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University of Nebraska - Lincoln

2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 84

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Two Dimensional Electron Gas At Oxide Interfaces, Karolina Janicka Dec 2011

Two Dimensional Electron Gas At Oxide Interfaces, Karolina Janicka

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Physics and Astronomy

Extraordinary phenomena can occur at the interface between two oxide materials. A spectacular example is a formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the SrTiO3/LaAlO3 interface. In this dissertation the properties of the 2DEG are investigated from first principles.

The spatial extent of the 2DEG formed at the SrTiO3/LaAlO3 n-type interface is studied. It is shown that the confinement of the 2DEG is controlled by metal induced gap states formed in the band gap of SrTiO3. The confinement width is then determined by the attenuation length of the metal induced gap states ...


First-Principles Studies On Physical And Chemical Properties Of Nanostructures, Menghao Wu Dec 2011

First-Principles Studies On Physical And Chemical Properties Of Nanostructures, Menghao Wu

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Physics and Astronomy

The physical and chemical properties of decorated graphene and graphene ribbons, single-layer III-V systems, three-dimensional carbon and BN foam, and transition-metal-molecular sandwich nanowires have been investigated by first-principle calculations and their potential applications have been predicted. First, it is shown that zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) can be converted into half metal when their edges are decorated by some chemical functional groups, and the half-metalicity is induced by chemical potential difference between two edges when one edge is decorated by electron-donating group like –OH and the other edge is decorated by electron-accepting group like –F, -NH2, -N(CH3)2 ...


An Extension Of The Rishon Model, Paul Finkler Dec 2011

An Extension Of The Rishon Model, Paul Finkler

Paul Finkler Papers

We present an extension of the Rishon Model of Harari, et. al. [1] [2] [3] In that model, the first generation leptons and quarks are each made from three rishons of two varieties, T and V as follows: ve = V V V , e+ = T T T , d = T V V , and u = T T V . In addition to the original rishons and their anti-rishons T and V , we introduce the dark rishon X and its anti-rishon X; all have spin 1/2.

An exciting possibility that emerges from this idea is the possiblity of ‘beams’ of dark matter coming ...


Thermodynamics Of Magnetic Multilayers, Tathagata Mukherjee Nov 2011

Thermodynamics Of Magnetic Multilayers, Tathagata Mukherjee

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Physics and Astronomy

Our interest in thermodynamics of magnetic thin film heterostructure began by exploring the possibility to use magnetic nanostructures in the search for optimized magnetocaloric materials for potential room temperature refrigeration. In the present thesis magnetic thin film heterostructures are experimentally realized by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). Co/Cr and Fe/Cr superlattices were fabricated using mean-field theoretical concepts as guiding principles. The potential of artificial antiferromagnets for near room-temperature refrigeration is explored. Magnetocaloric properties are deduced from measurements of the temperature and field dependence of the magnetization of our samples. The effects of intra-plane and ...


Self Assembly And Interface Chemistry Of Non-Metallated Tetraphenyl Porphyrin, Geoffrey Rojas Oct 2011

Self Assembly And Interface Chemistry Of Non-Metallated Tetraphenyl Porphyrin, Geoffrey Rojas

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Physics and Astronomy

The study of the electronic properties and geometrical arrangement of 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenyl-21H, 23H-porphine on metal is presented. The systems were analyzed using both scanning tunneling microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy and compared across surfaces to determine how the interface chemistry between the metal and molecule affect the self-assembly and band structure of the adsorbed species. The molecules are found to self-assemble and grow on the Ag(111) surface in a manner described by similar models to weakly bound metal/metal surface systems. The CH-pi bonds between molecules are found to largely determine the relative inter-molecular arrangement, while the more ...


