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Articles 1 - 30 of 30

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Crispr Gene Editing In The Sea Squirt, Ciona Intestinalis, Evelyn Siler, Steven Irvine May 2018

Crispr Gene Editing In The Sea Squirt, Ciona Intestinalis, Evelyn Siler, Steven Irvine

Senior Honors Projects

Genetic manipulation has come a long way in the past ten years alone. Scientists have had access to gene editing techniques for decades, but until recently these methods have proven to be expensive and unpredictable. However, thanks to the development of a new, more efficient genome editing strategy called CRISPR/Cas9, more aggressive progress can now be made in genetics research.

CRISPR is not a machine or a physical tool, but rather it is a system that involves introducing a protein into a cell, along with a DNA segment that will attract the protein to a desired location on the ...


Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu Apr 2018

Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The role of electrostatic interactions in the viral capsid assembly process was studied by comparing the assembly process of a truncated hepatitis B virus capsid protein Cp149 with its mutant protein D2N/D4N, which has the same conformational structure but four fewer charges per dimer. The capsid protein self-assembly was investigated under a wide range of protein surface charge densities by changing the protein concentration, buffer pH, and solution ionic strength. Lowering the protein charge density favored the capsid formation. However, lowering charge beyond a certain point resulted in capsid aggregation and precipitation. Interestingly, both the wild-type and D2N/D4N ...


Multiple Molecular Mechanisms Rescue Mtdna Disease In C. Elegans, Suraiya Haroon, Annie Li, Jaye L. Weinert, Clark Fritsch, Nolan G. Ericson, Jasmine Alexander-Floyd, Bart P. Braeckman, Cole M. Haynes, Jason H. Bielas, Tali Gidalevitz, Marc Vermulst Mar 2018

Multiple Molecular Mechanisms Rescue Mtdna Disease In C. Elegans, Suraiya Haroon, Annie Li, Jaye L. Weinert, Clark Fritsch, Nolan G. Ericson, Jasmine Alexander-Floyd, Bart P. Braeckman, Cole M. Haynes, Jason H. Bielas, Tali Gidalevitz, Marc Vermulst

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Genetic instability of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) plays an important role in human aging and disease. Thus far, it has proven difficult to develop successful treatment strategies for diseases that are caused by mtDNA instability. To address this issue, we developed a model of mtDNA disease in the nematode C. elegans, an animal model that can rapidly be screened for genes and biological pathways that reduce mitochondrial pathology. These worms recapitulate all the major hallmarks of mtDNA disease in humans, including increased mtDNA instability, loss of respiration, reduced neuromuscular function, and a shortened lifespan. We found that these phenotypes could ...


The Complex Role Of Sequence And Structure In The Stability And Function Of The Tim Barrel Proteins, Yvonne H. Chan Nov 2017

The Complex Role Of Sequence And Structure In The Stability And Function Of The Tim Barrel Proteins, Yvonne H. Chan

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Sequence divergence of orthologous proteins enables adaptation to a plethora of environmental stresses and promotes evolution of novel functions. As one of the most common motifs in biology capable of diverse enzymatic functions, the TIM barrel represents an ideal model system for mapping the phenotypic manifestations of protein sequence. Limits on evolution imposed by constraints on sequence and structure were investigated using a model TIM barrel protein, indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS). Exploration of fitness landscapes of phylogenetically distant orthologs provides a strategy for elucidating the complex interrelationship in the context of a protein fold.

Fitness effects of point mutations in ...


Quaternary Interactions And Supercoiling Modulate The Cooperative Dna Binding Of Agt, Manana Melikishvili, Michael G. Fried Jul 2017

Quaternary Interactions And Supercoiling Modulate The Cooperative Dna Binding Of Agt, Manana Melikishvili, Michael G. Fried

Center for Structural Biology Faculty Publications

Human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) repairs mutagenic O6-alkylguanine and O4-alkylthymine adducts in single-stranded and duplex DNAs. The search for these lesions, through a vast excess of competing, unmodified genomic DNA, is a mechanistic challenge that may limit the repair rate in vivo. Here, we examine influences of DNA secondary structure and twist on protein–protein interactions in cooperative AGT complexes formed on lesion-free DNAs that model the unmodified parts of the genome. We used a new approach to resolve nearest neighbor (nn) and long-range (lr) components from the ensemble-average cooperativity, ωave. We found that ...


