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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Table Of Contents Aug 2019

Table Of Contents

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Modeling Proton Relative Biological Effectiveness Using Monte Carlo Simulations Of Microdosimetry, Mark A. Newpower Aug 2019

Modeling Proton Relative Biological Effectiveness Using Monte Carlo Simulations Of Microdosimetry, Mark A. Newpower

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Proton therapy is a radiotherapy modality that can offer a better physical dose distribution when compared to photon radiotherapy by taking advantage of the Bragg peak, a narrow region of rapid energy loss. Proton therapy is also known to offer an enhanced relative biological effectiveness (RBE) compared to photons. In the current clinical standard, RBE is fixed at 1.1 at all points along the proton beam, meaning protons are assumed to require 10% less dose than photons to achieve target coverage and organ at risk (OAR) sparing. However, there is mounting clinical evidence, and a significant number of in ...


Commissioning Of Micro-Cube Thermoluminescent Dosimeters For Small Field Dosimetry Quality Assurance In Radiotherapy, Brandon Luckett Aug 2019

Commissioning Of Micro-Cube Thermoluminescent Dosimeters For Small Field Dosimetry Quality Assurance In Radiotherapy, Brandon Luckett

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Small field dosimetry presents complications and uncertainties that could be circumvented by using detectors which are smaller than the radiation field. This study evaluates the reproducibility and accuracy of TLD micro-cubes for use in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) remote auditing quality assurance (QA) for treatment centers participating in clinical trials. This study tested the hypothesis that TLD micro-cubes could be commissioned to evaluate small field dosimetry, and provide reproducibility within 3%, as well as assure agreement between measured dose and calculated doses to within 5%.

The aims of this thesis were to characterize and commission TLD micro-cubes as well as to ...


Development And Long-Term Stability Of A Comprehensive Daily Qa Program For A Modern Pencil Beam Scanning (Pbs) Proton Therapy Delivery System, Suresh Rana, Jaafar Bennouna, Alonso Gutierrez Jun 2019

Development And Long-Term Stability Of A Comprehensive Daily Qa Program For A Modern Pencil Beam Scanning (Pbs) Proton Therapy Delivery System, Suresh Rana, Jaafar Bennouna, Alonso Gutierrez

Alonso Gutierrez

No abstract provided.


Development And Long-Term Stability Of A Comprehensive Daily Qa Program For A Modern Pencil Beam Scanning (Pbs) Proton Therapy Delivery System, Suresh Rana, Jaafar Bennouna, Alonso Gutierrez Jun 2019

Development And Long-Term Stability Of A Comprehensive Daily Qa Program For A Modern Pencil Beam Scanning (Pbs) Proton Therapy Delivery System, Suresh Rana, Jaafar Bennouna, Alonso Gutierrez

Jaafar Bennouna

No abstract provided.


Development And Long-Term Stability Of A Comprehensive Daily Qa Program For A Modern Pencil Beam Scanning (Pbs) Proton Therapy Delivery System, Suresh Rana, Jaafar Bennouna, Alonso Gutierrez Jun 2019

Development And Long-Term Stability Of A Comprehensive Daily Qa Program For A Modern Pencil Beam Scanning (Pbs) Proton Therapy Delivery System, Suresh Rana, Jaafar Bennouna, Alonso Gutierrez

Suresh Rana

No abstract provided.


Determination Of Scatter Fractions, Albedos, And Tenth Value Layers For Shielding Of Synchrotron Beamline Hutches, Bethany Lynn Broekhoven May 2019

Determination Of Scatter Fractions, Albedos, And Tenth Value Layers For Shielding Of Synchrotron Beamline Hutches, Bethany Lynn Broekhoven

LSU Master's Theses

Synchrotron facilities require substantial amounts of shielding to protect facility staff and researchers. To meet mandatory exposure limits, the traditional combination of time, distance, and shielding of the radiation source are utilized. Because of continuous 24-7 operation of most synchrotrons, time is the least useful tool. The experimental stations for synchrotron x-ray beamlines, called hutches, enforce a minimum distance from the source, but shielding provided by hutch walls is still the principal tool for a synchrotron facility. Currently there is no single resource for synchrotron beamline hutch shielding design in the literature; most hutch shielding is designed through either over-simplified ...