Picotesla Magnetic Sensors For Low-Frequency Applications, Sy-Hwang Liou, Xiaolu Yin, Stephen Russek, Ranko Heindl, F. C. S. Da Silva, J. Moreland, David P. Pappas, L. Yuan, J. Shen Oct 2011

Picotesla Magnetic Sensors For Low-Frequency Applications, Sy-Hwang Liou, Xiaolu Yin, Stephen Russek, Ranko Heindl, F. C. S. Da Silva, J. Moreland, David P. Pappas, L. Yuan, J. Shen

Si-Hwang Liou Publications

We demonstrate a simple low-power, magnetic sensor system suitable for high-sensitivity magnetic-field mapping, based on solid-state magnetic tunnel junction devices with minimum detectable fields in a 100 pT range at room temperature. In this paper, we discuss a method that uses multilayer thin films to improve the performance of the soft ferromagnetic layer in magnetoresistive sensor applications, by reducing the coercivity and/or improving the reversibility.We have used it in the design of our new magnetic sensor. This sensor has a sensitivity as high as 750%/mT. The magnetic sensor only dissipates 1 mW of power while operating under ...


Temperature Dependence Of Metal-Organic Heteroepitaxy, Geoffrey Rojas, Xumin Chen, Donna A. Kunkel, Matthias Bode, Axel Enders Oct 2011

Temperature Dependence Of Metal-Organic Heteroepitaxy, Geoffrey Rojas, Xumin Chen, Donna A. Kunkel, Matthias Bode, Axel Enders

Axel Enders Publications

The nucleation and growth of 2D layers of tetraphenyl porphyrin molecules on Ag(111) are studied with variable-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The organic/metal heteroepitaxy occurs by strict analogy to established principles for metal heteroepitaxy. A hierarchy of energy barriers for diffusion on terraces and along edges and around corners of adislands is established. The temperature is key to activating these barriers selectively, thus determining the shape of the organic aggregates, from a fractal shape at lower temperatures to a compact shape at higher temperatures. The energy barriers for the terrace diffusion of porpyrins and the molecule-molecule binding energy were ...


Polarization Switching At The Nanoscale In Ferroelectric Copolymer Thin Films, R. V. Gaynutdinov, S. Mitko, S. G. Yudin, V. M. Fridkin, Stephen Ducharme Oct 2011

Polarization Switching At The Nanoscale In Ferroelectric Copolymer Thin Films, R. V. Gaynutdinov, S. Mitko, S. G. Yudin, V. M. Fridkin, Stephen Ducharme

Stephen Ducharme Publications

The polarization switching kinetics were measured at the nanoscale in continuous thin films of a ferroelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and trifluoroethylene. The dependence of the switching rate on voltage for a 54-nm thick film exhibits extrinsic nucleation and domain-growth type kinetics with no true threshold coercive field, and is qualitatively different from the behavior of an 18-nm thick film, which exhibits intrinsic switching kinetics, and a true threshold field. The results are consistent with studies of thin film capacitors of much larger area and with a recent refinement of the theory of the critical size for intrinsic switching.


Attosecond Streaking In The Low-Energy Region As A Probe Of Rescattering, Ming-Hui Xu, Liang-You Peng, Zheng Zhang, Qihuang Gong, Xiao-Min Tong, Evgeny A. Pronin, Anthony F. Starace Oct 2011

Attosecond Streaking In The Low-Energy Region As A Probe Of Rescattering, Ming-Hui Xu, Liang-You Peng, Zheng Zhang, Qihuang Gong, Xiao-Min Tong, Evgeny A. Pronin, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

The dynamics of low-energy photoelectrons (PEs) ionized by a single attosecond pulse in the presence of an intense infrared (IR) laser field is investigated. Whereas attosecond streaking usually involves momentum shifts of high-energy PEs, when PEs have low initial kinetic energies, the IR field can control the continuum-electron dynamics by inducing PE scattering from the residual ion. A semiclassical model is used to show that particular PE trajectories in the continuum involving electron-ion scattering explain the interference patterns exhibited in the low-energy PE spectrum. We confirm the effects of the trajectories by means of a full quantum simulation.