Dna Polymerase Zeta-Dependent Mutagenesis: Molecular Specificity, Extent Of Error-Prone Synthesis, And The Role Of Dntp Pools, Olga V. Kochenova Dec 2016

Dna Polymerase Zeta-Dependent Mutagenesis: Molecular Specificity, Extent Of Error-Prone Synthesis, And The Role Of Dntp Pools, Olga V. Kochenova

Theses & Dissertations

Despite multiple DNA repair pathways, DNA lesions can escape repair and compromise normal chromosomal replication, leading to genome instability. Cells utilize specialized low-fidelity Translesion Synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases to bypass lesions and rescue arrested replication forks. TLS is a highly conserved two-step process that involves insertion of a nucleotide opposite a lesion and extension of the resulting aberrant primer terminus. The first step can be performed by both replicative and TLS DNA polymerases and, because of non-instructive DNA lesions, often results in a nucleotide misincorporation. The second step is almost exclusively catalyzed by DNA polymerase ζ ...


An Arginine Finger Regulates The Sequential Action Of Asymmetrical Hexameric Atpase In The Double-Stranded Dna Translocation Motor, Zhengyi Zhao, Gian Marco De-Donatis, Chad T. Schwartz, Huaming Fang, Jingyuan Li, Peixuan Guo Oct 2016

An Arginine Finger Regulates The Sequential Action Of Asymmetrical Hexameric Atpase In The Double-Stranded Dna Translocation Motor, Zhengyi Zhao, Gian Marco De-Donatis, Chad T. Schwartz, Huaming Fang, Jingyuan Li, Peixuan Guo

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Biological motors are ubiquitous in living systems. Currently, how the motor components coordinate the unidirectional motion is elusive in most cases. Here, we report that the sequential action of the ATPase ring in the DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage ϕ29 is regulated by an arginine finger that extends from one ATPase subunit to the adjacent unit to promote noncovalent dimer formation. Mutation of the arginine finger resulted in the interruption of ATPase oligomerization, ATP binding/hydrolysis, and DNA translocation. Dimer formation reappeared when arginine mutants were mixed with other ATPase subunits that can offer the arginine to promote their interaction ...


Characterization Of The Catalytic Ck2 Subunits With Substitutions At Residues Involved In Inhibitor Binding, Paul Desormeaux Sep 2016

Characterization Of The Catalytic Ck2 Subunits With Substitutions At Residues Involved In Inhibitor Binding, Paul Desormeaux

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

CK2 is a constitutively active, ubiquitously expressed and pleiotropic serine/threonine protein kinase that is implicated in many cellular functions including tumorigenesis. CK2 has two catalytic subunits, CK2a and CK2a’, that carry out its function in the cell. Previous studies have indicated that inhibitor-refractory mutants have been effective in recovering residual CK2 activity, in the presence of inhibitors, when compared to wild type CK2. Based on these observations, inhibitor-refractory mutants were created for both CK2a and CK2a’ and tested with various concentrations with two CK2-specific inhibitors, CX-4945 and inhibitor VIII. The CK2a triple mutant (V66A/I174A/H160D) was tested in ...


Physiological Bases And A Novel Genetic Determinant Of Water-Use Efficiency (Wue), Jie Yin Aug 2016

Physiological Bases And A Novel Genetic Determinant Of Water-Use Efficiency (Wue), Jie Yin

Open Access Dissertations

Water-use efficiency (WUE), the ratio of biomass to water loss, is a heritable but complex trait, the genetic basis of which is largely unknown. We utilized diverse accessions of the halophyte Eutrema salsugineum to ultimately identify a novel genetic determinant of WUE. E. salsugineum accessions from locations with low water availability, temperature, and radiation have lower transpirational water loss and greater biomass, resulting in higher WUE. High-WUE accessions also have lower stomatal density and index and larger thinner leaves than low-WUE accessions. We identified 14,808 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between two accessions of E. salsugineum,Shandong (SH) and Yukon ...