Feedforward And Feedback Signals In The Olfactory System, Srimoy Chakraborty May 2019

Feedforward And Feedback Signals In The Olfactory System, Srimoy Chakraborty

Theses and Dissertations

The conglomeration of myriad activities in neural systems often results in prominent oscillations. The primary goal of the research presented in this thesis was to study effects of sensory stimulus on the olfactory system of rats, focusing on the olfactory bulb (OB) and the anterior piriform cortex (aPC). Extracellular electrophysiological measurements revealed distinct frequency bands of oscillations in OB and aPC. However, how these oscillatory fluctuations help the animal to process sensory input is not clearly understood. Here we show high frequency oscillations in olfactory bulb carry feedforward signals to anterior piriform cortex whereas feedback from the aPC is predominantly ...


Seeing Eye To Eye: A Machine Learning Approach To Automated Saccade Analysis, Maigh Attre May 2019

Seeing Eye To Eye: A Machine Learning Approach To Automated Saccade Analysis, Maigh Attre

Honors Scholar Theses

Abnormal ocular motility is a common manifestation of many underlying pathologies particularly those that are neurological. Dynamics of saccades, when the eye rapidly changes its point of fixation, have been characterized for many neurological disorders including concussions, traumatic brain injuries (TBI), and Parkinson’s disease. However, widespread saccade analysis for diagnostic and research purposes requires the recognition of certain eye movement parameters. Key information such as velocity and duration must be determined from data based on a wide set of patients’ characteristics that may range in eye shapes and iris, hair and skin pigmentation [36]. Previous work on saccade analysis ...


Evaluation Of Ventilation Assistance For Improving Respiratory Reproducibility In Radiation Therapy, Cameron J. Sprowls Apr 2019

Evaluation Of Ventilation Assistance For Improving Respiratory Reproducibility In Radiation Therapy, Cameron J. Sprowls

LSU Master's Theses

Background: Respiratory motion affects all tumor sites in the thorax and abdomen. Variations of the respiratory pattern cause variations of the tumor motion which can result in differences between the planned and delivered dose distributions. Previous breathing guidance techniques have been investigated to improve respiratory reproducibility; however, ventilation assistance has not been investigated. We evaluated using bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP) ventilation assistance for improving respiratory reproducibility in patients with tumor sites impacted by respiratory motion.

Methods: Written informed consent was obtained for 10 patients currently undergoing radiation therapy treatment. Patients participated in sessions over their course of treatment, which ...


An Investigation Of The Detection Capability Of Pulsed Wave Duplex Doppler Of Low Grade Stenosis Using Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubbles – An In-Vitro Study, Jacinta Browne, Deirdre King, Andrew Fagan, Deepa Chari, Carmel Moran Apr 2019

An Investigation Of The Detection Capability Of Pulsed Wave Duplex Doppler Of Low Grade Stenosis Using Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubbles – An In-Vitro Study, Jacinta Browne, Deirdre King, Andrew Fagan, Deepa Chari, Carmel Moran

Articles

Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether clinically used ultrasonic contrast agents improved the accuracy of spectral Doppler ultrasound in the detection of low grade (< 50%) renal artery stenosis. Low grade stenoses in the renal artery are notoriously difficult to reliably detect using Doppler ultrasound due to difficulties such as overlying fat and bowel gas.

Methods: A range of anatomically-realistic renal artery phantoms with varying low degrees of stenosis (0, 30 and 50%) were constructed and peak velocity data was measured from within the pre-stenotic and mid-stenotic regions in each phantom, for both unenhanced and contrast-enhanced spectral Doppler data acquisitions. The effect of a 20mm overlying fat layer on the ultrasound beam distortion and phase aberration, and hence on the measured peak velocity data, was also investigated ...


Quantification Of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound, Joseph Pathoulas Apr 2019

Quantification Of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound, Joseph Pathoulas

All College Thesis Program, 2016-present

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of manipulating ultrasound scanner settings on time-intensity curve parameters in a tube perfusion phantom system using contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging. Imaging was performed using a Philips LOGIQ E9 ultrasound scanner equipped with a C1-6VN transducer and utilized two different microbubble contrast agents: Definity and Lumason. The ultrasound scanner settings manipulated included: gain, dynamic range, and frequency. Additionally, relative microbubble concentration, microbubble type, and perfusion flow rate were manipulated. Four time-intensity curve parameters (time to peak, area under curve, gradient, peak intensity) were measured from linearized pixel data. Time to peak was ...


