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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Crispr Gene Editing In The Sea Squirt, Ciona Intestinalis, Evelyn Siler, Steven Irvine May 2018

Crispr Gene Editing In The Sea Squirt, Ciona Intestinalis, Evelyn Siler, Steven Irvine

Senior Honors Projects

Genetic manipulation has come a long way in the past ten years alone. Scientists have had access to gene editing techniques for decades, but until recently these methods have proven to be expensive and unpredictable. However, thanks to the development of a new, more efficient genome editing strategy called CRISPR/Cas9, more aggressive progress can now be made in genetics research.

CRISPR is not a machine or a physical tool, but rather it is a system that involves introducing a protein into a cell, along with a DNA segment that will attract the protein to a desired location on the ...


Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu Apr 2018

Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The role of electrostatic interactions in the viral capsid assembly process was studied by comparing the assembly process of a truncated hepatitis B virus capsid protein Cp149 with its mutant protein D2N/D4N, which has the same conformational structure but four fewer charges per dimer. The capsid protein self-assembly was investigated under a wide range of protein surface charge densities by changing the protein concentration, buffer pH, and solution ionic strength. Lowering the protein charge density favored the capsid formation. However, lowering charge beyond a certain point resulted in capsid aggregation and precipitation. Interestingly, both the wild-type and D2N/D4N ...


Multiple Molecular Mechanisms Rescue Mtdna Disease In C. Elegans, Suraiya Haroon, Annie Li, Jaye L. Weinert, Clark Fritsch, Nolan G. Ericson, Jasmine Alexander-Floyd, Bart P. Braeckman, Cole M. Haynes, Jason H. Bielas, Tali Gidalevitz, Marc Vermulst Mar 2018

Multiple Molecular Mechanisms Rescue Mtdna Disease In C. Elegans, Suraiya Haroon, Annie Li, Jaye L. Weinert, Clark Fritsch, Nolan G. Ericson, Jasmine Alexander-Floyd, Bart P. Braeckman, Cole M. Haynes, Jason H. Bielas, Tali Gidalevitz, Marc Vermulst

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Genetic instability of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) plays an important role in human aging and disease. Thus far, it has proven difficult to develop successful treatment strategies for diseases that are caused by mtDNA instability. To address this issue, we developed a model of mtDNA disease in the nematode C. elegans, an animal model that can rapidly be screened for genes and biological pathways that reduce mitochondrial pathology. These worms recapitulate all the major hallmarks of mtDNA disease in humans, including increased mtDNA instability, loss of respiration, reduced neuromuscular function, and a shortened lifespan. We found that these phenotypes could ...


Quaternary Interactions And Supercoiling Modulate The Cooperative Dna Binding Of Agt, Manana Melikishvili, Michael G. Fried Jul 2017

Quaternary Interactions And Supercoiling Modulate The Cooperative Dna Binding Of Agt, Manana Melikishvili, Michael G. Fried

Center for Structural Biology Faculty Publications

Human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) repairs mutagenic O6-alkylguanine and O4-alkylthymine adducts in single-stranded and duplex DNAs. The search for these lesions, through a vast excess of competing, unmodified genomic DNA, is a mechanistic challenge that may limit the repair rate in vivo. Here, we examine influences of DNA secondary structure and twist on protein–protein interactions in cooperative AGT complexes formed on lesion-free DNAs that model the unmodified parts of the genome. We used a new approach to resolve nearest neighbor (nn) and long-range (lr) components from the ensemble-average cooperativity, ωave. We found that ...


An Arginine Finger Regulates The Sequential Action Of Asymmetrical Hexameric Atpase In The Double-Stranded Dna Translocation Motor, Zhengyi Zhao, Gian Marco De-Donatis, Chad T. Schwartz, Huaming Fang, Jingyuan Li, Peixuan Guo Oct 2016

An Arginine Finger Regulates The Sequential Action Of Asymmetrical Hexameric Atpase In The Double-Stranded Dna Translocation Motor, Zhengyi Zhao, Gian Marco De-Donatis, Chad T. Schwartz, Huaming Fang, Jingyuan Li, Peixuan Guo

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Biological motors are ubiquitous in living systems. Currently, how the motor components coordinate the unidirectional motion is elusive in most cases. Here, we report that the sequential action of the ATPase ring in the DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage ϕ29 is regulated by an arginine finger that extends from one ATPase subunit to the adjacent unit to promote noncovalent dimer formation. Mutation of the arginine finger resulted in the interruption of ATPase oligomerization, ATP binding/hydrolysis, and DNA translocation. Dimer formation reappeared when arginine mutants were mixed with other ATPase subunits that can offer the arginine to promote their interaction ...


It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield Jan 2016

It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Free radical-mediated damage to macromolecules and the resulting oxidative modification of different cellular components are a common feature of aging, and this process becomes much more pronounced in age-associated pathologies, including Alzheimer disease (AD). In particular, proteins are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress-induced damage and these irreversible modifications lead to the alteration of protein structure and function. In order to maintain cell homeostasis, these oxidized/damaged proteins have to be removed in order to prevent their toxic accumulation. It is generally accepted that the age-related accumulation of “aberrant” proteins results from both the increased occurrence of damage and the decreased ...