Systematic Experimental Determination Of Functional Constraints On Proteins And Adaptive Potential Of Mutations: A Dissertation, Li Jiang May 2016

Systematic Experimental Determination Of Functional Constraints On Proteins And Adaptive Potential Of Mutations: A Dissertation, Li Jiang

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Sequence-function relationship is a fundamental question for many branches of modern biomedical research. It connects the primary sequence of proteins to the function of proteins and fitness of organisms, holding answers for critical questions such as functional consequences of mutations identified in whole genome sequencing and adaptive potential of fast evolving pathogenic viruses and microbes. Many different approaches have been developed to delineate the genotype-phenotype map for different proteins, but are generally limited by their throughput or precision. To systematically quantify the fitness of large numbers of mutations, I modified a novel high throughput mutational scanning approach (EMPIRIC) to investigate ...


It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield Jan 2016

It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Free radical-mediated damage to macromolecules and the resulting oxidative modification of different cellular components are a common feature of aging, and this process becomes much more pronounced in age-associated pathologies, including Alzheimer disease (AD). In particular, proteins are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress-induced damage and these irreversible modifications lead to the alteration of protein structure and function. In order to maintain cell homeostasis, these oxidized/damaged proteins have to be removed in order to prevent their toxic accumulation. It is generally accepted that the age-related accumulation of “aberrant” proteins results from both the increased occurrence of damage and the decreased ...


The Decapping Scavenger Enzyme Dcs-1 Controls Microrna Levels In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Gabriel Bosse, Stefan Ruegger, Maria Ow, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Evelyne Rondeau, Victor Ambros, Helge Grosshans, Martin Simard Oct 2015

The Decapping Scavenger Enzyme Dcs-1 Controls Microrna Levels In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Gabriel Bosse, Stefan Ruegger, Maria Ow, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Evelyne Rondeau, Victor Ambros, Helge Grosshans, Martin Simard

Victor R. Ambros

In metazoans, microRNAs play a critical role in the posttranscriptional regulation of genes required for cell proliferation and differentiation. MicroRNAs themselves are regulated by a multitude of mechanisms influencing their transcription and posttranscriptional maturation. However, there is only sparse knowledge on pathways regulating the mature, functional form of microRNA. Here, we uncover the implication of the decapping scavenger protein DCS-1 in the control of microRNA turnover. In Caenorhabditis elegans, mutations in dcs-1 increase the levels of functional microRNAs. We demonstrate that DCS-1 interacts with the exonuclease XRN-1 to promote microRNA degradation in an independent manner from its known decapping scavenger ...


Mutations In Conserved Residues Of The C. Elegans Microrna Argonaute Alg-1 Identify Separable Functions In Alg-1 Mirisc Loading And Target Repression, Anna Y. Zinovyeva, Samir Bouasker, Martin J. Simard, Christopher M. Hammell, Victor R. Ambros Oct 2015

Mutations In Conserved Residues Of The C. Elegans Microrna Argonaute Alg-1 Identify Separable Functions In Alg-1 Mirisc Loading And Target Repression, Anna Y. Zinovyeva, Samir Bouasker, Martin J. Simard, Christopher M. Hammell, Victor R. Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

microRNAs function in diverse developmental and physiological processes by regulating target gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. ALG-1 is one of two Caenorhabditis elegans Argonautes (ALG-1 and ALG-2) that together are essential for microRNA biogenesis and function. Here, we report the identification of novel antimorphic (anti) alleles of ALG-1 as suppressors of lin-28(lf) precocious developmental phenotypes. The alg-1(anti) mutations broadly impair the function of many microRNAs and cause dosage-dependent phenotypes that are more severe than the complete loss of ALG-1. ALG-1(anti) mutant proteins are competent for promoting Dicer cleavage of microRNA precursors and for associating with and ...


Micrornas: Genetically Sensitized Worms Reveal New Secrets, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

Micrornas: Genetically Sensitized Worms Reveal New Secrets, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

Why do many microRNA gene mutants display no evident phenotype? Multiply mutant worms that are selectively impaired in genetic regulatory network activities have been used to uncover previously unknown functions for numerous Caenorhabditis elegans microRNAs.


A Conserved Three-Nucleotide Core Motif Defines Musashi Rna Binding Specificity, Nancy Zearfoss, Laura Deveau, Carina Clingman, Eric Schmidt, Emily Johnson, Francesca Massi, Sean Ryder Sep 2015

A Conserved Three-Nucleotide Core Motif Defines Musashi Rna Binding Specificity, Nancy Zearfoss, Laura Deveau, Carina Clingman, Eric Schmidt, Emily Johnson, Francesca Massi, Sean Ryder

Sean P. Ryder

Musashi (MSI) family proteins control cell proliferation and differentiation in many biological systems. They are overexpressed in tumors of several origins, and their expression level correlates with poor prognosis. MSI proteins control gene expression by binding RNA and regulating its translation. They contain two RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains, which recognize a defined sequence element. The relative contribution of each nucleotide to the binding affinity and specificity is unknown. We analyzed the binding specificity of three MSI family RRM domains using a quantitative fluorescence anisotropy assay. We found that the core element driving recognition is the sequence UAG. Nucleotides outside ...


