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Full-Text Articles in Physics

An Effective Electric Dipole Model For Voltage-Induced Gating Mechanism Of Lysenin, Eric Krueger, Daniel Fologea Aug 2019

An Effective Electric Dipole Model For Voltage-Induced Gating Mechanism Of Lysenin, Eric Krueger, Daniel Fologea

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Lysenin is a pore-forming toxin, which self-inserts open channels into sphingomyelin containing membranes and is known to be voltage regulated. The mechanistic details of its voltage gating mechanism, however, remains elusive despite much recent efforts. Here, we have employed a novel combination of experimental and computational techniques to examine a model for voltage gating, that is based on the existence of an “effective electric dipole” inspired by recent reported structures of lysenin. We support this mechanism by the observations that (i) the charge-reversal and neutralization substitutions in lysenin result in changing its electrical gating properties by modifying the strength of ...


Isostructural Metal-Insulator Transition In Vo2, J. W. Spinuzzi, D. A. Tenne Nov 2018

Isostructural Metal-Insulator Transition In Vo2, J. W. Spinuzzi, D. A. Tenne

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

The metal-insulator transition in correlated materials is usually coupled to a symmetry-lowering structural phase transition. This coupling not only complicates the understanding of the basic mechanism of this phenomenon but also limits the speed and endurance of prospective electronic devices. Here, we design and demonstrate an isostructural, purely electronically-driven metal-insulator transition in epitaxial heterostructures of an archetypal correlated material vanadium dioxide. A combination of thin-film synthesis, structural and electrical characterizations, and theoretical modeling reveals that an interface interaction suppresses the electronic correlations without changing the crystal structure in this otherwise correlated insulator. It stabilizes a non-equilibrium metallic phase, and leads ...


Tip-Enhanced Stimulated Raman Scattering With Ultra-High-Aspect-Ratio Tips And Confocal Polarization Raman Spectroscopy For Evaluation Of Sidewalls In Type Ii Superlattices Fpas, D. A. Tenne Sep 2018

Tip-Enhanced Stimulated Raman Scattering With Ultra-High-Aspect-Ratio Tips And Confocal Polarization Raman Spectroscopy For Evaluation Of Sidewalls In Type Ii Superlattices Fpas, D. A. Tenne

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Actoprobe team had developed custom Tip Enhancement Raman Spectroscopy System (TERS) with specially developed Ultra High Aspect Ratio probes for AFM and TERS measurements for small pixel infrared FPA sidewall characterization. Using this system, we report on stimulated Raman scattering observed in a standard tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) experiment on GaSb materials excited by 637-nm pump laser light. We explain our results by TERS-inherent mechanisms of enormous local field enhancement and by the special design and geometry of the ultra- high-aspect-ratio tips that enabled conditions for stimulated Raman scattering in the sample with greatly enhanced resonance Raman gain when aided ...


Insights Into The Voltage Regulation Mechanism Of The Pore-Forming Toxin Lysenin, Sheenah Lynn Bryant, Tyler Clark, Christopher Alex Thomas, Kaitlyn Summer Ware, Andrew Bogard, Colleen Calzacorta, Daniel Prather, Daniel Fologea Aug 2018

Insights Into The Voltage Regulation Mechanism Of The Pore-Forming Toxin Lysenin, Sheenah Lynn Bryant, Tyler Clark, Christopher Alex Thomas, Kaitlyn Summer Ware, Andrew Bogard, Colleen Calzacorta, Daniel Prather, Daniel Fologea

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Lysenin, a pore forming toxin (PFT) extracted from Eisenia fetida, inserts voltage-regulated channels into artificial lipid membranes containing sphingomyelin. The voltage-induced gating leads to a strong static hysteresis in conductance, which endows lysenin with molecular memory capabilities. To explain this history-dependent behavior, we hypothesized a gating mechanism that implies the movement of a voltage domain sensor from an aqueous environment into the hydrophobic core of the membrane under the influence of an external electric field. In this work, we employed electrophysiology approaches to investigate the effects of ionic screening elicited by metal cations on the voltage-induced gating and hysteresis in ...