Table Of Contents Mar 2019

Table Of Contents

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Use Of Novel Anthropomorphic Breast Ultrasound Phantoms For Radiology Resident Education, Jacinta Browne, Chris Gu, Robert Fazzio, Andrew Fagan, Donald Tradup, Nicholas Hangiandreou Feb 2019

Use Of Novel Anthropomorphic Breast Ultrasound Phantoms For Radiology Resident Education, Jacinta Browne, Chris Gu, Robert Fazzio, Andrew Fagan, Donald Tradup, Nicholas Hangiandreou

Articles

Purpose: This study evaluated the training and assessment role of anthropomorphic breast ultrasound phantoms which simulated both the morphological and sonographic characteristics of breast tissue, including lesions, in a group of radiology residents at a large academic medical center. Methods: This was a prospective study involving 9 residents across all years (2nd–4th year) of a radiology residency program. Baseline assessments of all residents ability to detect and characterize lesions in P-I were carried out, followed by a two-hour teaching session on the same phantom. All residents underwent a post-training, final assessment on P-II to evaluate changes in ...


Comforting With Mathematics: A Case Study, Michael J. Goldstein Jan 2019

Comforting With Mathematics: A Case Study, Michael J. Goldstein

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

Death by suicide often leaves behind grieving family members with unanswered questions. Of these concerns, fear that their loved one suffered or felt regret is common. When the method of suicide was jumping from height, that answer can easily be determined using basic kinematics. Despite the perception that mathematics is a cold, calculating field, it can provide a clear, definitive answer and comfort those left behind.


Volume 11, Jacob Carney, Ryan White, Joseph Hyman, Jenny Raven, Megan Garrett, Ibrahim Kante, Summer Meinhard, Lauren Johnson, William "Editha" Dean Howells, Laura Gottschalk, Christopher Siefke, Pink Powell, Natasha Woodmancy, Katharine Colley, Abbey Mays, Charlotte Potts Jan 2019

Volume 11, Jacob Carney, Ryan White, Joseph Hyman, Jenny Raven, Megan Garrett, Ibrahim Kante, Summer Meinhard, Lauren Johnson, William "Editha" Dean Howells, Laura Gottschalk, Christopher Siefke, Pink Powell, Natasha Woodmancy, Katharine Colley, Abbey Mays, Charlotte Potts

Incite: The Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

Table of Contents:

Introduction, Dr. Roger A. Byrne, Dean

From the Editor, Dr. Larissa "Kat" Tracy

From the Designers, Rachel English, Rachel Hanson

Synthesis of 3,5-substituted Parabens and their Antimicrobial Properties, Jacob Coarney, Ryan White

Chernobyl: Putting "Perestroika" and "Glasnot" to the Test, Joseph Hyman

Art by Jenny Raven

Watering Down Accessibility: The Issue with Public Access to Alaska's Federal Waterways, Meagan Garrett

Why Has the Democratic Republic of the Congo outsourced its Responsibility to Educate its Citizens? Ibrahim Kante

Art by Summer Meinhard

A Computational Study of Single Molecule Diodes, Lauren Johnson

Satire of the State through ...


Development And Long-Term Stability Of A Comprehensive Daily Qa Program For A Modern Pencil Beam Scanning (Pbs) Proton Therapy Delivery System, Suresh Rana, Jaafar Bennouna, Alonso Gutierrez Jan 2019

Development And Long-Term Stability Of A Comprehensive Daily Qa Program For A Modern Pencil Beam Scanning (Pbs) Proton Therapy Delivery System, Suresh Rana, Jaafar Bennouna, Alonso Gutierrez

All Publications

No abstract provided.


Multivariate Statistical Methodologies Used In In-Vitro Raman Spectroscopy: Simulations And Applications For Drug And Nanoparticle Interactions, Mark Edward Keating [Thesis] Jan 2019

Multivariate Statistical Methodologies Used In In-Vitro Raman Spectroscopy: Simulations And Applications For Drug And Nanoparticle Interactions, Mark Edward Keating [Thesis]

Doctoral

Raman spectroscopy is a growing technology in the fields of in-vitro drug and nanoparticle screening. The label free capability provided by vibrational spectroscopy, as well as the ability of the technique to probe the chemical nature of samples, makes it a good candidate for use in these fields. Crucial to the progress of these methods is the development and validation of robust and accurate multivariate statistical analysis protocols. In this thesis, both established and novel methods are examined using both real and simulated datasets. In particular, simulated datasets are used to validate and assess the accuracy of these methods in ...