Translesion Synthesis And Mutations: On The Mutagenic Properties Of The Two Dna Lesions, 8-Oxo-G And Pt-Gg, And The Functions Of Y-Family Dna Polymerases And Rev3l On The Bypass Of Each Of The Dna Lesions In Mammalian Cells, Lizhen Guo Apr 2015

Translesion Synthesis And Mutations: On The Mutagenic Properties Of The Two Dna Lesions, 8-Oxo-G And Pt-Gg, And The Functions Of Y-Family Dna Polymerases And Rev3l On The Bypass Of Each Of The Dna Lesions In Mammalian Cells, Lizhen Guo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

I studied the capabilities of the two DNA lesions 8-oxo-guanine and cisplatin intrastrand crosslinked 1,2-d(GpG) or Pt-GG to cause mutations in mammalian cells. Using isogenic cell lines generated from mice with selective gene knockouts of distinct DNA polymerases as models, I deduced the biological functions of the translesion DNA polymerases Pol eta, Pol kappa, Pol iota, Rev1 and Rev3L on bypassing each of the lesions 8-oxo-G and Pt-GG. My study takes advantage of the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology to determine mutagenic effects of the DNA lesions in vivo and effects of translesion DNA polymerases on bypassing the ...


Evolution Of The Influenza A Virus Genome During Development Of Oseltamivir Resistance In Vitro, Nicholas Renzette, Daniel Caffrey, Konstantin Zeldovich, Ping Liu, Glen Gallagher, Daniel Aiello, Alyssa Porter, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Daniel Bolon, Yu-Ping Poh, Jeffrey Jensen, Celia Schiffer, Timothy Kowalik, Robert Finberg, Jennifer Wang Mar 2015

Evolution Of The Influenza A Virus Genome During Development Of Oseltamivir Resistance In Vitro, Nicholas Renzette, Daniel Caffrey, Konstantin Zeldovich, Ping Liu, Glen Gallagher, Daniel Aiello, Alyssa Porter, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Daniel Bolon, Yu-Ping Poh, Jeffrey Jensen, Celia Schiffer, Timothy Kowalik, Robert Finberg, Jennifer Wang

Glen R. Gallagher

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Current antiviral therapies include oseltamivir, a neuraminidase inhibitor that prevents the release of nascent viral particles from infected cells. However, the IAV genome can evolve rapidly, and oseltamivir resistance mutations have been detected in numerous clinical samples. Using an in vitro evolution platform and whole-genome population sequencing, we investigated the population genomics of IAV during the development of oseltamivir resistance. Strain A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) was grown in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with or without escalating concentrations of oseltamivir over serial passages. Following drug ...


Evolution Of The Influenza A Virus Genome During Development Of Oseltamivir Resistance In Vitro, Nicholas Renzette, Daniel R. Caffrey, Konstantin B. Zeldovich, Ping Liu, Glen R. Gallagher, Daniel Aiello, Alyssa J. Porter, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Daniel N. Bolon, Yu-Ping Poh, Jeffrey D. Jensen, Celia A. Schiffer, Timothy F. Kowalik, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang Jan 2015

Evolution Of The Influenza A Virus Genome During Development Of Oseltamivir Resistance In Vitro, Nicholas Renzette, Daniel R. Caffrey, Konstantin B. Zeldovich, Ping Liu, Glen R. Gallagher, Daniel Aiello, Alyssa J. Porter, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Daniel N. Bolon, Yu-Ping Poh, Jeffrey D. Jensen, Celia A. Schiffer, Timothy F. Kowalik, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang

Celia A. Schiffer

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Current antiviral therapies include oseltamivir, a neuraminidase inhibitor that prevents the release of nascent viral particles from infected cells. However, the IAV genome can evolve rapidly, and oseltamivir resistance mutations have been detected in numerous clinical samples. Using an in vitro evolution platform and whole-genome population sequencing, we investigated the population genomics of IAV during the development of oseltamivir resistance. Strain A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) was grown in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with or without escalating concentrations of oseltamivir over serial passages. Following drug ...