Two-Photon Double Ionization Of Helium: Evolution Of The Joint Angular Distribution With Photon Energy And Two-Electron Energy Sharing, Zheng Zhang, Liang-You Peng, Ming-Hui Xu, Anthony F. Starace, Toru Morishita, Qihuang Gong Oct 2011

Two-Photon Double Ionization Of Helium: Evolution Of The Joint Angular Distribution With Photon Energy And Two-Electron Energy Sharing, Zheng Zhang, Liang-You Peng, Ming-Hui Xu, Anthony F. Starace, Toru Morishita, Qihuang Gong

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Ab initio calculations of two-photon double ionization of helium with photon energies varying from the nonsequential regime to well above the double-ionization threshold are presented. A systematic study of the joint angular distributions of the two ionized electrons at different energy sharing shows that the role of electron correlations is imprinted in the joint angular distribution. In particular, a rather general pattern is identified in the nonsequential regime that is independent of photon energy, pulse length, and energy sharing between the two electrons. Interestingly, the same distribution pattern is found for the equal-energy-sharing case, even when the photon energy is ...


Electrical Control Of Photoluminescence Wavelength From Semiconductor Quantum Dots In A Ferroelectric Polymer Matrix, Rafal Korlacki, Ravi F. Saraf, Stephen Ducharme Oct 2011

Electrical Control Of Photoluminescence Wavelength From Semiconductor Quantum Dots In A Ferroelectric Polymer Matrix, Rafal Korlacki, Ravi F. Saraf, Stephen Ducharme

Stephen Ducharme Publications

We report controllable tuning of the room temperature photoluminescence band of CdSe semiconductor quantum dots embedded in thin films of ferroelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and trifluoroethylene made by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition. The high breakdown strength of the polymer permits the application of electric fields of up to 400 MV/m and results in a shift in the photoluminescence peak by up to 9 nm, nearly half the fluorescence band width. Moreover, we found that at these high electric fields, the Stark effect exhibits unusual fourth power dependence.


Functional Two-Dimensional Electronic Gases At Interfaces Of Oxide Heterostructures, Yong Wang Aug 2011

Functional Two-Dimensional Electronic Gases At Interfaces Of Oxide Heterostructures, Yong Wang

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Physics and Astronomy

A quasi-two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in oxide heterostructures such as LaAlO3/SrTiO3 has unique properties that are promising for applications in all-oxide electronic devices. In this dissertation, we focus on understanding and predicting novel properties of the 2DEG by performing first-principles electronic calculations within the frame work of density-functional theory (DFT).

The effects of polarization in all-oxide heterostructures incorporating different ferroelectric constituents, such as KNbO3/ATiO3 (A = Sr, Ba, Pb), are investigated. It is found that screening charge at the interface that counteracts the depolarizing electric field in the ferroelectric material significantly changes the free ...


Laser-Wakefield Accelerators: Glass-Guiding Benefits, Donald P. Umstadter Aug 2011

Laser-Wakefield Accelerators: Glass-Guiding Benefits, Donald P. Umstadter

Donald Umstadter Publications

A main attraction of laser-driven electron accelerators is their absence of cavity walls, which can break down in the presence of intense electric fields. Now it seems that the inclusion of a hollow glass fibre cavity could lead to more efficient acceleration at lower laser intensities. ... Further research will reveal which of the above methods for guiding light will ultimately prove best for future accelerator designs. In any case, although it is perhaps ironic that the relatively old technology of glass waveguides may benefit next-generation accelerators, it is nonetheless satisfying to see such a classic photonic solution come to the ...


Ferroelectric Control Of Magnetic Anisotropy, Abhijit Mardana, Stephen Ducharme, Shireen Adenwalla Aug 2011

Ferroelectric Control Of Magnetic Anisotropy, Abhijit Mardana, Stephen Ducharme, Shireen Adenwalla

Stephen Ducharme Publications

We demonstrate unambiguous evidence of the electric field control of magnetic anisotropy in a wedge-shaped Co film of varying thickness. A copolymer ferroelectric of 70% vinylidene fluoride with 30% trifluoroethylene, P(VDF-TrFE) overlays the Co wedge, providing a large switchable electric field. As the ferroelectric polarization is switched from up to down, the magnetic anisotropy of the Co films changes by as much as 50%. At the lowest Co thickness the magnetic anisotropy switches from out-of-plane to inplane as the ferroelectric polarization changes from up to down, enabling us to rotate the magnetization through a large angle at constant magnetic ...