Mutations In Conserved Residues Of The C. Elegans Microrna Argonaute Alg-1 Identify Separable Functions In Alg-1 Mirisc Loading And Target Repression, Anna Y. Zinovyeva, Samir Bouasker, Martin J. Simard, Christopher M. Hammell, Victor R. Ambros Apr 2014

Mutations In Conserved Residues Of The C. Elegans Microrna Argonaute Alg-1 Identify Separable Functions In Alg-1 Mirisc Loading And Target Repression, Anna Y. Zinovyeva, Samir Bouasker, Martin J. Simard, Christopher M. Hammell, Victor R. Ambros

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications

microRNAs function in diverse developmental and physiological processes by regulating target gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. ALG-1 is one of two Caenorhabditis elegans Argonautes (ALG-1 and ALG-2) that together are essential for microRNA biogenesis and function. Here, we report the identification of novel antimorphic (anti) alleles of ALG-1 as suppressors of lin-28(lf) precocious developmental phenotypes. The alg-1(anti) mutations broadly impair the function of many microRNAs and cause dosage-dependent phenotypes that are more severe than the complete loss of ALG-1. ALG-1(anti) mutant proteins are competent for promoting Dicer cleavage of microRNA precursors and for associating with and ...


Mutation And Complementation Of A Cellulose Synthase (Cesa) Gene, Ahmed Y. El-Araby May 2012

Mutation And Complementation Of A Cellulose Synthase (Cesa) Gene, Ahmed Y. El-Araby

Senior Honors Projects

Cellulose is a carbohydrate polymer that is composed of repeating glucose subunits. Being the most abundant organic compound in the biosphere and comprising a large percentage of all plant biomass, cellulose is extremely plentiful and has a significant role in nature. Cellulose is present in plant cell walls, in commercial products such as those made from wood or cotton, and is of interest to the biofuel industry as a potential alternative fuel source. Although indigestible by humans, cellulose is nutritionally valuable, serving as a dietary fiber. Because of its ubiquity and importance in many areas, studying cellulose will prove to ...


The Pcdp1 Complex Coordinates The Activity Of Dynein Isoforms To Produce Wild-Type Ciliary Motility, Christen G. Dipetrillo, Elizabeth F. Smith Sep 2011

The Pcdp1 Complex Coordinates The Activity Of Dynein Isoforms To Produce Wild-Type Ciliary Motility, Christen G. Dipetrillo, Elizabeth F. Smith

Open Dartmouth: Peer-reviewed articles by Dartmouth faculty

Generating the complex waveforms characteristic of beating cilia requires the coordinated activity of multiple dynein isoforms anchored to the axoneme. We previously identified a complex associated with the C1d projection of the central apparatus that includes primary ciliary dyskinesia protein 1 (Pcdp1). Reduced expression of complex members results in severe motility defects, indicating that C1d is essential for wild-type ciliary beating. To define a mechanism for Pcdp1/C1d regulation of motility, we took a functional and structural approach combined with mutants lacking C1d and distinct subsets of dynein arms. Unlike mutants completely lacking the central apparatus, dynein-driven microtubule sliding velocities ...


The Csc Is Required For Complete Radial Spoke Assembly And Wild-Type Ciliary Motility, Erin E. Dymek, Thomas Heuser, Daniela Nicastro, Elizabeth F. Smith May 2011

The Csc Is Required For Complete Radial Spoke Assembly And Wild-Type Ciliary Motility, Erin E. Dymek, Thomas Heuser, Daniela Nicastro, Elizabeth F. Smith

Open Dartmouth: Peer-reviewed articles by Dartmouth faculty

The ubiquitous calcium binding protein, calmodulin (CaM), plays a major role in regulating the motility of all eukaryotic cilia and flagella. We previously identified a CaM and Spoke associated Complex (CSC) and provided evidence that this complex mediates regulatory signals between the radial spokes and dynein arms. We have now used an artificial microRNA (amiRNA) approach to reduce expression of two CSC subunits in Chlamydomonas. For all amiRNA mutants, the entire CSC is lacking or severely reduced in flagella. Structural studies of mutant axonemes revealed that assembly of radial spoke 2 is defective. Furthermore, analysis of both flagellar beating and ...


Requirements For Transitional Endoplasmic Reticulum Site Structure And Function In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Polina Shindiapina, Charles Barlowe Feb 2010

Requirements For Transitional Endoplasmic Reticulum Site Structure And Function In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Polina Shindiapina, Charles Barlowe

Open Dartmouth: Peer-reviewed articles by Dartmouth faculty

Secretory proteins are exported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) at specialized regions known as the transitional ER (tER). Coat protein complex II (COPII) proteins are enriched at tER sites, although the mechanisms underlying tER site assembly and maintenance are not understood. Here, we investigated the dynamic properties of tER sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and probed protein and lipid requirements for tER site structure and function. Thermosensitive sec12 and sec16 mutations caused a collapse of tER sites in a manner that depended on nascent secretory cargo. Continual fatty acid synthesis was required for ER export and for normal tER site structure ...