Conversion Of Red Fluorescent Protein Into A Bright Blue Probe, Oksana M. Subach, Illia S. Gundorov, Masami Yoshimura, Fedor V. Subach, Jinghang Zhang, David Grunwald, Ekaterina A. Souslova, Dmitriy M. Chudakov, Vladislav V. Verkhusha Nov 2014

Conversion Of Red Fluorescent Protein Into A Bright Blue Probe, Oksana M. Subach, Illia S. Gundorov, Masami Yoshimura, Fedor V. Subach, Jinghang Zhang, David Grunwald, Ekaterina A. Souslova, Dmitriy M. Chudakov, Vladislav V. Verkhusha

David Grünwald

We used a red chromophore formation pathway, in which the anionic red chromophore is formed from the neutral blue intermediate, to suggest a rational design strategy to develop blue fluorescent proteins with a tyrosine-based chromophore. The strategy was applied to red fluorescent proteins of the different genetic backgrounds, such as TagRFP, mCherry, HcRed1, M355NA, and mKeima, which all were converted into blue probes. Further improvement of the blue variant of TagRFP by random mutagenesis resulted in an enhanced monomeric protein, mTagBFP, characterized by the substantially higher brightness, the faster chromophore maturation, and the higher pH stability than blue fluorescent proteins ...


Autonomy And Robustness Of Translocation Through The Nuclear Pore Complex: A Single-Molecule Study, Thomas Dange, David Grunwald, Antje Grunwald, Reiner Peters, Ulrich Kubitscheck Nov 2014

Autonomy And Robustness Of Translocation Through The Nuclear Pore Complex: A Single-Molecule Study, Thomas Dange, David Grunwald, Antje Grunwald, Reiner Peters, Ulrich Kubitscheck

David Grünwald

All molecular traffic between nucleus and cytoplasm occurs via the nuclear pore complex (NPC) within the nuclear envelope. In this study we analyzed the interactions of the nuclear transport receptors kapalpha2, kapbeta1, kapbeta1DeltaN44, and kapbeta2, and the model transport substrate, BSA-NLS, with NPCs to determine binding sites and kinetics using single-molecule microscopy in living cells. Recombinant transport receptors and BSA-NLS were fluorescently labeled by AlexaFluor 488, and microinjected into the cytoplasm of living HeLa cells expressing POM121-GFP as a nuclear pore marker. After bleaching the dominant GFP fluorescence the interactions of the microinjected molecules could be studied using video microscopy ...


Mutations In Conserved Residues Of The C. Elegans Microrna Argonaute Alg-1 Identify Separable Functions In Alg-1 Mirisc Loading And Target Repression, Anna Y. Zinovyeva, Samir Bouasker, Martin J. Simard, Christopher M. Hammell, Victor R. Ambros Apr 2014

Mutations In Conserved Residues Of The C. Elegans Microrna Argonaute Alg-1 Identify Separable Functions In Alg-1 Mirisc Loading And Target Repression, Anna Y. Zinovyeva, Samir Bouasker, Martin J. Simard, Christopher M. Hammell, Victor R. Ambros

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

microRNAs function in diverse developmental and physiological processes by regulating target gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. ALG-1 is one of two Caenorhabditis elegans Argonautes (ALG-1 and ALG-2) that together are essential for microRNA biogenesis and function. Here, we report the identification of novel antimorphic (anti) alleles of ALG-1 as suppressors of lin-28(lf) precocious developmental phenotypes. The alg-1(anti) mutations broadly impair the function of many microRNAs and cause dosage-dependent phenotypes that are more severe than the complete loss of ALG-1. ALG-1(anti) mutant proteins are competent for promoting Dicer cleavage of microRNA precursors and for associating with and ...


Decomposing The Energetic Impact Of Drug-Resistant Mutations: The Example Of Hiv-1 Protease-Drv Binding, Yufeng Cai, Celia Schiffer Oct 2012

Decomposing The Energetic Impact Of Drug-Resistant Mutations: The Example Of Hiv-1 Protease-Drv Binding, Yufeng Cai, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

HIV-1 protease is a major drug target for AIDS therapy. With the appearance of drug-resistant HIV-1 protease variants, understanding the mechanism of drug resistance becomes critical for rational drug design. Computational methods can provide more details about inhibitor-protease binding than crystallography and isothermal titration calorimetry. The latest FDA-approved HIV-1 protease inhibitor is Darunavir (DRV). Herein, each DRV atom is evaluated by free energy component analysis for its contribution to the binding affinity with wild-type protease and ACT, a drug-resistant variant. This information can contribute to the rational design of new HIV-1 protease inhibitors.