Ultrathin Batio3 Templates For Multiferroic Nanostructures, Xumen Chen, Seolun Yang, Ji-Hyun Kim, Hyung-Do Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Geoffrey Rojas, Ralph Skomski, Haidong Lu, Anand Bhattacharya, Tiffany Santos, Nathan Guisinger, Matthias Bode, Alexei Gruverman, Axel Enders Aug 2011

Ultrathin Batio3 Templates For Multiferroic Nanostructures, Xumen Chen, Seolun Yang, Ji-Hyun Kim, Hyung-Do Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Geoffrey Rojas, Ralph Skomski, Haidong Lu, Anand Bhattacharya, Tiffany Santos, Nathan Guisinger, Matthias Bode, Alexei Gruverman, Axel Enders

Axel Enders Publications

The structural, electronic and dielectric properties of high-quality ultrathin BaTiO3 films were investigated. The films, which were grown by ozone-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Nb-doped SrTiO3(001) substrates and have thicknesses as low as 8 unit cells (u.c.) (3.2 nm), are unreconstructed and atomically smooth with large crystalline terraces. A strain-driven transition to three-dimensional (3D) island formation is observed for films of 13 u.c. thickness (5.2 nm). The high structural quality of the surfaces, together with dielectric properties similar to bulk BaTiO3 and dominantly TiO2 surface termination, makes these films suitable templates ...


Domain Size And Structure In Exchange Coupled [Co/Pt]/Nio/[Co/Pt] Multilayers, Andrew G. Baruth, Shireen Adenwalla Aug 2011

Domain Size And Structure In Exchange Coupled [Co/Pt]/Nio/[Co/Pt] Multilayers, Andrew G. Baruth, Shireen Adenwalla

Shireen Adenwalla Papers

We investigate the competing effects of interlayer exchange coupling and magnetostatic coupling in the magnetic heterostructure ([Co/Pt]/NiO/[Co/Pt]) with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). This particular heterostructure is unique among coupled materials with PMA in directly exhibiting both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling, oscillating between the two as a function of spacer layer thickness. By systematically tuning the coupling interactions via a wedge-shaped NiO spacer layer, we explore the energetics that dictate magnetic domain formation using high resolution magnetic force microscopy coupled with the magneto-optical Kerr effect. This technique probes the microscopic and macroscopic magnetic behavior as a continuous ...


Perturbation-Theory Analysis Of Ionization By A Chirped Few-Cycle Attosecond Pulse, Evgeny A. Pronin, Anthony F. Starace, Liang-You Peng Jul 2011

Perturbation-Theory Analysis Of Ionization By A Chirped Few-Cycle Attosecond Pulse, Evgeny A. Pronin, Anthony F. Starace, Liang-You Peng

Anthony F. Starace Publications

The angular distribution of electrons ionized from an atom by a chirped few-cycle attosecond pulse is analyzed using perturbation theory (PT), keeping terms in the transition amplitude up to second order in the pulse electric field. The dependence of the asymmetry in the ionized electron distributions on both the chirp and the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of the pulse are explained using a simple analytical formula that approximates the exact PT result. This approximate formula (in which the chirp dependence is explicit) reproduces reasonably well the chirp-dependent oscillations of the electron angular distribution asymmetries found numerically by Peng et al. [Phys ...