Experimental And Sensitivity Analysis Of Dmasp Cantilever Vibration Behavior Based On Mcs Theory In The Moist Environment, M. H. Korayem, Byung I. Kim, A. H. Korayem Jul 2018

Experimental And Sensitivity Analysis Of Dmasp Cantilever Vibration Behavior Based On Mcs Theory In The Moist Environment, M. H. Korayem, Byung I. Kim, A. H. Korayem

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

A Micro-cantilever (MC) and a probe are two main components of the atomic force microscope (AFM). The dimensions of these components are in micro scales while their oscillation amplitude is on a nanometer scale. The present study intended to not only increase the accuracy of the simulation with regard to geometric discontinuities based on the Timoshenko Beam Model using the modified couple stress (MCS) theory but also increase the accuracy of the prediction of a system behavior by considering the effect hysteresis effect into the system vibration equations based on Bouc-Wen Model. Due to the lack of the experimental results ...


Spherical Radiative Transfer In C++ (Srtc++): A Parallel Monte-Carlo Radiative Transfer Model For Titan, Brian K. Jackson Jun 2018

Spherical Radiative Transfer In C++ (Srtc++): A Parallel Monte-Carlo Radiative Transfer Model For Titan, Brian K. Jackson

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

We present a new computer program, SRTC++, to solve spatial problems associated with explorations of Saturn’s moon Titan. The program implements a three-dimensional structure well-suited to addressing shortcomings arising from plane-parallel radiative transfer approaches. SRTC++’s design uses parallel processing in an object-oriented, compiled computer language (C++) leading to a flexible and fast architecture. We validate SRTC++ using analytical results, semianalytical radiative transfer expressions, and an existing Titan plane-parallel model. SRTC++ complements existing approaches, addressing spatial problems like near-limb and near-terminator geometries, non-Lambertian surface phase functions (including specular reflections), and surface albedo nonuniformity.


Quantum Dot Growth On (111) And (110) Surfaces Using Tensile-Strained Self-Assembly, Paul J. Simmonds Feb 2018

Quantum Dot Growth On (111) And (110) Surfaces Using Tensile-Strained Self-Assembly, Paul J. Simmonds

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

The self-assembly of epitaxial quantum dots on (001) surfaces, driven by compressive strain, is a widely used tool in semiconductor optoelectronics. In contrast, the growth of quantum dots on (111) and (110) surfaces has historically been a significant challenge. In most cases the strain relaxes rapidly via dislocation nucleation and glide before quantum dots can form. In this paper, we discuss a method for the reliable and controllable self-assembly of quantum dots on both (111) and (110) surfaces, where tensile strain is now the driving force. By showing that tensile-strained self-assembly is applicable to several material systems, we demonstrate the ...


Using An Instrumented Drone To Probe Dust Devils On Oregon’S Alvord Desert, Brian Jackson, Ralph Lorenz, Karan Davis, Brock Lipple Jan 2018

Using An Instrumented Drone To Probe Dust Devils On Oregon’S Alvord Desert, Brian Jackson, Ralph Lorenz, Karan Davis, Brock Lipple

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Dust devils are low-pressure, small (many to tens of meters) convective vortices powered by surface heating and rendered visible by lofted dust. Dust devils occur ubiquitously on Mars, where they may dominate the supply of atmospheric dust, and since dust contributes significantly to Mars’ atmospheric heat budget, dust devils probably play an important role in its climate. The dust-lifting capacity of a devil likely depends sensitively on its structure, particularly the wind and pressure profiles, but the exact dependencies are poorly constrained. Thus, the exact contribution to Mars’ atmosphere remains unresolved. Analog studies of terrestrial devils have provided some insights ...