Mutation And Complementation Of A Cellulose Synthase (Cesa) Gene, Ahmed Y. El-Araby May 2012

Mutation And Complementation Of A Cellulose Synthase (Cesa) Gene, Ahmed Y. El-Araby

Senior Honors Projects

Cellulose is a carbohydrate polymer that is composed of repeating glucose subunits. Being the most abundant organic compound in the biosphere and comprising a large percentage of all plant biomass, cellulose is extremely plentiful and has a significant role in nature. Cellulose is present in plant cell walls, in commercial products such as those made from wood or cotton, and is of interest to the biofuel industry as a potential alternative fuel source. Although indigestible by humans, cellulose is nutritionally valuable, serving as a dietary fiber. Because of its ubiquity and importance in many areas, studying cellulose will prove to ...


Characterization Of Novel Histone H2b Mutants Associated With Chromosome Segregation Defects In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Thiruchelvam Rajagopal May 2012

Characterization Of Novel Histone H2b Mutants Associated With Chromosome Segregation Defects In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Thiruchelvam Rajagopal

Theses and Dissertations

Histones are small basic proteins that associate with DNA to form the basic unit of chromatin, the nucleosome. Histones H3 and H4 form a tetramer that is bound by two H2A-H2B dimers to form the histone octamer, to which approximately 146 bp of DNA wrap around to form the nucleosome. High resolution structural information and recent advances in the understanding of histone post-translational modifications have illuminated the many regulatory functions chromatin exerts in the cell, from the transcriptional control of gene expression to chromosome segregation. However, the specific role that histones play in these processes is not well understood. Previous ...


Guanosine Diphosphatase Is Required For Protein And Sphingolipid Glycosylation In The Golgi Lumen Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Claudia Abeijon, Ken Yanagisawa, Elisabet Mandon, Alex Hausler, Kelley Moremen, Carlos Hirschberg, Phillips Robbins Feb 2012

Guanosine Diphosphatase Is Required For Protein And Sphingolipid Glycosylation In The Golgi Lumen Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Claudia Abeijon, Ken Yanagisawa, Elisabet Mandon, Alex Hausler, Kelley Moremen, Carlos Hirschberg, Phillips Robbins

Elisabet Mandon

Current models for nucleotide sugar use in the Golgi apparatus predict a critical role for the lumenal nucleoside diphosphatase. After transfer of sugars to endogenous macromolecular acceptors, the enzyme converts nucleoside diphosphates to nucleoside monophosphates which in turn exit the Golgi lumen in a coupled antiporter reaction, allowing entry of additional nucleotide sugar from the cytosol. To test this model, we cloned the gene for the S. cerevisiae guanosine diphosphatase and constructed a null mutation. This mutation should reduce the concentrations of GDP-mannose and GMP and increase the concentration of GDP in the Golgi lumen. The alterations should in turn ...


Gene Mapping Of Monogenic Disorders And Complex Diseases Via Genome Wide Association Studies, Xia Zhao Jan 2012

Gene Mapping Of Monogenic Disorders And Complex Diseases Via Genome Wide Association Studies, Xia Zhao

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Inherited rickets, lower motor neuron disease and chondrodysplasia were recently reported genetic disorders that had been identified on sheep farms in New Zealand. Animals with rickets showed softening and weakening bone, and were characterized by decreased growth rate, thoracic lordosis and angular limb deformities. Sheep diagnosed with lower motor neuron disease were characterized by poor muscle tone and progressive weakness from about one week of age, leading to severe tetraparesis, recumbency and muscle atrophy. Chondrodysplasia in Texel sheep was characterized by dwarfism and angular deformities of the forelimbs. These three disorders were determined likely simple autosomal recessive by backcross breeding ...