Evidence Of The 2S2 P(1P) Doubly Excited State In The Harmonic Generation Spectrum Of Helium, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, Anthony F. Starace Jul 2011

Evidence Of The 2S2 P(1P) Doubly Excited State In The Harmonic Generation Spectrum Of Helium, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

By solving the two-active-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation in an intense, ultrashort laser field, we investigate evidence of electron correlations in the high-order harmonic generation spectrum of helium. As the frequency of the driving laser pulse varies from 4.6 to 6.6 eV, the 13th, 11th, and 9th harmonics sequentially become resonant with the transition between the ground state and the isolated 2s2p(1P) autoionizing state of helium, which dramatically enhances these harmonics and changes their profiles. When each of the 9th and 13th harmonics are in resonance with this autoionizing state, there is also a ...


The Interplay Between Symmetry And Static Dipoles With Adsorption On Molecular Substrates, Zhengzheng Zhang May 2011

The Interplay Between Symmetry And Static Dipoles With Adsorption On Molecular Substrates, Zhengzheng Zhang

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Physics and Astronomy

This thesis presents evidence of preferential adsorption and the associated dipole-dipole interactions that can occur at molecule to molecule interfaces. The results are discussed in the context of the possibility of interactions caused by strong intrinsic dipoles when adsorbed on electrostatically biased substrates. Key is the discovery of lock and key adsorption chemistry by comparing the reversible absorption of the three isomers of di-iodobenzene (1,2-di-iodobenzene, 1,3-di-iodobenzene, and 1,4-di-iodobenzene) on molecular films of a quinonoid zwitterion. There is unequivocal evidence that the molecular adsorption and absorption of 1, 3-diiodobenzene is strongly favored at 150 K over the other ...


The Photofragmentation Processes Of The Closo-Carborane And The Local Structure Of Transition Metal Doped Semiconducting Boron Carbide Thin Films, Jing Liu Apr 2011

The Photofragmentation Processes Of The Closo-Carborane And The Local Structure Of Transition Metal Doped Semiconducting Boron Carbide Thin Films, Jing Liu

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Physics and Astronomy

I investigated the photofragmentation processes of various closo-carboranes in an effort to understand the radical-induced polymerization of the closo-carboranes (i.e., semiconducting film growth), based on their partial dehydrogenation during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The chemistry of vacuum ultraviolet VUV assisted dehydrogenation processes of both the closo-carboranes and related closo-phosphacarboranes were compared by photoionization mass spectrometry studies. The dominant ion pairs were identified and compared with the energetics constructed by theoretical modeling for the possible dissociation pathways.

Transition metal (Mn, Fe, Co) doped boron carbides thin films produced by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of orthocarborane (closo ...


High-Resolution Studies Of Domain Switching Behavior In Nanostructured Ferroelectric Polymers, Pankaj Sharma, Timothy J. Reece, Stephen Ducharme, Alexei Gruverman Apr 2011

High-Resolution Studies Of Domain Switching Behavior In Nanostructured Ferroelectric Polymers, Pankaj Sharma, Timothy J. Reece, Stephen Ducharme, Alexei Gruverman

Stephen Ducharme Publications

We have demonstrated an effective electrical control of polarization in the individual crystalline nanomesas of the ferroelectric polymer, poly(vinylidene fluoride)-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) and its relation to the polymer structure. The mechanism of polarization reversal has been investigated via sub-10 nm real space imaging of domain pattern evolution under an applied electric field. The domain switching behavior revealed in PVDF-TrFE nanomesas is drastically different from that observed in inorganic solid-state crystalline ferroelectrics. The nanoscale features of the switching process include remote domain nucleation and spatially nonuniform wall velocity. Local switching spectroscopy and domain dynamics studies relate the observed switching features ...


Analytic Confirmation That The Factorized Formula For Harmonic Generation Involves The Exact Photorecombination Cross Section, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, T. S. Sarantseva, Anthony F. Starace Apr 2011

Analytic Confirmation That The Factorized Formula For Harmonic Generation Involves The Exact Photorecombination Cross Section, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, T. S. Sarantseva, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

High-order-harmonic generation (HHG) by atoms in a strong laser field is analyzed theoretically, taking into account atomic potential effects beyond the strong field approximation (SFA). Our analytical derivation extends the time-dependent effective range (TDER) theory, developed previously for a short-range potential supporting only a single bound state, to the case of a potential supporting two bound states having different angular momenta and dynamically interacting with the continuum. In contrast to the SFA and the single-state TDER model, in both of which the HHG rates in the region of the high-energy plateau cutoff involve only the plane-wave (first Born) approximation for ...