Zno Nanoparticles Modulate The Ionic Transport And Voltage Regulation Of Lysenin Nanochannels, Sheenah L. Bryant, Josh E. Eixenberger, Steven Rossland, Holly Apsley, Connor Hoffman, Nisha Shrestha, Michael Mchugh, Alex Punnoose, Daniel Fologea Dec 2017

Zno Nanoparticles Modulate The Ionic Transport And Voltage Regulation Of Lysenin Nanochannels, Sheenah L. Bryant, Josh E. Eixenberger, Steven Rossland, Holly Apsley, Connor Hoffman, Nisha Shrestha, Michael Mchugh, Alex Punnoose, Daniel Fologea

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: The insufficient understanding of unintended biological impacts from nanomaterials (NMs) represents a serious impediment to their use for scientific, technological, and medical applications. While previous studies have focused on understanding nanotoxicity effects mostly resulting from cellular internalization, recent work indicates that NMs may interfere with transmembrane transport mechanisms, hence enabling contributions to nanotoxicity by affecting key biological activities dependent on transmembrane transport. In this line of inquiry, we investigated the effects of charged nanoparticles (NPs) on the transport properties of lysenin, a pore-forming toxin that shares fundamental features with ion channels such as regulation and high transport rate.

Results ...


Ribonucleoprotein Purification And Characterization Using Rna Mango, Shanker Shyam S. Panchapakesan, Matthew L. Ferguson, Eric J. Hayden, Xin Chen, Aaron A. Hoskins, Peter J. Unrau Oct 2017

Ribonucleoprotein Purification And Characterization Using Rna Mango, Shanker Shyam S. Panchapakesan, Matthew L. Ferguson, Eric J. Hayden, Xin Chen, Aaron A. Hoskins, Peter J. Unrau

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

The characterization of RNA–protein complexes (RNPs) is a difficult but increasingly important problem in modern biology. By combining the compact RNA Mango aptamer with a fluorogenic thiazole orange desthiobiotin (TO1-Dtb or TO3-Dtb) ligand, we have created an RNA tagging system that simplifies the purification and subsequent characterization of endogenous RNPs. Mango-tagged RNP complexes can be immobilized on a streptavidin solid support and recovered in their native state by the addition of free biotin. Furthermore, Mango-based RNP purification can be adapted to different scales of RNP isolation ranging from pull-down assays to the isolation of large amounts of biochemically defined ...


Estimates For The Number Of Visible Galaxy-Spanning Civilizations And The Cosmological Expansion Of Life, S. Jay Olson Apr 2017

Estimates For The Number Of Visible Galaxy-Spanning Civilizations And The Cosmological Expansion Of Life, S. Jay Olson

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

If advanced civilizations appear in the universe with an ability and desire to expand, the entire universe can become saturated with life on a short timescale, even if such expanders appear rarely. Our presence in an apparently untouched Milky Way thus constrains the appearance rate of galaxyspanning Kardashev type III (K3) civilizations, if it is assumed that some fraction of K3 civilizations will continue their expansion at intergalactic distances. We use this constraint to estimate the appearance rate of K3 civilizations for 81 cosmological scenarios by specifying the extent to which humanity is a statistical outlier. We find that in ...


A New Model Of Roche-Lobe Overflow For Short-Period Gaseous Planets And Binary Stars, Brian Jackson, Phil Arras, Kaloyan Penev, Sarah Peacock, Pablo Marchant Feb 2017

A New Model Of Roche-Lobe Overflow For Short-Period Gaseous Planets And Binary Stars, Brian Jackson, Phil Arras, Kaloyan Penev, Sarah Peacock, Pablo Marchant

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Some close-in gaseous exoplanets are nearly in Roche-lobe contact, and previous studies show tidal decay can drive hot Jupiters into contact during the main sequence of their host stars. Improving upon a previous model, we present a revised model for mass transfer in a semi-detached binary system that incorporates an extended atmosphere around the donor and allows for an arbitrary mass ratio. We apply this new formalism to hypothetical, confirmed, and candidate planetary systems to estimate mass loss rates and compare with models of evaporative mass loss. Overflow may be significant for hot Neptunes out to periods of ∼ 2 days ...