Table Of Contents Dec 2018

Table Of Contents

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Innate Immunity, The Hepatic Extracellular Matrix, And Liver Injury: Mathematical Modeling Of Metastatic Potential And Tumor Development In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Shanice V. Hudson Dec 2018

Innate Immunity, The Hepatic Extracellular Matrix, And Liver Injury: Mathematical Modeling Of Metastatic Potential And Tumor Development In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Shanice V. Hudson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The overarching goals of the current work are to fill key gaps in the current understanding of alcohol consumption and the risk of metastasis to the liver. Considering the evidence this research group has compiled confirming that the hepatic matrisome responds dynamically to injury, an altered extracellular matrix (ECM) profile appears to be a key feature of pre-fibrotic inflammatory injury in the liver. This group has demonstrated that the hepatic ECM responds dynamically to alcohol exposure, in particular, sensitizing the liver to LPS-induced inflammatory damage. Although the study of alcohol in its role as a contributing factor to oncogenesis and ...


Evaluation Of Presage® As A 3d Dose Verification Tool In Proton Beams, Mitchell Carroll Dec 2018

Evaluation Of Presage® As A 3d Dose Verification Tool In Proton Beams, Mitchell Carroll

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Radiotherapy techniques have advanced and radiation dose plans have become much more complex over the last decade. This is especially true in proton therapy, which involves extremely steep dose gradients as a result of positioning the Bragg peak to cover the volumes to be treated. The Bragg peak can be shifted significantly in the patient as a result of nonuniformities in the tissue composition in its path, which can result in treatment complications. Some traditional dose verification tools used in proton beam commissioning and treatment plan verification are film, TLD, and ionization chambers. Such 0D and 2D dosimeters are incapable ...


Exploring The Neural Mechanisms Of Physics Learning, Jessica E. Bartley Nov 2018

Exploring The Neural Mechanisms Of Physics Learning, Jessica E. Bartley

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents a series of neuroimaging investigations and achievements that strive to deepen and broaden our understanding of human problem solving and physics learning. Neuroscience conceives of dynamic relationships between behavior, experience, and brain structure and function, but how neural changes enable human learning across classroom instruction remains an open question. At the same time, physics is a challenging area of study in which introductory students regularly struggle to achieve success across university instruction. Research and initiatives in neuroeducation promise a new understanding into the interactions between biology and education, including the neural mechanisms of learning and development. These ...


Performance Impact Of Different Lower-Limb Setup Positions In The Backstroke Swimming Start, Gordon E. Barkwell Aug 2018

Performance Impact Of Different Lower-Limb Setup Positions In The Backstroke Swimming Start, Gordon E. Barkwell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The performance impact of different knee extension angles in the setup position for a backstroke start was evaluated using an instrumented starting surface. Ten backstroke swimmers completed maximum-effort starts in each of two setup positions: one with the knees flexed, and one with the knees extended. The start handles and touchpad were instrumented with tri-axial force plates. Activity of major hip and knee extensors was measured using surface electromyography. Body position was recorded throughout the start using two high-speed cameras. There was no difference in time to 10 m between the two conditions, indicating there is likely no advantage in ...


Improved Target Coverage Of Spinal Metastases Through The Use Of Flattening Filter Free Beams, Laura Bennett Aug 2018

Improved Target Coverage Of Spinal Metastases Through The Use Of Flattening Filter Free Beams, Laura Bennett

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Of the patients that are diagnosed with metastatic disease, up to 40% will develop vertebral osseous metastases. These metastases tend to be located in close proximity to the spinal cord itself, making it difficult to achieve the recommended minimum dose of 14 Gy for single fraction SBRT or 21 Gy1 for three fraction SBRT while maintaining acceptable doses to the cord and cauda equina. This proximity of the target to critical structures has the potential to compromise the efficacy of the radiation treatment plan in favor of reducing normal tissue dose, resulting in poor local control and tumor recurrence ...


Development And Commissioning Of An Independent Peer Review System For A Small Animal Irradiator, Mary Peters Aug 2018

Development And Commissioning Of An Independent Peer Review System For A Small Animal Irradiator, Mary Peters

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Dosimetry for small animal irradiators lacks the standardization of clinical radiotherapy practice, yet plays a central translational role in human trial design. The purpose of this work was to improve the dosimetric accuracy and consistency of animal studies by developing an independent peer review system to verify dose delivery from animal irradiators. This study focused on the development of a mouse phantom and characterization of the thermoluminescent dosimetry system for a commonly used small animal irradiator.