Erv26p Directs Pro-Alkaline Phosphatase Into Endoplasmic Reticulum–Derived Coat Protein Complex Ii Transport Vesicles, Catherine A. Bue, Christine M. Bentivoglio, Charles Barlowe Sep 2006

Erv26p Directs Pro-Alkaline Phosphatase Into Endoplasmic Reticulum–Derived Coat Protein Complex Ii Transport Vesicles, Catherine A. Bue, Christine M. Bentivoglio, Charles Barlowe

Open Dartmouth: Peer-reviewed articles by Dartmouth faculty

Secretory proteins are exported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in transport vesicles formed by the coat protein complex II (COPII). We detected Erv26p as an integral membrane protein that was efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles and cycled between the ER and Golgi compartments. The erv26Δ mutant displayed a selective secretory defect in which the pro-form of vacuolar alkaline phosphatase (pro-ALP) accumulated in the ER, whereas other secretory proteins were transported at wild-type rates. In vitro budding experiments demonstrated that Erv26p was directly required for packaging of pro-ALP into COPII vesicles. Moreover, Erv26p was detected in a specific complex with pro-ALP ...


Heparin Modulates The 99-Loop Of Factor Ixa: Effects On Reactivity With Isolated Kunitz-Type Inhibitor Domains, Pierre F. Neuenschwander, Stephen R. Williamson, Armen Nalian, Kimberly J. Baker-Deadmond Jan 2006

Heparin Modulates The 99-Loop Of Factor Ixa: Effects On Reactivity With Isolated Kunitz-Type Inhibitor Domains, Pierre F. Neuenschwander, Stephen R. Williamson, Armen Nalian, Kimberly J. Baker-Deadmond

Faculty Publications

Reactivity of factor IXa with basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor is enhanced by low molecular weight heparin (enoxaparin). Previous studies by us have suggested that this effect involves allosteric modulation of factor IXa. We examined the reactivity of factor IXa with several isolated Kunitz-type inhibitor domains: basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, the Kunitz inhibitor domain of protease Nexin-2, and the first two inhibitor domains of tissue factor pathway inhibitor. We find that enhancement of factor IXa reactivity by enoxaparin is greatest for basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (>10-fold), followed by the second tissue factor pathway inhibitor domain (1.7-fold) and the Kunitz inhibitor ...


The C. Elegans Heterochronic Gene Lin-46 Affects Developmental Timing At Two Larval Stages And Encodes A Relative Of The Scaffolding Protein Gephyrin, A. S.-R. Pepper, Jill E. Mccane, Kevin Kemper, Dennis Au Yeung, Rosalind C. Lee, Victor Ambros, Eric G. Moss Apr 2004

The C. Elegans Heterochronic Gene Lin-46 Affects Developmental Timing At Two Larval Stages And Encodes A Relative Of The Scaffolding Protein Gephyrin, A. S.-R. Pepper, Jill E. Mccane, Kevin Kemper, Dennis Au Yeung, Rosalind C. Lee, Victor Ambros, Eric G. Moss

Open Dartmouth: Peer-reviewed articles by Dartmouth faculty

The succession of developmental events in the C. elegans larva is governed by the heterochronic genes. When mutated, these genes cause either precocious or retarded developmental phenotypes, in which stage-specific patterns of cell division and differentiation are either skipped or reiterated, respectively. We identified a new heterochronic gene, lin-46, from mutations that suppress the precocious phenotypes caused by mutations in the heterochronic genes lin-14 and lin-28. lin-46 mutants on their own display retarded phenotypes in which cell division patterns are reiterated and differentiation is prevented in certain cell lineages. Our analysis indicates that lin-46 acts at a step immediately downstream ...


Nuclear Export Of 60s Ribosomal Subunits Depends On Xpo1p And Requires A Nuclear Export Sequence-Containing Factor, Nmd3p, That Associates With The Large Subunit Protein Rpl10p, Olivier Gadal, Daniela Strau, Jacques Kessl, Bernard Trumpower Feb 2001

Nuclear Export Of 60s Ribosomal Subunits Depends On Xpo1p And Requires A Nuclear Export Sequence-Containing Factor, Nmd3p, That Associates With The Large Subunit Protein Rpl10p, Olivier Gadal, Daniela Strau, Jacques Kessl, Bernard Trumpower

Open Dartmouth: Peer-reviewed articles by Dartmouth faculty

Nuclear export of ribosomes requires a subset of nucleoporins and the Ran system, but specific transport factors have not been identified. Using a large subunit reporter (Rpl25p-eGFP), we have isolated several temperature-sensitive ribosomal export (rix) mutants. One of these corresponds to the ribosomal protein Rpl10p, which interacts directly with Nmd3p, a conserved and essential protein associated with 60S subunits. We find that thermosensitive nmd3 mutants are impaired in large subunit export. Strikingly, Nmd3p shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm and is exported by the nuclear export receptor Xpo1p. Moreover, we show that export of 60S subunits is Xpo1p dependent. We ...