Ultra Short Period Planets In K2 With Companions: A Double Transiting System For Epic 220674823, Brian Jackson Feb 2017

Ultra Short Period Planets In K2 With Companions: A Double Transiting System For Epic 220674823, Brian Jackson

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Two transiting planets have been identified orbiting K2 target EPIC 220674823. One object is an ultra-short-period planet (USP) with a period of just 0.57 days (13.7 hours), while the other has a period of 13.3 days. Both planets are small, with the former having a radius of Rp1 = 1.5 R and the latter Rp2 = 2.5 R. Follow-up observations, including radial velocity (with uncertainties of 110 ms−1) and high-resolution adaptive optics imagery, show no signs of stellar companions. EPIC 220674823 is the 12th confirmed or validated planetary system in which an ultra-short-period ...


Review Article: Molecular Beam Epitaxy Of Lattice-Matched Inalas And Ingaas Layers On Inp (111)A, (111)B, And (110), Christopher D. Yerino, Baolai Liang, Diana L. Huffaker, Paul J. Simmonds, Minjoo Larry Lee Jan 2017

Review Article: Molecular Beam Epitaxy Of Lattice-Matched Inalas And Ingaas Layers On Inp (111)A, (111)B, And (110), Christopher D. Yerino, Baolai Liang, Diana L. Huffaker, Paul J. Simmonds, Minjoo Larry Lee

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

For more than 50 years, research into III–V compound semiconductors has focused almost exclusively on materials grown on (001)-oriented substrates. In part, this is due to the relative ease with which III–Vs can be grown on (001) surfaces. However, in recent years, a number of key technologies have emerged that could be realized, or vastly improved, by the ability to also grow high-quality III–Vs on (111)- or (110)-oriented substrates These applications include: next-generation field-effect transistors, novel quantum dots, entangled photon emitters, spintronics, topological insulators, and transition metal dichalcogenides. The first purpose of this paper is ...


Tidal Decay And Stable Roche-Lobe Overflow Of Short-Period Gaseous Exoplanets, Brian Jackson, Emily Jensen, Sarah Peacock, Phil Arras, Kaloyan Penev Nov 2016

Tidal Decay And Stable Roche-Lobe Overflow Of Short-Period Gaseous Exoplanets, Brian Jackson, Emily Jensen, Sarah Peacock, Phil Arras, Kaloyan Penev

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Many gaseous exoplanets in short-period orbits are on the verge or are in the process of Roche-lobe overflow (RLO). Moreover, orbital stability analysis shows tides can drive many hot Jupiters to spiral inevitably toward their host stars. Thus, the coupled processes of orbital evolution and RLO likely shape the observed distribution of close-in exoplanets and may even be responsible for producing some of the short-period rocky planets. However, the exact outcome for an overflowing planet depends on its internal response to mass loss, and the accompanying orbital evolution can act to enhance or inhibit RLO. In this study, we apply ...


Dust Devil Populations And Statistics, Ralph D. Lorenz, Brian K. Jackson Nov 2016

Dust Devil Populations And Statistics, Ralph D. Lorenz, Brian K. Jackson

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

The highly-skewed diameter and pressure drop distributions of dust devils on Earth and Mars are noted, and challenges of presenting and comparing different types of observations are discussed. The widely- held view that Martian dust devils are larger than Earth's is critically-assessed: the question is confounded somewhat by different observation techniques, but some indication of a ~3x larger population on Mars is determined. The largest and most intense (in a relative pressure sense) devils recorded are on Mars, although the largest reported number density is on Earth. The difficulties of concepts used in the literature of 'average' diameter, pressure ...


Identifying The Sources Of Ferromagnetism In Sol-Gel Synthesized Zn1-XCoXO (0 ≤ X ≤ 0.10) Nanoparticles, J. J. Beltrán, C. A. Barrero, A. Punnoose Aug 2016

Identifying The Sources Of Ferromagnetism In Sol-Gel Synthesized Zn1-XCoXO (0 ≤ X ≤ 0.10) Nanoparticles, J. J. Beltrán, C. A. Barrero, A. Punnoose

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

We have carefully investigated the structural, optical and electronic properties and related them with the magnetism of sol-gel synthesized Zn1-xCoxO (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) nanoparticles. Samples with x ≤ 0.05 were pure and free of spurious phases, whereas ZnCo2O4 was identified as the impurity phase for samples with x ≥ 0.08. Samples with x < 0.05 were found to be true solid solutions with only high spin Co2+ ions into ZnO structure, whereas sample with x = 0.05, exhibited the presence of high spin Co2+ and low spin Co3+. For the impurity-free samples we found that as Co concentration increases, a and c lattice ...