Magnetic Entropy Changes In Nanogranular Fe:Ni61Cu39, Steven A. Michalski, Ralph A. Skomski, Tathagata Mukherjee, Xingzhong Li, Christian Binek, David J. Sellmyer Apr 2011

Magnetic Entropy Changes In Nanogranular Fe:Ni61Cu39, Steven A. Michalski, Ralph A. Skomski, Tathagata Mukherjee, Xingzhong Li, Christian Binek, David J. Sellmyer

Christian Binek Publications

Artificial environment-friendly Gd-free magnetic nanostructures for magnetic cooling are investigated by temperature-dependent magnetic measurements. We consider two-phase nanocomposites where nanoclusters (Fe) are embedded in a Ni61Cu39 matrix. Several composite films are produced by cluster deposition. The average Fe cluster size depends on the deposition conditions and can be tuned by varying the deposition conditions. The quasiequilibrium Curie temperature of the Fe particles is high, but slightly lower than that of bulk Fe due to finite-size effects. Our experiments have focused on ensembles of 7.7 nm Fe clusters in a matrix with a composition close to Ni ...


When Measured Spin Polarization Is Not Spin Polarization, Peter A. Dowben, Ning Wu, Christian Binek Apr 2011

When Measured Spin Polarization Is Not Spin Polarization, Peter A. Dowben, Ning Wu, Christian Binek

Christian Binek Publications

Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO2 and Cr2O3 illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values.


Self-Assembled Nanometer-Scale Magnetic Networks On Surfaces: Fundamental Interactions And Functional Properties, Carlo Carbone, Sandra Gardonio, Paolo Moras, Samir Lounis, Marcus Heide, Gustav Bihlmayer, Nicolae Atodiresei, Peter Heinz Dederichs, Stefan Blügel, Sergio Vlaic, Anne Lehnert, Safia Ouazi, Stefano Rusponi, Harald Brune, Jan Honolka, Axel Enders, Klaus Kern, Sebastian Stepanow, Cornelius Krull, Timofey Balashov, Aitor Mugarza, Pietro Gambardella Apr 2011

Self-Assembled Nanometer-Scale Magnetic Networks On Surfaces: Fundamental Interactions And Functional Properties, Carlo Carbone, Sandra Gardonio, Paolo Moras, Samir Lounis, Marcus Heide, Gustav Bihlmayer, Nicolae Atodiresei, Peter Heinz Dederichs, Stefan Blügel, Sergio Vlaic, Anne Lehnert, Safia Ouazi, Stefano Rusponi, Harald Brune, Jan Honolka, Axel Enders, Klaus Kern, Sebastian Stepanow, Cornelius Krull, Timofey Balashov, Aitor Mugarza, Pietro Gambardella

Axel Enders Publications

Nanomagnets of controlled size, organized into regular patterns open new perspectives in the fields of nanoelectronics, spintronics, and quantum computation. Self-assembling processes on various types of substrates allow designing fine-structured architectures and tuning of their magnetic properties. Here, starting from a description of fundamental magnetic interactions at the nanoscale, we review recent experimental approaches to fabricate zero-, one-, and two-dimensional magnetic particle arrays with dimensions reduced to the atomic limit and unprecedented areal density. We describe systems composed of individual magnetic atoms, metal-organic networks, metal wires, and bimetallic particles, as well as strategies to control their magnetic moment, anisotropy, and ...