First, a mouse model and irradiation stand were designed with the purpose of being used in a mailable audit. Two mouse phantoms were machined ...


Identification Of Intracranial Lesions With Dual-Energy Computed Tomography And Magnetic Resonance Phase Imaging, Megan C. Jacobsen Aug 2018

Identification Of Intracranial Lesions With Dual-Energy Computed Tomography And Magnetic Resonance Phase Imaging, Megan C. Jacobsen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

On conventional Single-energy Computed Tomography (SECT), lesions with an attenuation greater than 100 Hounsfield Units (HU) can be definitively diagnosed as calcification. However, low-density calcifications and hemorrhage may have overlapping attenuation ranges between 40 and 100 HU and, therefore, cannot be differentiated with SECT alone. On T2*-weighted Gradient Recalled Echo (GRE) MRI, these lesions appear as “foci of susceptibility” in which their signal is hypointense due to the magnetic susceptibility of the lesions differing from that of the background tissue.

Dual-energy Computed Tomography (DECT) and Phase-Sensitive Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PS-MRI) represent two new imaging paradigms which both have the ...


Investigation Of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Delivery Accuracy On An Elekta Linear Accelerator, Addie Barron Jul 2018

Investigation Of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Delivery Accuracy On An Elekta Linear Accelerator, Addie Barron

LSU Master's Theses

Purpose: This work investigated the delivery accuracy of high-dose lung and spine stereotactic treatments delivered with the Elekta Infinity and Versa HD platforms. The accuracy of these platforms will be used for consideration in implementing a spine stereotactic radiosurgery (SSRS) program at Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center.

Methods: A geometric phantom was used to perform Winston-Lutz type tests that assessed the relevant degrees of freedom (gantry, collimator, and couch) of the delivery system. A lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and spine SRS treatment plan were generated for use in end-to-end testing. Delivery accuracy was tested using a novel diode ...


Table Of Contents Jul 2018

Table Of Contents

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Super‐Resolution Imaging Of Amyloid Structures Over Extended Times By Using Transient Binding Of Single Thioflavin T Molecules, Kevin Spehar, Tianben Ding, Yuanzi Sun, Niraja Kedia, Jin Lu, George R. Nahass, Matthew D. Lew, Jan Bieschke Jun 2018

Super‐Resolution Imaging Of Amyloid Structures Over Extended Times By Using Transient Binding Of Single Thioflavin T Molecules, Kevin Spehar, Tianben Ding, Yuanzi Sun, Niraja Kedia, Jin Lu, George R. Nahass, Matthew D. Lew, Jan Bieschke

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

Oligomeric amyloid structures are crucial therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's and other amyloid diseases. However, these oligomers are too small to be resolved by standard light microscopy. We have developed a simple and versatile tool to image amyloid structures by using thioflavin T without the need for covalent labeling or immunostaining. The dynamic binding of single dye molecules generates photon bursts that are used for fluorophore localization on a nanometer scale. Thus, photobleaching cannot degrade image quality, allowing for extended observation times. Super‐resolution transient amyloid binding microscopy promises to directly image native amyloid by using standard probes and record ...


Computer Design Of Microfluidic Mixers For Protein/Rna Folding Studies, Venkatesh Inguva, Sagar V. Kathuria, Osman Bilsel, Blair James Perot Jun 2018

Computer Design Of Microfluidic Mixers For Protein/Rna Folding Studies, Venkatesh Inguva, Sagar V. Kathuria, Osman Bilsel, Blair James Perot

Open Access Articles

Kinetic studies of biological macromolecules increasingly use microfluidic mixers to initiate and monitor reaction progress. A motivation for using microfluidic mixers is to reduce sample consumption and decrease mixing time to microseconds. Some applications, such as small-angle x-ray scattering, also require large ( > 10 micron) sampling areas to ensure high signal-to-noise ratios and to minimize parasitic scattering. Chaotic to marginally turbulent mixers are well suited for these applications because this class of mixers provides a good middle ground between existing laminar and turbulent mixers. In this study, we model various chaotic to marginally turbulent mixing concepts such as flow turning, flow ...