Defect Driven Magnetism In Doped Sno2 Nanoparticles: Surface Effects, Pushpa Raghani, Pankaj Kumar, Balaji Ramanujam, Alex Punnoose Jun 2016

Defect Driven Magnetism In Doped Sno2 Nanoparticles: Surface Effects, Pushpa Raghani, Pankaj Kumar, Balaji Ramanujam, Alex Punnoose

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Magnetism and energetics of intrinsic and extrinsic defects and defect clusters in bulk and surfaces of SnO2 is investigated using first-principles to understand the role of surfaces in inducing magnetism in Zn doped nanoparticles. We find that Sn vacancies induce the largest magnetic moment in bulk and on surfaces. However, they have very large formation energies in bulk as well as on surfaces. Oxygen vacancies on the other hand are much easier to create than VSn, but neutral and VO+2 vacancies do not induce any magnetism in bulk as well as on surfaces. VO+1 ...


Electron Beam Effects In Ge–Se Thin Films And Resistance Change Memory Devices, Kasandra Wolf, Hugh Barnaby, Mahesh S. Ailavajhala, Micahel N. Kozicki, Dmitri A. Tenne, Maria Mitkova Jun 2016

Electron Beam Effects In Ge–Se Thin Films And Resistance Change Memory Devices, Kasandra Wolf, Hugh Barnaby, Mahesh S. Ailavajhala, Micahel N. Kozicki, Dmitri A. Tenne, Maria Mitkova

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Chalcogenide glasses are the advanced materials of choice for the emerging nanoionic memory devices – conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM). To understand the nature of the effects occurring in these devices under influence of electron-beam radiation, the interaction of blanked chalcogenide films and nanostructured films containing chalcogenide glass and silver (Ag) source are studied. Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction are used for establishing the structural and compositional effects occurring under radiation. They have strong compositional dependence with the stoichiometric compositions being most stable showing less structural changes after radiation. These effects are associated with the availability of ...


Selective-Area Growth Of Heavily N–Doped Gaas Nanostubs On Si(001) By Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Yoon Jung Chang, Paul J. Simmonds, Brett Beekley, Mark S. Goorsky, Jason C.S. Woo Apr 2016

Selective-Area Growth Of Heavily N–Doped Gaas Nanostubs On Si(001) By Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Yoon Jung Chang, Paul J. Simmonds, Brett Beekley, Mark S. Goorsky, Jason C.S. Woo

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Using an aspect ratio trapping technique, we demonstrate molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs nanostubs on Si(001) substrates. Nanoholes in a SiO2 mask act as a template for GaAs-on-Si selective-area growth(SAG) of nanostubs 120 nm tall and ≤100 nm in diameter. We investigate the influence of growthparameters including substrate temperature and growth rate on SAG. Optimizing these parameters results in complete selectivity with GaAsgrowth only on the exposed Si(001). Due to the confined-geometry, strain and defects in the GaAs nanostubs are restricted in lateral dimensions, and surface energy is further minimized. We assess the electrical properties of ...


On The Visible Size And Geometry Of Aggressively Expanding Civilizations At Cosmological Distances, S. Jay Olson Apr 2016

On The Visible Size And Geometry Of Aggressively Expanding Civilizations At Cosmological Distances, S. Jay Olson

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

If a subset of advanced civilizations in the universe choose to rapidly expand into unoccupied space, these civilizations would have the opportunity to grow to a cosmological scale over the course of billions of years. If such life also makes observable changes to the galaxies they inhabit, then it is possible that vast domains of life-saturated galaxies could be visible from the Earth. Here, we describe the shape and angular size of these domains as viewed from the Earth, and calculate median visible sizes for a variety of scenarios. We also calculate the total fraction of the sky that should ...