Efficiency Enhancement In Organic Solar Cells With Ferroelectric Polymers, Yongbo Yuan, Timothy J. Reece, Pankaj Sharma, Shashi Poddar, Stephen Ducharme, Alexei Gruverman, Yang Yang, Jinsong Huang Apr 2011

Efficiency Enhancement In Organic Solar Cells With Ferroelectric Polymers, Yongbo Yuan, Timothy J. Reece, Pankaj Sharma, Shashi Poddar, Stephen Ducharme, Alexei Gruverman, Yang Yang, Jinsong Huang

Stephen Ducharme Publications

The recombination of electrons and holes in semiconducting polymer–fullerene blends has been identified as a main cause of energy loss in organic photovoltaic devices. Generally, an external bias voltage is required to efficiently separate the electrons and holes and thus prevent their recombination. Here we show that a large, permanent, internal electric field can be ensured by incorporating a ferroelectric polymer layer into the device, which eliminates the need for an external bias. The electric field, of the order of 50 V μm–1, potentially induced by the ferroelectric layer is tens of times larger than that achievable by ...


Dr. Robert Katz (1917-2011), Obituary Mar 2011

Dr. Robert Katz (1917-2011), Obituary

Robert Katz Publications

Dr. Robert Katz, 7/17/17–3/12/11, emeritus professor of physics at the University of Nebraska, died peacefully at his home Saturday March 12th following a brief illness. ... A memorial gathering will be held at 4, Friday, April 1st at the Unitarian Church, 6300 'A' Street, Lincoln.


High-Order Harmonic Generation By Atoms In A Few-Cycle Laser Pulse: Carrier-Envelope Phase And Many-Electron Effects, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, A. A. Silaev, N. V. Vvedenskii, Anthony F. Starace Feb 2011

High-Order Harmonic Generation By Atoms In A Few-Cycle Laser Pulse: Carrier-Envelope Phase And Many-Electron Effects, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, A. A. Silaev, N. V. Vvedenskii, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Analytic formulas describing high-order harmonic generation (HHG) by atoms in a short laser pulse are obtained quantum mechanically in the tunneling limit. These results provide analytic expressions of the three-step HHG scenario, as well as of the returning electron wave packet, in a few-cycle pulse. Our results agree well with those of numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the H atom, while for Xe they predict many-electron atomic dynamics features in few-cycle HHG spectra and significant dependence of these features on the carrier-envelope phase of a laser pulse.


Spectra Of Type Ii Cepheid Candidates And Related Stars, Edward G. Schmidt, Danielle Rogalla, Lauren Thacker-Lynn Feb 2011

Spectra Of Type Ii Cepheid Candidates And Related Stars, Edward G. Schmidt, Danielle Rogalla, Lauren Thacker-Lynn

Edward Schmidt Publications

We present low-resolution spectra for variable stars in the Cepheid period range from the ROTSE-I Demonstration Project and the All Sky Automated Survey, some of which were previously identified as type II Cepheid candidates. We have derived effective temperatures, gravities, and metallicities from the spectra. Based on this, three types of variables were identified: Cepheid strip stars, cool stars that lie along the red subgiant and giant branch, and cool main-sequence stars. Many fewer type II Cepheids were found than expected and most have amplitudes less than 0.4 mag. The cool variables include many likely binaries as well as ...


Polarization Patterning By Laser-Induced Phase Change In Ferroelectric Polymer Films, Christina M. Othon, Stephen Ducharme Feb 2011

Polarization Patterning By Laser-Induced Phase Change In Ferroelectric Polymer Films, Christina M. Othon, Stephen Ducharme

Stephen Ducharme Publications

Polarization patterns were written on ferroelectric poly(vinylidene- trifluoroethylene) copolymer Langmuir–Blodgett films by heating into the paraelectric phase by laser illumination using two methods. In the first method, patterns were produced by direct writing by a focused continuouswave laser beam that was moved across the sample. This method affords the greatest flexibility. In the second method, the patterns were generated simultaneously with a pulsed laser using a beam interference method. This method produces highly regular patterns quickly over large areas and affords higher patterning resolution. The patterns produced by both methods could be erased and rewritten, making this technique ...