approach, Kenya Dubois Williams Mar 2021

The Soniferous Experience Of Public Space: A Soundscape Approach, Kenya Dubois Williams

Dissertations and Theses

This research explores the awareness and perceptions of practitioners regarding the role of the soundscape in understanding and managing public spaces. Without considering the role of the soundscape as part of public spaces, urban planners, designers, and policy officials cannot accurately engage in placemaking that provides a complete sensory experience. The antiquated practice of enforcing noise codes has been the traditional approach to mitigate noise (unwanted sounds). However, sound is an overlooked element in the sensory experience of cities and how individuals and communities construct a "sense of place." This study considers the implications of the soundscape approach and soundwalks ...


Exploring "What Works" In Veterans Affairs Home-Based Primary Care, Elizabeth Catherine Hulen Mar 2021

Exploring "What Works" In Veterans Affairs Home-Based Primary Care, Elizabeth Catherine Hulen

Dissertations and Theses

Home Based Primary Care (HBPC) is an interdisciplinary care model involving comprehensive primary care services for patients with chronic illness who are unable to access clinic-based care. The largest HBPC program in the United States is run by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and provides team-based primary care service to Veterans with complex, chronic conditions. The VA HBPC model includes primary care visits from a physician, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant, nurse care management, service coordination by a social worker, mental health services from a social worker or psychologist, nutrition counseling from a dietician, and help with medication management ...


Gas Stations And The Wealth Divide: Analyzing Spatial Correlations Between Wealth And Fuel Branding, Jean-Carl Ende Mar 2021

Gas Stations And The Wealth Divide: Analyzing Spatial Correlations Between Wealth And Fuel Branding, Jean-Carl Ende

Dissertations and Theses

The gasoline refining and sales industry has many peculiarities. One such oddity is a difference in sales, distribution and pricing between branded and unbranded gasolines. Although fuels leave the refinery a uniform commodity, branding determines entirely different marketing and pricing schemes, with entirely different volatility and risk premiums. In order to determine if this volatility is felt evenly across all wealth demographics, this study uses t-tests and CART models to analyze income, home value and other wealth-based indicators in the areas surrounding gas stations, to determine if there is a correlation between branding and wealth. The results show the wealth ...


Teaching Race And Racial Justice: Developing Students’ Cognitive And Affective Understanding, Amie Thurber, Joe Bandy, M. Brielle Harbin Mar 2021

Teaching Race And Racial Justice: Developing Students’ Cognitive And Affective Understanding, Amie Thurber, Joe Bandy, M. Brielle Harbin

School of Social Work Faculty Publications and Presentations

Effectively addressing both cognitive and affective dimensions of learning is one of the greatest obstacles to teaching race and racial justice in higher education. In this article, we first explore the need to integrate attention to cognitive and affective development, along with evidence-based strategies for doing so. We then provide a case study of an undergraduate sociology course on environmental justice in which the instructor intentionally adopted holistic pedagogical principles of teaching race. Analyzing student responses from a pre- and post- course survey, course assignments, and instructor observations of student participation, we find that both white students and students of ...


Translating Land Justice Through Comparison: A Us-French Dialogue And Research Agenda., Megan Horst, Nathan Mcclintock, Adrien Baysse-Lainé, Ségolène Darly, Flaminia Paddeu, Coline Perrin, Kristin Reynolds, Christophe-Toussaint Soulard Mar 2021

Translating Land Justice Through Comparison: A Us-French Dialogue And Research Agenda., Megan Horst, Nathan Mcclintock, Adrien Baysse-Lainé, Ségolène Darly, Flaminia Paddeu, Coline Perrin, Kristin Reynolds, Christophe-Toussaint Soulard

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

In this discussion piece, eight scholars in geography, urban planning, and agri-food studies from the United States (US) and France engage in a bi-national comparison to deepen our collective understanding of food and land justice. We specifically contextualize land justice as a critical component of food justice in both the US and France in three key areas: access to land for cultivation, urban agriculture, and non-agricultural forms of food provisioning. The US and France are interesting cases to compare, considering the differences and similarities in their colonial and agricultural histories, persistent and systemic race and class-based inequities in land access ...


Open Education Week: Open Pedagogy And Student Content Creation, Shane Abrams, Frank Granshaw, Veronica Hotton Mar 2021

Open Education Week: Open Pedagogy And Student Content Creation, Shane Abrams, Frank Granshaw, Veronica Hotton

Open Education Week 2021

Open Pedagogy is the practice of engaging students in content creation through "renewable assignments" so that their work lives on beyond the course and has an authentic audience. In this workshop, you will learn about how to structure an Open Pedagogy assignment and will see examples from faculty who have designed their own renewable assignments.


How Does Oer Meet Our Diversity, Equity, And Inclusion Goals?, Jenny Ceciliano, Lisa Notman, Karen Bjork, Jaime R. Wood, Scott Robison Mar 2021

How Does Oer Meet Our Diversity, Equity, And Inclusion Goals?, Jenny Ceciliano, Lisa Notman, Karen Bjork, Jaime R. Wood, Scott Robison

Open Education Week 2021

Eliminating textbook costs through the use of Open Educational Resources may seem like a simple change, but it's one that can have a big impact. Research has shown that using OER in place of traditional textbooks helps to create more equitable and inclusive learning experiences for marginalized students. In this workshop, learn more about how OER is a DEI tool and how PSU faculty are using OER in their courses.


Problematizing Perceptions Of Stem Potential: Differences By Cognitive Disability Status In High School And Postsecondary Educational Outcomes, Dara Shifrer, Daniel Mackin Freeman Mar 2021

Problematizing Perceptions Of Stem Potential: Differences By Cognitive Disability Status In High School And Postsecondary Educational Outcomes, Dara Shifrer, Daniel Mackin Freeman

Sociology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) potential of youth with cognitive disabilities is often dismissed through problematic perceptions of STEM ability as natural and of youth with cognitive disabilities as unable. National data on more than 15,000 adolescents from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 first suggest that, among youth with disabilities, youth with medicated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have the highest levels of STEM achievement, and youth with learning or intellectual disabilities typically have the lowest. Undergraduates with medicated ADHD or autism appear to be more likely to major in STEM than youth without cognitive disabilities ...