Intramembrane Congestion Effects On Lysenin Channel Voltage-Induced Gating, Eric Krueger, Sheenah Bryant, Nisha Shrestha, Tyler Clark, Charles Hanna, David Pink, Daniel Fologea Mar 2016

Intramembrane Congestion Effects On Lysenin Channel Voltage-Induced Gating, Eric Krueger, Sheenah Bryant, Nisha Shrestha, Tyler Clark, Charles Hanna, David Pink, Daniel Fologea

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

All cell membranes are packed with proteins. The ability to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of protein channels in experimental conditions mimicking their congested native environment is crucial for understanding the environmental physicochemical cues that may fundamentally contribute to their functionality in natural membranes. Here we report on investigations of the voltage-induced gating of lysenin channels in congested conditions experimentally achieved by increasing the number of channels inserted into planar lipid membranes. Typical electrophysiology measurements reveal congestion-induced changes to the voltage-induced gating, manifested as a significant reduction of the response to external voltage stimuli. Furthermore, we demonstrate a similar diminished voltage ...


Interface-Induced Spin Polarization In Graphene On Chromia, Renu Choudhary, Pankaj Kumar, Priyanka Manchanda, David J. Sellmyer, Peter A. Dowben, Arti Kashyap, Ralph Skomski Feb 2016

Interface-Induced Spin Polarization In Graphene On Chromia, Renu Choudhary, Pankaj Kumar, Priyanka Manchanda, David J. Sellmyer, Peter A. Dowben, Arti Kashyap, Ralph Skomski

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

The induced spin polarization of graphene on Cr2O3 (001) is investigated using density-functional theory (DFT) and model calculations. The magnetic moment in graphene is a proximity effect and can be regarded as a second-order Stoner scenario, and similar mechanisms are likely realized for all graphene systems with an insulating magnetic substrate. In the absence of charge transfer, the magnetic moment would be quadratic in the exchange field, as contrasted to the usually encountered approximately linear dependence. The net magnetization of the graphene is small, of the order of 0.01 μB per atom, but the energy-dependent ...


Homogeneous Cosmology With Aggressively Expanding Civilizations, S. Jay Olson Nov 2015

Homogeneous Cosmology With Aggressively Expanding Civilizations, S. Jay Olson

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

In the context of a homogeneous Universe, we note that the appearance of aggressively expanding advanced life is geometrically similar to the process of nucleation and bubble growth in a first-order cosmological phase transition. We exploit this similarity to describe the dynamics of life saturating the Universe on a cosmic scale, adapting the phase transition model to incorporate probability distributions of expansion and resource consumption strategies. Through a series of numerical solutions spanning several orders of magnitude in the input assumption parameters, the resulting cosmological model is used to address basic questions related to the intergalactic spreading of life, dealing ...


Enhanced Li Capacity In Functionalized Graphene: A First Principle Study With Van Der Waals Correction, Rajiv K. Chouhan, Pushpa Raghani Sep 2015

Enhanced Li Capacity In Functionalized Graphene: A First Principle Study With Van Der Waals Correction, Rajiv K. Chouhan, Pushpa Raghani

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

We have investigated the adsorption of Li on graphene oxide using density functional theory. We show a novel and simple approach to achieve a positive lithiation potential on epoxy and hydroxyl functionalized graphene, compared to the negative lithiation potential that has been found on prestine graphene. We included the van der Waals correction into the calculation so as to get a better picture of weak interactions. A positive lithiation potential suggests a favorable adsorption of Li on graphene oxide sheets that can lead to an increase in the specific capacity, which in turn can be used as an anode material ...