Dynamics Of Preferential Substrate Recognition In Hiv-1 Protease: Redefining The Substrate Envelope, Aysegul Ozen, Turkan Haliloglu, Celia Schiffer Nov 2011

Dynamics Of Preferential Substrate Recognition In Hiv-1 Protease: Redefining The Substrate Envelope, Aysegul Ozen, Turkan Haliloglu, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) permits viral maturation by processing the gag and gag-pro-pol polyproteins. HIV-1 PR inhibitors (PIs) are used in combination antiviral therapy but the emergence of drug resistance has limited their efficacy. The rapid evolution of HIV-1 necessitates consideration of drug resistance in novel drug design. Drug-resistant HIV-1 PR variants no longer inhibited efficiently, continue to hydrolyze the natural viral substrates. Though highly diverse in sequence, the HIV-1 PR substrates bind in a conserved three-dimensional shape we termed the substrate envelope. Earlier, we showed that resistance mutations arise where PIs protrude beyond the substrate ...


A Feedback Circuit Involving Let-7-Family Mirnas And Daf-12 Integrates Environmental Signals And Developmental Timing In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Christopher M. Hammell, Xantha Karp, Victor R. Ambros Nov 2009

A Feedback Circuit Involving Let-7-Family Mirnas And Daf-12 Integrates Environmental Signals And Developmental Timing In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Christopher M. Hammell, Xantha Karp, Victor R. Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

Animal development is remarkably robust; cell fates are specified with spatial and temporal precision despite physiological and environmental contingencies. Favorable conditions cause Caenorhabditis elegans to develop rapidly through four larval stages (L1-L4) to the reproductive adult. In unfavorable conditions, L2 larvae can enter the developmentally quiescent, stress-resistant dauer larva stage, enabling them to survive for prolonged periods before completing development. A specific progression of cell division and differentiation events occurs with fidelity during the larval stages, regardless of whether an animal undergoes continuous or dauer-interrupted development. The temporal patterning of developmental events is controlled by the heterochronic genes, whose products ...


The C. Elegans Heterochronic Gene Lin-46 Affects Developmental Timing At Two Larval Stages And Encodes A Relative Of The Scaffolding Protein Gephyrin, A. S.-R. Pepper, Jill E. Mccane, Kevin Kemper, Dennis Au Yeung, Rosalind C. Lee, Victor Ambros, Eric G. Moss Apr 2004

The C. Elegans Heterochronic Gene Lin-46 Affects Developmental Timing At Two Larval Stages And Encodes A Relative Of The Scaffolding Protein Gephyrin, A. S.-R. Pepper, Jill E. Mccane, Kevin Kemper, Dennis Au Yeung, Rosalind C. Lee, Victor Ambros, Eric G. Moss

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

The succession of developmental events in the C. elegans larva is governed by the heterochronic genes. When mutated, these genes cause either precocious or retarded developmental phenotypes, in which stage-specific patterns of cell division and differentiation are either skipped or reiterated, respectively. We identified a new heterochronic gene, lin-46, from mutations that suppress the precocious phenotypes caused by mutations in the heterochronic genes lin-14 and lin-28. lin-46 mutants on their own display retarded phenotypes in which cell division patterns are reiterated and differentiation is prevented in certain cell lineages. Our analysis indicates that lin-46 acts at a step immediately downstream ...


Nuclear Export Of 60s Ribosomal Subunits Depends On Xpo1p And Requires A Nuclear Export Sequence-Containing Factor, Nmd3p, That Associates With The Large Subunit Protein Rpl10p, Olivier Gadal, Daniela Strau, Jacques Kessl, Bernard Trumpower Feb 2001

Nuclear Export Of 60s Ribosomal Subunits Depends On Xpo1p And Requires A Nuclear Export Sequence-Containing Factor, Nmd3p, That Associates With The Large Subunit Protein Rpl10p, Olivier Gadal, Daniela Strau, Jacques Kessl, Bernard Trumpower

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Nuclear export of ribosomes requires a subset of nucleoporins and the Ran system, but specific transport factors have not been identified. Using a large subunit reporter (Rpl25p-eGFP), we have isolated several temperature-sensitive ribosomal export (rix) mutants. One of these corresponds to the ribosomal protein Rpl10p, which interacts directly with Nmd3p, a conserved and essential protein associated with 60S subunits. We find that thermosensitive nmd3 mutants are impaired in large subunit export. Strikingly, Nmd3p shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm and is exported by the nuclear export receptor Xpo1p. Moreover, we show that export of 60S subunits is Xpo1p dependent. We ...