Emergence Of Room-Temperature Ferroelectricity At Reduced Dimensions, D. A. Tenne Sep 2015

Emergence Of Room-Temperature Ferroelectricity At Reduced Dimensions, D. A. Tenne

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

The enhancement of the functional properties of materials at reduced dimensions is crucial for continuous advancements in nanoelectronic applications. Here, we report that the scale reduction leads to the emergence of an important functional property – ferroelectricity, challenging the long-standing notion that ferroelectricity is inevitably suppressed at the scale of a few nanometers. A combination of theoretical calculations, electrical measurements, and structural analyses provides evidence of room-temperature ferroelectricity in strain-free epitaxial nanometer-thick films of otherwise non-ferroelectric SrTiO3. We show that electrically-induced alignment of naturally existing polar nanoregions is responsible for the appearance of a stable net ferroelectric polarization in these ...


Confocal Raman Spectroscopy And Afm For Evaluation Of Sidewalls In Type Ii Superlattice Fpas, D. A. Tenne Jun 2015

Confocal Raman Spectroscopy And Afm For Evaluation Of Sidewalls In Type Ii Superlattice Fpas, D. A. Tenne

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

We propose to utilize confocal Raman spectroscopy combined with high resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) for nondestructive characterisation of the sidewalls of etched and passivated small pixel (24 μm×24 μm) focal plane arrays (FPA) fabricated using LW/LWIR InAs/GaSb type-II strained layer superlattice (T2SL) detector material. Special high aspect ratio Si and GaAs AFM probes, with tip length of 13 μm and tip aperture less than 7°, allow characterisation of the sidewall morphology. Confocal microscopy enables imaging of the sidewall profile through optical sectioning. Raman spectra measured on etched T2SL FPA single pixels enable us ...


Magnetic Structure And Ordering Of Multiferroic Hexagonal Lufeo3, Daniel A. Hillsberry, Eric L. Thies, Dmitri A. Tenne May 2015

Magnetic Structure And Ordering Of Multiferroic Hexagonal Lufeo3, Daniel A. Hillsberry, Eric L. Thies, Dmitri A. Tenne

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

We report on the magnetic structure and ordering of hexagonal LuFeO3 films of variable thickness grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on YSZ (111) and Al2O3 (0001) substrates. These crystalline films exhibit long-range structural uniformity dominated by the polar P63cm phase, which is responsible for the paraelectric to ferroelectric transition that occurs above 1000 K. Using bulk magnetometry and neutron diffraction, we find that the system orders into a ferromagnetically-canted antiferromagnetic state via a single transition below 155 K regardless of film thickness, which is substantially lower than that previously reported in hexagonal LuFeO ...


Epitaxial Crn Thin Films With High Thermoelectric Figure Of Merit, Eric L. Thies, Daniel A. Hillsberry, Dmitri A. Tenne May 2015

Epitaxial Crn Thin Films With High Thermoelectric Figure Of Merit, Eric L. Thies, Daniel A. Hillsberry, Dmitri A. Tenne

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

A large enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit is reported in single crystalline films of CrN. The strong reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in the rock-salt phase of this material is shown to be related to intrinsic lattice instabilities, which is similar to the resonant bonding effect proposed for cubic IV-VI compounds. These results demonstrate that useful ideas from classic thermoelectrics and phase change materials can be extended to transition metal nitrides and oxides.


Magnetoresistance Characteristics In Individual Fe3O4 Single Crystal Nanowire, K. M. Reddy, Nitin P. Padture, Alex Punnoose, Charles Hanna May 2015

Magnetoresistance Characteristics In Individual Fe3O4 Single Crystal Nanowire, K. M. Reddy, Nitin P. Padture, Alex Punnoose, Charles Hanna

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

We report on the magnetoresistance (MR) and electron transport measurements observed on asingle crystal magnetite nanowire prepared using a hydrothermal synthesis method. High-resolution electron microscopy revealed the single crystal magnetite nanowires with 80–120 nm thickness and up to 8 μm in length. Magnetic measurements showed the typical Verwey transition around 120 K with a 100 Oe room temperature coercivity and 45 emu/g saturationmagnetization, which are comparable to bulk magnetite. Electrical resistance measurements in 5-300 K temperature range were performed by scanning gate voltage and varying appliedmagnetic field. Electrical resistivity of the nanowire was found to be around ...